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Investigation of frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine

Description: Experimental frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine are presented. These data were obtained by subjecting the engine to sinusoidal variations of fuel flow and propeller-blade-angle inputs. Correlation is made between these experimental data and analytical frequency-response characteristics obtained from a linear differential equation derived from steady-state torque-speed relations.
Date: March 24, 1950
Creator: Taylor, Burt L., III & Oppenheimer, Frank L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight measurements of the dynamic longitudinal stability of several airplanes and a correlation of the measurements with pilots' observations of handling characteristics

Description: The dynamic longitudinal stability characteristics of eight airplanes as defined by the period and damping of the longitudinal oscillations were measured in flight to determine the degree of stability that may be expected in conventional airplanes. An attempt was made to correlate the measured stability with pilots' opinions of the general handling characteristics of the airplanes in order to obtain an indication of the most desirable degree of dynamic stability. The results of the measurements show that the period of oscillation increases with speed. At low speeds a range of periods from 11 to 23 seconds was recorded for the different airplanes. At high speeds the periods ranged from 23 to 64 seconds. The damping showed no definite trend with speed.
Date: July 15, 1936
Creator: Soulé, Hartley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of profile modification and tabs on the characteristics of ailerons on a low-drag airfoil

Description: An investigation has been made to determine the effect of control-surface profile modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA low-drag airfoil equipped with a 0.20-chord and a 0.15-chord aileron. Tab characteristics have been obtained for 0.20-aileron chord tabs on two of the 0.20-chord ailerons. Basic data are presented from which the effect of tabs can be calculated for specific cases. The data are sufficient for the solution of problems of fixed tabs with a differential linkage, as well as simple and spring-linked balancing tabs.
Date: 1944
Creator: Crane, Robert M. & Holtzclaw, Ralph W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a propeller with the diameter changed by cutting off the blade tips

Description: Tests were conducted in order to determine how the characteristics of a propeller are affected by cutting off the tips. The diameter of a standard 10-foot metal propeller was changed successively to 9 feet 6 inches, 9 feet 0 inches, 8 feet 6 inches, and 8 feet 0 inches. Each propeller thus formed was tested at four pitch settings using an open cockpit fuselage and a D-12 engine. A small loss in propulsive efficiency is indicated. Examples are given showing the application of the results to practical problems.
Date: December 10, 1929
Creator: Wood, Donald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of nacelle-propeller combinations in various positions with reference to wings 2: thick wing - various radial-engine cowlings - tractor propeller

Description: This report is the second of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the test of a N.A.C.A. cowled air-cooled engine nacelle located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The present report gives results of tests of a normal engine nacelle with several types of cowling and fairings in four of the positions with reference to the same wing. (author).
Date: May 12, 1932
Creator: Wood, Donald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of large airfoils in the propeller research tunnel, including two with corrugated surfaces

Description: This report gives the results of the tests of seven 2 by 12 foot airfoils (Clark Y, smooth and corrugated, Gottingen 398, N.A.C.A. M-6, and N.A.C.A. 84). The tests were made in the propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Reynolds numbers up to 2,000,000. The Clark Y airfoil was tested with three degrees of surface smoothness. Corrugating the surface causes a flattening of the lift curve at the burble point and an increase in drag at small flying angles.
Date: May 24, 1929
Creator: Wood, Donald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale tests of metal propellers at high tip speeds

Description: This report describes tests of 10 full-scale metal propellers of several thickness ratios at various tip speeds up to 1,350 feet per second. The results indicate no loss of efficiency up to tip speeds of approximately 1,000 feet per second. Above this tip speed the loss is at a rate of about 10 per cent per 100 feet per second increase relative to the efficiency at the lower speeds for propellers of pitch diameter ratios 0.3 to 0.4. Propellers having sections of small thickness ratio can be run at slightly higher speeds than thick ones before beginning to lose efficiency.
Date: November 5, 1930
Creator: Wood, Donald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intercooler cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop for minimum drag loss

Description: An analysis has been made of the drag losses in airplane flight of cross-flow plate and tubular intercoolers to determine the cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop that give a minimum drag loss for any given cooling effectiveness and, thus, a maximum power-plant net gain due to charge-air cooling. The drag losses considered in this analysis are those due to (1) the extra drag imposed on the airplane by the weight of the intercooler, its duct, and its supports and (2) the drag sustained by the cooling air in flowing through the intercooler and its duct. The investigation covers a range of conditions of altitude, airspeed, lift-drag ratio, supercharger-pressure ratio, and supercharger adiabatic efficiency. The optimum values of cooling air pressure drop and weight flow ratio are tabulated. Curves are presented to illustrate the results of the analysis.
Date: February 25, 1944
Creator: Reuter, J. George & Valerino, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The interdependence of various types of autoignition and knock

Description: A study of the relations existing among pin-point autoignition, homogeneous autoignition, and knock has been made by means of the NACA high-speed camera and the full-view combustion apparatus. High-speed photographic records of combustion, together with corresponding pressure-time traces, of benzene, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, S-4, and M-4 fuels at various engine conditions have shown the engine conditions under which each of these phenomena occur and the relation of these phenomena to one another.
Date: February 10, 1947
Creator: Olsen, H. Lowell & Miller, Cearcy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation with an interferometer of the turbulent mixing of a free supersonic jet

Description: The free turbulent mixing of a supersonic jet of Mach number 1.6 has been experimentally investigated. An interferometer, of which a description is given, was used for the investigation. Density and velocity distributions through the mixing zone have been obtained. It was found that there was similarity in distribution at the cross sections investigated and that, in the subsonic portion of the mixing zone, the velocity distribution fitted the theoretical distribution for incompressible flow. It was found that the rates of spread of the mixing zone both into the jet and into the ambient air were less than those of subsonic jets.
Date: January 21, 1949
Creator: Gooderum, Paul B.; Wood, George P. & Brevoort, Maurice J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations at supersonic speeds of 22 triangular wings representing two airfoil sections for each of 11 apex angles

Description: The results of tests of 22 triangular wings, representing two leading-edge shapes for each of 11 apex angles, at Mach numbers 1.62, 1.92, and 1.40 are presented and compared with theory. All wings have a common thickness ratio of 8 percent and a common maximum-thickness point at 18 percent chord. Lift, drag, and pitching moment are given for all wings at each Mach number. The relation of transition in the boundary layer, shocks on the wing surfaces, and characteristics of the pressure distributions is discussed for several wings.
Date: March 30, 1949
Creator: Love, Eugene S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of separated flows in supersonic and subsonic streams with emphasis on the effect of transition

Description: Report presents the results of experimental and theoretical research conducted on flow separation associated with steps, bases, compression corners, curved surfaces, shock-wave boundary-layer reflections, and configurations producing leading-edge separation. Results were obtained from pressure-distribution measurements, shadowgraph observations, high-speed motion pictures, and oil-film studies. The maximum scope of measurement encompassed Mach numbers between 0.4 and 3.6, and length Reynolds numbers between 4,000 and 5,000,000.
Date: November 29, 1956
Creator: Chapman, Dean R.; Kuehn, Donald M. & Larson, Howard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of designing cascade blades with prescribed velocity distributions in compressible potential flows

Description: By use of the assumption that the pressure-volume relation is linear, a solution to the problem of designing a cascade for a given turning and with a prescribed velocity distribution along the blade in a potential flow of a compressible perfect fluid was obtained by a method of correspondence between potential flows of compressible and incompressible fluids. The designing of an isolated airfoil with a prescribed velocity distribution along the airfoil is considered as a special case of cascade. If the prescribed velocity distribution is not theoretically attainable, the method provides a means of modifying the distribution so as to obtain a physically significant blade shape. Numerical examples are included.
Date: October 1, 1949
Creator: Costello, George R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

Description: A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.
Date: April 13, 1950
Creator: Hamrick, Joseph T.; Ginsburg, Ambrose & Osborn, Walter M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of hydrogen combustion properties

Description: This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.
Date: April 26, 1957
Creator: Drell, Isadore L. & Belles, Frank E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lift and center of pressure of wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

Description: From Summary: "A method is presented for calculating the lift and centers of pressure of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. A set of design charts and a computing table are presented which reduce the computations to routine operations. Comparison between the estimated and experimental characteristics for a number of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations shows correlation to within + or - 10 percent on lift and to within about + or - 0.02 of the body length on center of pressure."
Date: July 8, 1953
Creator: Pitts, William C.; Nielsen, Jack N. & Kaattari, George E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for calculating the rolling and yawing moments due to rolling for unswept wings with or without flaps or ailerons by use of nonlinear section lift data

Description: From Summary: "The methods of NACA reports 865 and 1090 have been applied to the calculation of the rolling-moment and yawing-moment coefficients due to rolling for unswept wings with or without flaps or ailerons. The methods are based on lifting-line theory and allow the use of nonlinear section lift data. The method presented in this report permits calculations to be made somewhat beyond maximum lift for wings having no twist or continuous twist and employing airfoil sections which do not display large discontinuities in the lift curves. Calculations can be made up to maximum lift for wings with discontinuous twist such as that produced by partial-span flaps or ailerons, or both. Two calculated examples are presented in simplified computing forms in order to illustrate the procedures involved."
Date: January 29, 1953
Creator: Martina, Albert P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of conical jet nozzles in terms of flow and velocity coefficients

Description: Performance characteristics of conical jet nozzles were determined in an investigation covering a range of pressure ratios from 1.0 to 2.8, cone half-angles from 5 degrees to 90 degrees, and outlet-inlet diameter ratios from 0.50 to 0.91. All nozzles investigated had an inlet diameter of 5 inches. The flow coefficients of the conical nozzles investigated were dependent on the cone half-angle, outlet-inlet diameter ratio, and pressure ratio. The velocity coefficients were essentially constant at pressure ratios below the critical. For increasing pressures above critical pressure ratio, there was a small decrease in velocity coefficient that was dependent on pressure ratio and independent of cone half-angle and outlet-inlet diameter ratio. Therefore the variation in performance (air flow and thrust) of several nozzles, selected for the same performance at a particular design condition, was proportional to the ratio of their flow coefficients.
Date: September 7, 1948
Creator: Grey, Ralph E. & Wilsted, H. Dean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Normal-pressure tests of circular plates with clamped edges

Description: A fixture is described for making normal-pressure tests of flat plates 5 inches in diameter in which particular care was taken to obtain rigid clamping at the edges. Results are given for 19 plates, ranging in thickness form 0.015 to 0.072 inch. The center deflections and the extreme-fiber stresses at low pressures were found to agree with theoretical values; the center deflections at high pressures were 4 to 12 percent greater than the theoretical values. Empirical curves are derived of the pressure for the beginning of the permanent set as a function of the dimensions of the plate and the tensile properties of the material.
Date: October 10, 1941
Creator: McPherson, Albert E.; Ramberg, Walter & Levy, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Normal-pressure tests of rectangular plates

Description: Report presents the results of normal-pressure tests made of 56 rectangular plates with clamped edges and of 5 plates with freely supported edges. Pressure was applied and the center deflection and the permanent set at the center were measured. For some of the plates, in addition, strains and contours were measured.
Date: 1942
Creator: Ramberg, Walter; McPherson, Albert E. & Levy, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation in the 7-by-10 Foot Wind Tunnel of Ducts for Cooling Radiators within an Airplane Wing

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord wing model with a duct to house a simulated radiator suitable for a liquid-cooled engine. The duct was expanded to reduce the radiator losses, and the installation of the duct and radiator was made entirely within the wing to reduce form and interference drag. The tests were made using a two-dimensional-flow setup with a full-span duct and radiator. Section aerodynamic characteristics of the basic airfoil are given and also curves showing the characteristics of the various duct-radiator combinations.
Date: June 9, 1938
Creator: Harris, Thomas A. & Recant, Isidore G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near Noise Field of a Jet-Engine Exhaust

Description: From Summary: "Aircraft structures located in the near noise field of a jet engine are subjected to extremely high fluctuating pressures that may cause structural fatigue. Studies of such structures have been limited by lack of knowledge of the loadings involved. The acoustic near field produced by the exhaust of a stationary turbojet engine having a high pressure ratio was measured for a single operating condition without burning. The maximum overall sound pressure without afterburning was found to be about 42 pounds per square foot along the jet boundary in the region immediately downstream of the jet-nozzle exit."
Date: 1957
Creator: Howes, Walton L.; Callaghan, Edmund E.; Coles, Willard D. & Mull, Harold R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of torsional flexibility on the rolling characteristics at supersonic speeds of tapered unswept wings

Description: From Summary: "An analysis is presented of the effect of torsional flexibility on the rolling characteristics at supersonic speeds of tapered unswept wings with partial-span constant-percent-chord ailerons extending inboard from the wing tip. The geometric variables considered are aspect ratio, taper ratio, aileron span, and aileron chord. The shape of the wing-torsional-stiffness curve is assumed and the twisting moment is considered to result solely from the pressure distribution caused by aileron deflection, so that the necessity of using a successive-approximation method is avoided."
Date: March 8, 1949
Creator: Tucker, Warren A. & Nelson, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical characteristics in supersonic flow of two types of control surfaces on triangular wings

Description: From Summary :"Methods based on the linearized theory for supersonic flow were used to find the characteristics of two types of control surfaces on thin triangular wings. The first type, the constant-chord partial-span flap, was considered to extend either outboard from the center of the wing or inboard from the wing tip. The second type, the full-triangular-tip flap, was treated only for the case in which the Mach number component normal to the leading edge is supersonic. For each type, expressions were found for the lift, rolling-moment, pitching-moment, and hinge-moment characteristics."
Date: 1949
Creator: Tucker, Warren A. & Nelson, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department