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Investigation of Efficiency Improvements During CO2 Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Progress Report

Description: For many years many efforts have been performed in the laboratory experiments to duplicate the reservoir conditions. In this study, we will investigate the permeability change at different overburden conditions. The reduction in permeability with overburden pressure has been well known. Fatt and Davis (1952) presented the changes in permeability with pressure at range 0 to 15,000 psig and found that overburden pressure caused a reduction in permeability of the consolidated oil-bearing sandstone samples by as much as 50% at 10,000 psig. Wyble (1958) performed similar experiments on three different sandstone samples to determine the changes in conductivity, porosity and permeability at pressure range 0 to 5,000 psig. His results were consistent with the observation by Fatt and Davis (1952). During the experiments, different overburden pressures (radial force) were applied only to the cylinder core while the axial direction was kept at constant atmospheric pressure. Gray et al. (1963) enhanced the previous experiments by applying axial force and combining with overburden pressure (radial force) to measure the anisotropy permeability changes at more representative reservoir stress-state condition. They showed that permeability reduction subjected to overburden pressure as a function of the ratio of radial to axial stress and the permeability reduction under non-uniform stress (radial pressure {ne} axial pressure) is less than that under uniform stress. Although extensive work has been established on the effect of overburden pressure and stress-state on matrix permeability but there are some very interesting details of fractured rock behavior under stress that have not been investigated. In this study we will show the effect of fracture aperture and fracture permeability on the fluid flow under different overburden pressure. This study is a precursor to investigating fracture apertures under different stress-state conditions (confining stress, hydrostatic stress and triaxial stress) and imaging fracture aperture distributions using X-ray CT.
Date: April 2002
Creator: Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Efficiency Improvements During CO2 Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Progress Report

Description: This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Efficiency Improvements During CO2 Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Progress Report

Description: The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. This report provides results of the third semi-annual technical progress report that consists of application of X-Ray Tomography results to validate our numerical modeling of flow in fractures. Spontaneous imbibition plays a very important role in the displacement mechanism of non-wetting fluid in naturally fractured reservoirs. To quantify this spontaneous imbibition process, we developed a 2D two-phase numerical model. This numerical model was developed because an available commercial simulator cannot be used to model small-scale experiments with different boundary conditions. In building the numerical model, we started with the basic equation of fluid flow and developed a numerical approach of solving the non-linear diffusion saturation equation. We compared our numerical model with the analytical solution of this equation to ascertain the limitations of the assumptions used to arrive at that solution. The unique aspect of this paper is that we validated our model with X-ray computerized tomography (CT) experimental data from a different spontaneous imbibition experiment, where two simultaneously varying parameters of weight gain and CT water saturation were used. This requires us to undertake extensive sensitivity studies on key parameters before a successful match could be obtained. We also successfully captured our own X-ray computerized tomography (CT) laboratory experiment on a fractured core.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Efficiency Improvements During CO2 Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Progress Report

Description: This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on investigating the effect of CO{sub 2} injection rates in homogeneous and fractured cores on oil recovery and a strategy to mitigate CO{sub 2} bypassing in a fractured core.
Date: April 26, 2004
Creator: Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department