Search Results

open access

Applying Cognitive Load Theory to the Design of Online Learning.

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate the application of cognitive load theory to the design of online instruction. Students in three different courses (N = 146) were measured on both learning performance and perceptions of mental effort to see if there were any statistically significant differences. The study utilized a quasi-experimental posttest-only control group design contrasting modified and unmodified instructional lessons. Both groups were given a posttest to measure knowledge gained from the lesson (cognitive domain of learning) and perceptions of mental effort involved. Independent samples t-tests were used to compare the mean performance scores of the treatment groups (i.e. the sections using redesigned materials) versus the control groups for all three courses. Cohen's d was also computed to determine effect size. Mental effort scores were similarly compared for each group on the overall cognitive load score, for a total of six data points in the study. Of the four hypotheses examined, three (H1, H2, H4) found no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Negative significance was found between the experimental and control group on the effect of modality (H3). On measures of cognitive load, no statistically significant differences were found.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Burkes, Kate M. Erland
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A Contravention of Established Principles of Interspecific Allometric Metabolic Scaling in Developing Silkworms, Bombyx Mori.

Description: Established interspecific metabolic allometric relationships do not adequately describe the complexity and variable physiological states of developing animals. Consequently, intraspecific allometric relationships of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production as a function of body mass; the respiratory quotient; the function of the silk cocoon; and body composition were investigated for each distinct developmental stage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Whole animal O2 consumption in Bombyx ranged from 0.00064 + 0.000047 ml O2 .hr-1 at larval instar I to 0.77 + 0.06 ml O2 .hr-1 in pre-pupal, falling to 0.21+ 0.01 ml O2 .hr-1 in the pupae. Those instars having a significant relationship between O2 consumption as a function of body mass, the slope of the line relating O2 consumption to body mass varied between 0.99 and 1.02, while across all instars the slope was 0.82. Developmental allometry should be presented for individual developmental stages because the individual allometric exponents of the stages can be significantly different from the overall allometric exponent throughout development and in some cases, the overall allometric exponent can be a statistical artifact. The first larval instar of Bombyx mori has the lowest cross sectional area of high metabolic tissue of the midgut (27%) and had one of the highest percentages of some metabolically inert tissues (i.e. lipid, 7.5%). Body composition of the first instar does not support the idea that smaller mass animals having the highest O2 consumption are composed of a greater percentage of metabolically active organs when compared to larger animals. However, this developmental stage has the highest percentage of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase, which correlates well with the high O2 consumption rate of the smaller mass. Therefore, established interspecific principles should not be assumed to function as valid models for intraspecific developmental relationships of metabolism as a function of body mass. Developmental …
Date: May 2007
Creator: Blossman-Myer, Bonnie
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Establishing genetic and physiological baselines for the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

Description: The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) has experienced dramatic declines over much of its historical range due to habitat loss, plague, poisonings, and shootings. Many populations now occur as isolated genetic relicts. A multiple locus genetic profile was obtained using microsatellite analyses of six polymorphic nucleotide repeats from 319 black-tailed prairie dogs collected from 16 colonies throughout the state of Texas. This assessment revealed that existing populations have sufficient variation at all six loci to verify the usefulness of this approach as a primary genetic tool in conservation and preservation. The data reveals regional-dependent frequency patterns as well as support for founder/bottleneck effects for several of the 16 sites. Although the prairie dog population in Texas as a whole may appear genetically diverse, considerable genetic divergence has already occurred among the subpopulations (FST = 0.164). Isolation by distance is supported by genic differentiation analysis (P < 0.001) and pairwise correlation analysis between genetic distance and geographic distance (P < 0.001). Prairie dogs from six (COC, LUBA, LUBC, LUBD, LUBE, and TAR) of the original 16 sites have been relocated or exterminated, or were in the process of being relocated. Results indicated the following colonies (COT, DAL, HOW, and HUD) are of sufficient size and possess ample genetic diversity to be characterized as candidate foundation populations for future preservation efforts. The proximity of small colonies (< 20 hectares) such as HEMB, LUBB, and PEC, to other colonies should be examined to determine if they are isolated or part of a metapopulation. Colonies (HAR, HEMA, and SCH) with low genetic diversity would be ideal candidates for supplementation. Alternatively, these colonies could be relocated or blended with other similar but genetically distinct colonies. Baselines for healthy, pet prairie dog hematology and blood chemistries were also established. Results signify that data gathered from pet …
Date: May 2007
Creator: Biggs, Cindy Dawn
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Comparison of Bare Root vs. Potted Plants, Species Selection, and Caging Types for Restoration of a Prairie Wetland, and Quantitative Analysis and Descriptive Survey of Plant Communities and Associations at Lewisville Lake Environmental Learning Area (LLELA), Lewisville, TX

Description: Lewisville Lake Environmental Learning Area (LLELA) is an 809-hectare property in Denton County, TX. A study of the vegetation community identified 466 species in 104 families, with 25% of the species from only two families, Asteraceae and Poaceae. The property demonstrates the characteristics of an early successional community, dominated by weedy species. Prairie communities are dominated by Johnson grass and ragweed, with climax tall grass prairie communities only in areas that have been planted with native grass seed. Forest communities are similarly in an early successional stage, dominated by the hackberry-elm-ash alliance, with small remnants of native Cross Timbers found in isolated patches. Species richness and diversity were highest in the forests and lowest in the wetlands; evenness, though not different across ecosystems, demonstrated a strong seasonal component. The species list was compared with previously reported lists for Denton County, and 256 species identified had not been previously reported for the county. A wetland restoration study was conducted to determine if there was a difference in survival and growth between potted transplants with intact root systems and bare-root transplants. Two different mesh sizes were used for protection, and the success of the different caging was evaluated. Of eight species, only four survived through the second growing season. There was no significant difference in the success of the propagule types for Sagittaria latifolia. The treatments planted with intact root systems showed significantly higher growth and reproduction than the bare-root treatments for Eleocharis quadrangulata, Heteranthera dubia, and Vallisneria americana. There was no survival recorded in the coarse mesh cages, likely due to the presence of crayfish that are able to get through the coarser mesh and feed on the transplants.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Buckallew, Robin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Perceptions of importance of diagnostic competencies among educational diagnosticians.

Description: This research was two-fold in its purpose: the first purpose being to assess the perceived relevance of the current state competency standards adopted in Texas by the State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC) as they apply to the work of the educational diagnostician and the second being to examine the diagnostician's perceived ability of training institutions to prepare professionals for the field of special education evaluation. This study examined the perceptions of educational diagnosticians (N = 432) through the use of a survey instrument. Specifically the survey instrument was designed to assess diagnosticians' perceptions of importance of the SBEC competencies to special education evaluation in general, and to their practice in particular; the frequency with which they use the competencies; and their degree of training to meet the demands of the competencies through their preparatory program. Results indicate variability with regard to the perceived importance of the competencies and the degree of preparation to meet the demands of the competencies in practice.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Cavin, Lisa Lyle
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Around the Fibonacci Numeration System

Description: Let 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, … denote the Fibonacci sequence beginning with 1 and 2, and then setting each subsequent number to the sum of the two previous ones. Every positive integer n can be expressed as a sum of distinct Fibonacci numbers in one or more ways. Setting R(n) to be the number of ways n can be written as a sum of distinct Fibonacci numbers, we exhibit certain regularity properties of R(n), one of which is connected to the Euler φ-function. In addition, using a theorem of Fine and Wilf, we give a formula for R(n) in terms of binomial coefficients modulo two.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Edson, Marcia Ruth
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Interest Differentiation and Profile Elevation: Investigating Correlates of Depression, Confidence, and Vocational Identity

Description: Using a correlational design, this study examined relationships among and between differentiation, profile elevation, gender and educational level (predictors) and depression, confidence, and vocational identity (criterion). Clients presenting for counseling services (n = 90) with a career concern at a large, metropolitan university were included in the study. Six assumptions were examined using three single hierarchical regression analyses to reveal relationships among and between variables. Two research assumptions were confirmed at the .05 level of significance. Bivariate correlations were computed to examine the structure coefficients. Beta weights and structure coefficients were examined to determine the relative contribution of the predictors in the regression model. Results indicated that differentiation, profile elevation, gender and educational level did not predict significant variance in depression and vocational identity. However, differentiation, profile elevation, and educational level did significantly predict confidence (p< .0001).
Date: May 2007
Creator: Davis, Greta Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Latino success stories in higher education: A qualitative study of recent graduates from a health science center.

Description: This study used qualitative research, particularly life history analysis, to determine the personal pathways of success for Latino students who chose to enter a health science center for graduate study and who graduated. By giving voice to individual success stories of Latino students, some of the influences on the life pathways of these graduates were determined. For the purposes of this study, success was defined as graduation from a health science center with either a doctor of philosophy, doctor of public health or doctor of osteopathic medicine degree. Four research subjects agreed to participate in this study from a possible 11 students from the graduating class of 2004-2005 at this health science center. Data were gathered through multiple in-depth interviews of the students themselves over a period of no more than one month for each participant. Data were analyzed using the mind mapping technique and Padilla's unfolding matrix. Findings indicate that each participant traveled a different pathway to achieve educational success although similarities did exist across participants. The influences of family background, cultural background, educational background and personal perceptions and goals did affect the pathways of these four Latino graduates. While three of four participants indicated that family was the most important influence on their academic success, all participants related the importance of family to their success, although their definitions of family seemed to vary and included the concepts of education, culture, and personal perceptions and goals. The concepts of family support of education and a culture of education within the family unit emerged as similar themes among study participants. Other similarities among participants were a high academic self-concept, a strong internal locus of control, the ability to create academic community, and a positive view of potentially negative situations. Individual themes emerged from the narratives within each category for each …
Date: May 2007
Creator: Colley, Kay Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A status and vision investigation of US university piano pedagogy programs.

Description: The two major research questions were: “What is the current status of 20 prominent piano pedagogy programs?” and “what is the vision of an ideal future piano pedagogy program from the perspective of 20 piano pedagogy leaders?” Subjects were the leaders of the top 20 US university piano pedagogy programs. A survey study with interview questions was used as the instrument for the study. The results showed that faculty, curriculum, and teacher training were three top factors that contributed to the quality of the programs. Most interviewed subjects held a doctoral degree in music. The curricular content and degree options were diverse across the selected programs. The content of teacher training included private and group teaching. The perceived best qualifications of a piano pedagogy instructor were to have a balanced education. Most programs had small or little to no budget, however, the preparatory program was perceived to be an enhancement to teacher training program finances. The greatest challenges were faculty acquisition and financial limitations. Gaining more money was the most common improvement priority for programs. To envision an ideal future piano pedagogy program, most leaders stated that an ideal program should contain encourage: (1) collaborating with other divisions' faculty members for developing a diverse curriculum, (2) providing multiple types of teacher training, (3) offering knowledge that is highly pertinent to students' future careers, (4) continually adjusting topics in the curriculum, and (5) utilizing all the possible resources to establish up-to-date facilities. The chief obstacle was a lack of money. However, finding a major donor, and developing a preparatory program to generate money may help to overcome the obstacles. Having administrators with positive attitudes toward pedagogy could help programs to gain more resources. Encouraging students to participate in workshops and conferences could enrich the training. Several recommendations may help emerging pedagogy …
Date: May 2007
Creator: Fu, Hui-Ju Camille
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Predicting Weight Loss in Post Surgical Laparoscopic Banding Patients

Description: The present study was a retrospective chart review (N=128) that investigated the efficacy of profiles derived from the three factors of the Eating Inventory® test (EI) - cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger - to predict successful weight loss in post surgical laparoscopic banding patients at 6 and 9 months post surgery. Although the EI is commonly used in bariatric presurgical assessment, few studies have found consistent relationships between presurgical factor scores and subsequent weight loss in this population. Based on restraint theory, 7 profiles (high CR, super high CR, high D, super high D, high H, super high H, and null) were derived from the raw scores on the subscales of the EI and tested for weight loss predictive ability using direct logistic regression. Results were mixed with high CR, super high CR, and null profiles accurately predicting successful weight loss. Raw scores on the three factors (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger) were tested individually for predictive ability using direct logistic regression. Overall results indicated that the profile model accurately predicted more cases than the general factor model. This study significantly contributes to both the bariatric presurgical assessment literature and the restraint theory literature. Suggestions for future research are offered.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Frensley, Susan J.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

An investigation of beliefs and practices of conservative Protestant parents and the cultural applicability of child parent relationship therapy.

Description: The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey to identify the beliefs and practices of conservative Protestant parents, which assisted in clarifying the assertions in the current literature regarding conservative Protestant parenting. Additionally, this researcher sought to determine the applicability of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy model based upon the principles of child centered play therapy, for conservative Protestant parents by ascertaining the need for cultural modifications. Beliefs and practices of conservative Protestants were measured using the Protestant Parenting Inventory (PPI), an original instrument developed through a series of focus groups and pilot testings. The population comprised 148 mothers and fathers from 4 Southern Baptist churches in and around the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the data in order to increase internal consistency estimates and percent of explained variance. Criterion coding of demographic data allowed a multiple regression analysis to determine which demographic variables were significant predictors of participant responses on the PPI. Descriptive statistics allowed the researcher to investigate the compatibility of conservative Protestants and CPRT. Results of this study both confirm and refute past findings regarding conservative Protestants. Results also revealed the need for some cultural modifications to CPRT in order to make it an acceptable parenting resource for conservative Protestant parents.
Date: May 2007
Creator: McClung, Tracy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

History and Demise of The University Foundation in St. Augustine, Florida: An Institutional Autopsy

Description: This is an historical study of an institution of higher education that existed in St. Augustine, Florida from 1942-1949. The name of the institution was The University Foundation, founded by George J. Apel, Jr. This institution had several higher education divisions functioning under its umbrella. These divisions were the St. Augustine Junior College, the Graduate Division, the American Theological Seminary and the University Extension College with evening courses and Home Study courses for vacation study. The information collected for this study was accomplished primarily by the process of studying archives and conducting personal interviews. Since this is a qualitative research study, the collected information was processed through the use of multiple data-collection methods, data sources and analyses which insured the validity of the findings of the study. This process is known as information triangulation. The results of this study provide answers to the circumstances and identities of the key players which led to the formation of The University Foundation. Issues relating to the mission, revenue streams, faculty, curricula, and the ultimate demise of The University Foundation were also addressed in this study. Recommendations are included for higher education administrators, faculty, researchers, fund-raisers, and others whose efforts may be directed toward the launching and operation of new Christian institutions of higher learning.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Lumadue, Richard Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study

Description: This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of three interventions with international college students referred for adjustment and language difficulties. Fifty-four international students were assigned to treatment groups including expressive group counseling (n = 14), group speech therapy (n = 14), interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention (n = 13), and the no treatment control (n = 13). Three null hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures analysis of variance to determine whether the four treatment groups behaved differently across time according to pre- and posttest results of the ASR Total and Internalizing Problems scales and the CCSR total scores. Two null hypotheses were rejected at the alpha .05 level of statistical significance with large treatment effects. Post hoc analyses were conducted when a statistically significant interaction effect was found. The no treatment control group was established as a baseline to examine how each intervention group performed over time when compared to the no treatment control group. Results of the post hoc analysis for Total Problems indicated that international students in all three treatment groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in total behavior problems at the alpha .025 level (Expressive counseling: p = .002, Speech: p = .01, and Interdisciplinary: p = .003) and large treatment effects (partial η2 = .33, .24, and .31, respectively), thus indicating all three may be considered effective mental health treatments to target international students' total behavior problems. Results of the post hoc analysis for Internalizing Problems indicated that the interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention was statistically significant (p = .02) in lowering internalizing problems and had a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .22). The expressive group counseling intervention also demonstrated a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .15) although not a statistically significant level (p = .04). The large treatment effects obtained for both interventions highlight the benefit …
Date: May 2007
Creator: Lee, Eunah Kim
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Reciprocal Dunford-Pettis and Radon-Nikodym Properties in Banach Spaces

Description: In this paper we give a characterization theorem for the reciprocal Dunford-Pettis property as defined by Grothendieck. The relationship of this property to Pelczynski's property V is examined. In particular it is shown that every Banach space with property V has the reciprocal Dunford-Pettis property and an example is given to show that the converse fails to hold. Moreover the characterizations of property V and the reciprocal Dunford-Pettis property lead to the definitions of property V* and property RDP* respectively. Me compare and contrast results for the reciprocal Dunford-Pettis property and property RDP* with those for properties V and V*. In the final chapter we use a result of Brooks to obtain a characterization for the Radon-Nikodým property.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Leavelle, Tommy L. (Tommy Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Judgment of Intonation in the Context of Three-Part Woodwind Ensemble Performances

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine judgments of trained musicians regarding the intonation of complex tones in the context of synthesized woodwind ensemble performances. Problems included in the study were (1) estimation of the point in pitch deviation which would result in out-of-tune judgments, (2) investigation of timbral effects on judged intonation, and (3) investigation of effects of mistuning within differential voices.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Henry, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Factors Influencing a Graduate Student to Pursue an Advanced Degree in Adult and Continuing Education

Description: This study investigated factors reported by graduate students which influenced them to pursue a graduate degree in Adult and Continuing Education. A survey instrument was developed by three primary methods: (1) review of literature, (2) recommendations of former graduate students, and (3) recommendations of a panel of experts. The instrument was divided into three broad areas: (1) demographic information, (2) two open-ended questions, and (3) influential factors as reported in other studies.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Ingram, Nellie Williams
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Characteristics and Properties of the Threshold and Squared-Error Criterion-Referenced Agreement Indices

Description: Educators who use criterion-referenced measurement to ascertain the current level of performance of an examinee in order that the examinee may be classified as either a master or a nonmaster need to know the accuracy and consistency of their decisions regarding assignment of mastery states. This study examined the sampling distribution characteristics of two reliability indices that use the squared-error agreement function: Livingston's k^2(X,Tx) and Brennan and Kane's M(C). The sampling distribution characteristics of five indices that use the threshold agreement function were also examined: Subkoviak's Pc. Huynh's p and k. and Swaminathan's p and k. These seven methods of calculating reliability were also compared under varying conditions of sample size, test length, and criterion or cutoff score. Computer-generated data provided randomly parallel test forms for N = 2000 cases. From this, 1000 samples were drawn, with replacement, and each of the seven reliability indices was calculated. Descriptive statistics were collected for each sample set and examined for distribution characteristics. In addition, the mean value for each index was compared to the population parameter value of consistent mastery/nonmastery classifications. The results indicated that the sampling distribution characteristics of all seven reliability indices approach normal characteristics with increased sample size. The results also indicated that Huynh's p was the most accurate estimate of the population parameter, with the smallest degree of negative bias. Swaminathan's p was the next best estimate of the population parameter, but it has the disadvantage of requiring two test administrations, while Huynh's p index only requires one administration.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Dutschke, Cynthia F. (Cynthia Fleming)
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Perceptions of Managers in Kuwait on the Role of the Multinational Corporations in Change in Kuwait

Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of managers in Kuwait (both Kuwaiti and non- Kuwaiti) on the effects of multinational corporations (MNCs) in Kuwait and whether these effects were beneficial. The problem motivating this study is the effects that MNCs have on the social, cultural, political, legal, economic, business, and technological environments of their host countries, especially in developing nations. This study is based on a survey of the perceptions of 1,344 managers in Kuwait on the role of MNCs in changes in Kuwait. A review of the literature on MNCs and their relationships with their host countries is provided. This review focuses on four major environmental dimensions (Social-Cultural, Political-Legal, Business-Economic, and Technological) that are affected by MNCs. The factor analysis performed for this study supports this classification of the dimensions in the environment. An English questionnaire was developed from the list of major items in each of these dimensions. An Arabic version was developed using a "double-translation method." Both the English and Arabic versions of the questionnaire were pilot tested. The instrument proved to be reliable and valid. The study utilizes a 2 x 3 block design, categorizing subjects by nationality (Kuwaiti, other Arab, others) and type of organization (public and private). Since most of the variables in the study were measured using nominal and ordinal scales, mostly non-parametric statistics were used for data analysis. The major finding from this study was that managers in Kuwait perceive positive effects of MNCs on change in Kuwait, with the exception of the cultural environment. The favorable perceptions were about the MNCs1 effects on the change in business, economic, and technological environments in Kuwait. The results of the study should be beneficial to the Kuwaiti government, MNCs doing business in Kuwait, and also to cross-cultural researchers interested in …
Date: May 1990
Creator: Al-Daeaj, Hamad S. (Hamad Saleh)
Partner: UNT Libraries
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A Study of Perceived Social Attitudes of Graduate Students and Graduate Faculty Toward Each Other in a Large College of Education

Description: The problem is concerned with social attitudes of graduate students toward graduate faculty and graduate faculty toward graduate students in the programs of a large college of education. The purposes are (a) to establish that the attitudes of acceptance of others, trust in people, philosophy of human nature, human values, and moral ethics exist among graduate students and among graduate faculty in a large college of education; (2) to determine the relative degree to which these social attitudes exist (a) among graduate students, (b) among graduate faculty, and (c) between graduate students and graduate faculty.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Eboh, Sebastian
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Woman's Movement in Louisiana: 1879-1920

Description: In this study the term "woman's movement" is defined as any advancement made by women, socially, economically, legally, or politically. In addition to information gathered from various collections, memoirs, diaries, and contemporary newspaper accounts of Louisiana women's activities, material from a number of pertinent secondary works is included. Chapter one gives a brief overview of the women's movement as it developed in America in the latter half of the 19th century. This is followed by a chapter on women in Louisiana before 1879- Evidence suggests that a number of Louisiana women shared a common bond with other southern women in longing for an emancipation from their limited role in society. The last six chapters are devoted to the woman's movement in the state, beginning in 1879 when women first dared to to speak out in public in behalf of women. After the Civil War, a large number of women were forced by post war conditions to depart from the traditional life-style of home and family and venture into public life. Liberated from their societal mold, women slowly expanded their sphere, going beyond the immediate need to provide a livelihood. Early women's organizations, temperance unions, church societies, and women's clubs, provided the necessary training ground as women moved into legal, civic and social reforms. Women entered literary and professionally fields and gradually became active in civic affairs. The movement reached a climax in 1920 with the passage of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote, and marking the end of an era. While the liberation of women was not complete, from the achievements gained by women of this era emerged the modern woman of today.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Lindig, Carmen Meriwether
Partner: UNT Libraries
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A Stress-Inoculation Treatment Procedure for Test Anxiety in Elderly Students

Description: The major purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a stress-inoculation treatment and an equally credible attention-placebo control in alleviating self-reported test anxiety and in facilitating intellectual performance in nontraditional (aged 50 and over) college students. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral approaches in the treatment of test anxiety among young college students. The literature suggests that persons returning to school after a long absence who have subsequently enrolled as college students experience greater test anxiety and decrements in test performance in evaluative situations than their younger counterparts.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Kooken, Robert A. (Robert Andrews)
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of an Abstract and a Concrete Approach in Teaching Selected Algebraic Concepts to Ninth and Tenth Grade Students

Description: One purpose of this study was to determine whether any differences in immediate achievement or retention existed between students using manipulatives and students not using manipulatives. Also addressed in this study is whether or not the use of manipulatives is more beneficial for girls than boys and whether the use of manipulatives is more beneficial for low-ability students than for high-ability students. Students selected for this study were from a large suburban school district in Texas. The students were from eight intact classes, four of which were designated as the experimental group and the other four as the control group. The sample consisted of one hundred eighty-seven students. All students were tested with a test developed by the researcher. This same test was administered as a pretest, posttest, and retention test. The following supplemental data were also gathered on the students: mathematics scores from the California Test of Basic Skills and scores from the mathematics section of the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills test. Analysis of the data revealed no statistical difference in the mean scores of students instructed with or without manipulatives when the test was administered immediately after instruction. Nor was there any statistical difference in the mean scores when the test was administered two months after instruction. There was no statistical difference in the mean gain scores from the pretest to the posttest between boys and girls or between high- and low-achieving students. Nor was there any statistical difference between the mean gain scores from the pretest to the retention test between boys and girls or between high- and low-achieving students. It is recommended that further studies be conducted to investigate achievement and retention of students using manipulatives at the secondary level. It is also recommended that variables other than achievement be studied to determine the …
Date: May 1989
Creator: Wohlgehagen, James L. (James Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation: Effects on Phagocytic Immune Functioning

Description: Life events and one's ability to adapt to these events has significant effects on immune functioning. Immunosuppression has been related to a high magnitude of life stress and low adaptive ability. While studies have explored immune response in stressed individuals, no study has approached the area of prevention with low-immunity individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether subjects who self-report stressful lives have lower immunity, and whether "low" immunity subjects under "high" stress could enhance phagocytic activity through biofeedback-assisted relaxation.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Peavey, Barbara Suzanne
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Personality Characteristics Associated with Pet Ownership: Validating the Theoretical Propositions of Boris Levinson

Description: The purpose of the present study was to provide validation for Levinson's theory about pets and human personality development. Levinson (1978) proposed that the personality development of individuals who have pets to which they are attached differs from that of those who do not have pets and that pets play an important role in facilitating the development of certain adaptive personality traits. In the present study, specific areas that were addressed included differences in certain personality characteristics between life-long pet owners who were strongly attached to their pets, life-long pet owners who were less strongly attached to their pets, and people who had owned pets for only a limited period of time in their lives. One hundred undergraduates completed the Pet Attitude Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, the Personality Research Form - Form E, the Hogan Empathy Scale, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation - Behavior (FIRO-B), and the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire. No significant differences were found between the three pet owner groups in levels of affiliation with other people, impulse control, nurturance, succorance, capacity for empathy, and anxiety levels. In addition, no significant differences were found between the three pet owner groups in interpersonal behavior characteristics or self-esteem. Concurrent validity was shown between membership in the different pet owner groups and positive attitudes toward pets as measured by the Pet Attitude Scale. As predicted, the most attached life-long pet owners reported more positive attitudes toward pets than the least attached life-long pet owners or the limited-time pet owners.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Esparza, Jana Scoville
Partner: UNT Libraries
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