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Molecular Dynamics and Interactions in Liquids

Description: Various modern spectroscopies have been utilized with considerable success in recent years to probe the dynamics of vibrational and reorientational relaxation of molecules in condensed phases. We have studied the temperature dependence of the polarized and depolarized Raman spectra of various modes in the following dihalomethanes: dibromomethane, dichloromethane, dichloromethane-d2, and bromochloromethane. Among other observed trends, we have found the following: Vibrational dephasing times calculated from the bend) and (C-Br stretch) lineshapes are of the same magnitude in CI^B^. The vibrational dephasing time of [C-D(H) stretch] is twice as long in CD2Cl2 as in CH-^C^, and the relaxation time of (C-Cl stretch) is greater in CI^C^ than in CD2CI2. Isotropic relaxation times for all three stretching vibrations are significantly shorter in C^BrCl than in CI^C^ or CI^B^. Application of the Kubo model revealed that derived modulation times are close to equal for equivalent vibrations in the various dihalomethanes. Thus, the more efficient relaxation of the A^ modes in CE^BrCl can be attributed almost entirely to the broader mean squared frequency perturbation of the vibrations in this molecule.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Chen, Jen Hui
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthetic Applications of Ketene Cycloadditions Lactams and Coumarins

Description: The objective of this study was to develop new synthetical routes to natural and industrial products utilizing ketene cycioaddition reactions. The cycioaddition of diphenylketene with α,β-unsaturated imines yields (2+2) cycioaddition products, g-lactams. However, electron donating groups, such as dimethylamine, in the 4-position of the α,β-unsaturated imines result in (4+2) cycloaddition products, ∂-lactams. Dichloroketene reacted with α,β-unsaturated imines to yield (4+2) cycloaddition products, g-lactams. Large substituents in the 4-position of a, ^-unsaturated imines resulted in a (2+2) cycioaddition product, β-lactam. The ∂-lactams derived from dichloroketene are easily dehydrochlorinated to the corresponding 2-pyridornes.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Shieh, Chia Hui
Partner: UNT Libraries

Silene Stereochemistry

Description: The reaction of tert-butyllithium with chloromethylphenylvinylsilane at low temperatures in hexane gave a 48% yield of a mixture of the five isomers of 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl-2,4-dineopentyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane, formed by the head-to-tail dimerization of both E- and Z-1-methyl-1-phenyl-2-neopentylsilenes, along with an acyclic dimer. These were separated and their stereochemistry was established by ('1)H- and ('13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The E- and Z-silenes were also trapped as their {4 + 2} cycloadducts with cyclopentadiene, 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene and anthracene, which also were separated and stereochemically characterized. A consistent mole ratio of 70:30 for the E- and Z-silene adducts is interpreted as evidence for stereochemical induction in the silene generation reaction. It is also suggested that the dimerization of the silenes to give the 1,3-disilacyclobutanes occurs by a nonstereospecific stepwise pathway. When E- or Z-1-methyl-1-phenyl-2-neopentylsilene was generated by the retro-Diels-Alder flow vacuum thermolysis of its corresponding cyclopentadiene or anthracene adduct at temperatures between 400 and 600(DEGREES)C and then trapped with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, the stereochemical distribution of the products is independent of the stereochemistry of the silene precursor, indicating that the silene is not configurationally stable towards cis-trans isomerization at these temperatures. Evidence that the intermolecular ene reaction and the {4 + 2} cycloaddition which occur with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene are concerted is presented. When either the E- or Z-silene, generated by the sealed tube thermolysis of its anthracene adduct by 300(DEGREES)C, was trapped with trimethylmethoxysilene, the diastereomer obtained depended on the stereochemistry of the silene precursor, showing that the silene is configurationally stable towards cis-trans isomerization up to 300(DEGREES)C. The temperature dependence of the ratio of the two diastereomers obtained when the silene formed from the pure E- or Z-anthracene adduct was trapped at higher temperatures permitted the determination of an activation energy for the silene isomerization. The activation energies for the E- and Z- and Z- to E-silene isomerization are 45 (+OR-) ...
Date: August 1984
Creator: Lee, Myong Euy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Raman Studies of Molecular Dynamics and Interactions in Liquids

Description: In order to explore the N-H stretching region of aliphatic amines, we performed a study of the Raman spectrum of n-propylamine at various concentrations in cyclohexane. Statistical analysis provided evidence of a second symmetric stretching vibration, which we were able to assign to nonhydrogen bonded NH2 groups. To obtain additional evidence on the existence of monomers in n-propylamine and to further study hydrogen bonding and Fermi resonance in aliphatic amines, we extended the investigation to the analysis of the Raman spectrum of this compound over an extended range of temperature in the neat liquid phase. This study corroborated our finding that the peak previously assigned to the symmetric stretching mode of hydrogen bonded amines is actually composed of two bands. Furthermore, trends in both the resolved band parameters and the Fermi resonance analysis were tabulated, allowing one to monitor the change in the N-H valence region with concentration and temperature.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Friedman, Barry R. (Barry Richard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Regulation of Lactobacillic Acid Formation in Lactobacillus Plantarum

Description: Cyclopropanation of the unsaturated fatty acid moieties of membrane phospholipids is a commonly observed phenomenon in a number of bacterial systems. The cyclopropane fatty acids are usually synthesized during and after the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase, or under such environmental conditions as acidic culture pH, low oxygen tension or high salt concentrations. S-Adenosylmethionine, the ubiquitous methyl group donor, provides the methylene bridge carbon in the reaction catalyzed by cyclopropane fatty acid synthase. Also formed in the reaction is S-adenosylhomocysteine, a potent inhibitor of cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, which is degraded by S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase. This work provides evidence for at least two modes of regulation of lactobacillic acid synthesis, the cyclopropane fatty acid formed from cis-vaccenic acid (cis-11,12-octadecenoic acid), in Lactobacillus piantarum.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Smith, Darwin Dennis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis of Anthracyclines Related to Adriamycin

Description: This dissertation reports the preparation of several types of anthraquinones structurally related to adriamycin. It describes the synthesis of two types of 2-aminoquinizarin compounds. It also presents two new syntheses of a heterocyclic tetracyclic ring system, similar to the aglicone ring system of adriamycin. A series of 2-aminoquinizarins was prepared by adding several primary amines to quinizarin. Quinizarin was shown to be essentially inert toward secondary amines. Several secondary amine adducts with quinizarin have been prepared, however, by treating the bis-boroacetate ester of quinizarin with the amines. Both types of 2-aminoquinizarin compounds exhibit outstanding potential for possessing antineoplastic activity, and several have been submitted to the National Cancer Institute for testing in their screening program for antineoplastic agents.
Date: May 1981
Creator: White, Roger J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Study of Low Temperature Silene Generation

Description: The reactions of tert-butyl-, sec-butyl-, and n-butyllithium with dimethylfluorovinylsilane include addition to the double bond to give both silene and silenoid intermediates, fluorine substitution, and a novel vinyl substitution. For the tert-butyllithium reaction, product stereochemistry and trapping experiments using both cyclopentadiene and methoxytrimethylsilane show that silenes are not formed in THF. In hexane about 67% of the 1,3-disilacyclobutanes obtained arise from silene dimerization while 33% are formed by silenoid coupling. In hexane the order of reactivity for addition, t-Bu > sec-Bu > n-Bu, is opposite that for fluorine substitution. The vinyl substitution is most significant with secondary alkyllithium reagents including the tert-butyllithium adduct to dimethylfluorovinylsilane and with sec-butyllithium itself. Evidence for the formation of vinyllithium or ethylene in the process could not be obtained.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Cheng, Albert Home-Been
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis of Ketene Thioacetals and Their Monosulfoxide Derivatives and the Thermal Rearrangements of Diallylic Ketene Thioacetals

Description: Ketene dimethyl thioacetal monosulfoxide was prepared in 68% overall yield in two steps starting from methylmagnesium chloride. The yield of dithioacetic acid was improved significantly by employing tetrahydrofuran as solvent and using elevated temperatures. A one-pot synthesis of ketene thioacetals from alkyl halides was developed and several ketene thioacetals were prepared by this method. Direct oxidation of ketene thioacetals using m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid provided a general route to ketene thioacetal monosulfoxides. In cases where E and Z isomeric ketene thioacetal monosulfoxides were possible, the E/Z isomeric ratio increased as the substituents on the ketene double bond was increased in size.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Kaya, Riza
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Selected Non-Bonded Interactions on Vicinal Carbon-Carbon Coupling Constants

Description: The body of information concerning carbon-carbon spin-spin coupling constants now includes a large number of coupling constants, the establishment of a dihedral angular dependence on 3JCC, and the application of 3JCC to conformational analysis. This study adds another dimension to the growing wealth of information associated with 13 C-NMR: the influence of some non-bonded interactions on 3JCC Four types of non-bonded interactions that could influence vicinal carbon-carbon NMR coupling constants were investigated. To facilitate the NMR studies, a variety of 13C-labeled compounds were synthesized.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Canada, Edward D. (Edward Dee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

GC/MS Analysis of Chlorinated Organic Compounds in Municipal Wastewater After Chlorination

Description: A study has been conducted for the qualitative and Quantitative analysis of chlorinated organic compounds in water. The study included the adaptation of Amberlite XAD macroreticular resin techniques for the concentration of municipal wastewater samples, followed by GC/MS analysis. A new analytical method was developed for the determination of volatile halogenated organics using liquid-liquid extraction and electron capture gas chromatography. And, a computer program was written which searches raw GC/MS computer files for halogen-containing organic compounds.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Henderson, James E. (James Edward)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Preparation, Properties, and Reactions of Silenes, Silenoids, and 2-Silanobornenes

Description: The reaction of chlorodimethylvinylsilane with tertbutyllithium was investigated in the presence of several conjugated dienes. In all cases except with 2,5-dimethylfuran, [2+4] cycloadducts of a silene intermediate are obtained in hydrocarbon solvents. The presence of THF in the reaction mixture suppresses the formation of cycloadducts in favor of 1,3-disilacyclobutanes. In the reaction of dimethylethoxyvinylsilane or dimethylmethoxyvinylsilane with tert-butyllithium the main product is the 1,1-dimethyl2-neopentyl-4-(dimethylalkoxysilyl)silacyclobutane. It is concluded that lithium chloride elimination to give silene intermediates occurs in hydrocarbon solvents. In the presence of strong Lewis bases or when the leaving group on silicon is an alkoxy group, the addition reaction giving a-lithiosilanes occurs and products arising from their coupling reactions are obtained.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Pierce, Richard A. (Richard Austin), 1918-2004
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conformational Analysis Using Carbon-13-Carbon-13 and Carbon-13-Hydrogen Spin-Spin Coupling Constants

Description: This study consists of four major areas of research. First, the relationship between and was extended to Lrl nil homoallylic couplings and was used to determine the relative degree of puckering in a series of dihydroaromatic carboxylic acids. Second, the effect of coupling contributions transmitted through space were examined by theoretical calculations of the intermediate neglect of differential overlap finite perturbation theory type (INDO-FPT) including selective overlap reduction experiments to determine the sign and magnitude of the major through-space contributions and the effect of the orientation of the substituent upon the vicinal carbon3 carbon coupling. Third, the dependence of the J upon substituent orientation in norbornanes was empirically investigated by the synthesis of a series of lactones and cyclic ethers whose conformation was rigid and known. Fourth, a large number of norbornanes substituted with methyls in the 1, 3, and 7 position and a carbon-13 labeled substituent in the 2 position were synthesized and studied in order to obtain a variety of vicinal C-C couplings; all the NMR parameters for this series of compounds were determined while the carbon13 labeled substituent was varied from methyl to methylene to carbinol to aldehyde and to carboxylic acid.
Date: May 1981
Creator: McDaniel, Cato R., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Quantification of Poly(ADP-ribose) in Normal and in DNA-Damaged Cells

Description: This work presents the development of a new highly sensitive and selective chemical assay for poly(ADP-ribose) which is routinely useful for the determination of polymer levels in vivo. This method was used to carefully measure poly(ADP-ribose) levels in normal and in DNA-damaged cells. The results of these studies strongly suggest that synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) is involved in some aspect of DNA repair. A review of the literature is presented in the introduction of this work. Poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been implicated in aspects of transcription, in DNA syn thesis, and in DNA repair largely based on evidence from in vitro studies. It is apparent that current methodology has not allowed the routine quantification of poly(ADP-ribose) in vivo, hence the lack of i^n vivo data concerning the function(s) of the polymer. The body of this work presents the development of two chemical methods for the quantification of poly(ADP-ribose) and the application of one of these methods to the measurement of polymer levels in normal and DNA-damaged cells. Preliminary studies are presented on the utilization of combined gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy for the selective quantification of nucleoside derivatives. A second method makes use of the unique chemistry of the polymer for quantification. The polymer was selectively adsorbed to dihydroxyboryl-sepharose which allowed the removal of most RNA, DNA, and protein from the samples. The polymer was hydrolyzed to the unique nucleoside 2'—^-l*'-ribosyladenosine by digestion with venom phosphodiesterase and bacterial alkaline phosphatase. The 1-N^-etheno derivative of ribosyladenosine was formed by reaction with chloroacetaldehyde and this derivative was seperated from other fluorescent species by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Sims, James L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

(4+2)-Cycloaddition Reactions of Ketenes; Pyranones

Description: This study deals with the (4+2)-cycloaddition reactions of 4-π electron compounds with ketenes. Chloroketenes were generated in situ from the corresponding chlorinated acid chlorides in the presence of the ketenophiles. Chloro-, dichloro- and diphenylketenes reacted with 1-methoxy-3-trimethylsiloxy-l,3-butadiene, and 2,4-bis(trimethylsiloxy)-1,3-pentadiene to yield the corresponding dihydropyrans. The dihydropyrans yielded substituted 4-pyranones on hydrolysis.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Agho, Michael O. (Michael Osarenogowu)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ozonolysis and Cycloaddition Reaction of (Trimethylsilyl)ketene

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to study the chemistry of the new and novel (trimethylsilyl)ketene. This ketene was synthesized by pyrolysis of (trimethylsilyl)ethoxyacetylene which was prepared from ethoxyacetylene and methyllithium. (Trimethylsilyl)ketene is a very stable and isolable ketene which does not dimerize and, therefore, provides an opportunity for some unique studies that have not been possible with other monosubstituted ketene.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Saidi, Kazem
Partner: UNT Libraries