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Muscarinic Receptor Modulation of the Phospholipid Effect in Cardiac Myocytes

Description: The muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulates a rapid increase in ^32Pi incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) in calcium tolerant myocytes prepared from heart tissue. The density of muscarinic receptors, determined by [^3H]-QNB binding, is greater in the atria than in the ventricles. 250 uM carbachol decreased specific [^3H]-QNB binding to muscarinic receptors on myocyte membranes by fifty percent. Trifluoperazine, also a phospholipase C inhibitor, inhibited the carbachol stimulated increase in ^32Pi incorporation into PA and PI and did not interfere with muscarinic receptor binding. Therefore, isolated canine myocytes provide a suitable model system to further study the muscarinic receptor stimulated phospholipid effect, and its role in mediating biochemical processes and physiological function in the heart.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Mattern, Janet
Partner: UNT Libraries

Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Cocaine: Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance Characteristics

Description: Rats were trained to discriminate an injection of cocaine, 5.0 mg/kg, from an injection of saline, using a two-lever choice paradigm: one lever was correct after cocaine injection, the other lever was correct after a saline injection. After training, cocaine and methamphetamine were generalized to the cocaine lever, but phenethylamine (PEA) was only partially generalized. Cocaine was injected every 8 hrs, 20.0 mg/kg, and the discriminability of 5.0 mg/kg was tested every other day. Redetermination of the cocaine generalization curve after 6 days of chronic administration showed a shift to the right, from an ED50 of 4.1 mg/kg in the pre-chronic condition to 10.0 mg/kg. Tolerance did not develop to the behavioral effects of cocaine, measured by time to the first reinforcement and response rate. There was cross-tolerance to methamphetamine; however, no evidence for cross-tolerance to PEA was obtained. Following the acquisition of tolerance, chronic administration of cocaine was terminated, and the discriminability of 5.0 mg/kg was tested every other day for loss of tolerance. After 8 days the ED50 returned to 5.0 mg/kg.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Wood, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ocular Hypotensive Effect of the α2-Adrenergic Agonist, Lofexidine

Description: A selective a2-adrenergic agonist, lofexidine, significantly reduced intraocular pressure (lOP) in intact ocular normotensive NZW rabbits, producing a differential dose-dependent decrease in IOP in'the ipsilateral and contralateral eye. Contralateral IOP reduction was most observable at low doses. Unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy and extraocular muscle excision studies were undertaken to elucidate the factors influencing differential IOP reduction by lofexidine. Similar significant contralateral decreases in IOP were noted when the agent was applied to either the intact or operated eye. Biochemical studies demonstrated that lofexidine inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated adenylcyclase in isolated iris-ciliary body preparations. Yohimbine, an α2-adrenergic antagonist, blocked this inhibitory response. Hence, these observations suggested that lofexidine's site of IOP reduction was probably at the cellular level.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Tran, Tung Vu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Role of Calcium and Phospholipids in Transepithelial Sodium Ion and Water Transport in Amphibian Epithelia

Description: The present investigation is concerned with determining the role of calcium, phospholipids, and phospholipid metabolites on transepithelial sodium and water transport in response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH). These studies utilize the frog skin for determining sodium transport and amphibian urinary bladder for water flow measurements and scanning electron microscopy of cell surface morphology. The results demonstrate that phospholipids and phospholipid metabolites containing arachidonic acid stimulate transepithelial sodium transport through amiloride sensitive channels and the action of these lipids involves the synthesis of prostaglandins. These lipids also inhibited the increase in water flow induced by ADH, and this effect was prevented with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors. Prostaglandins alter intracellular calcium concentrations and agents effecting calcium metabolism alter cell surface morphology and the changes in surface substructure induced by ADH. These observations support the hypothesis that alterations in membrane permeability to water and ions may involve metabolism of membrane phospholipids and prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Tarapoom, Nimman
Partner: UNT Libraries