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The Effects of Intergroup Competition and Noncompetition on the Decision Quality of Culturally Diverse and Culturally Non-Diverse Groups

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the challenges and benefits associated with cultural diversity within groups. The research hypotheses were proposed to test the effects of cultural diversity on group performance and group processes by comparing culturally diverse and culturally homogeneous groups under conditions of intergroup competition and noncompetition. This experiment was conducted using 500 upper-level undergraduates enrolled in the principles of management course for the fall semester.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Faden, Sandra K. (Sandra Kay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Change in Organizational Size, Level of Integration, and Investment in Technology on Task Specialization

Description: Major changes in organizational structural paradigms have been occurring. Recent journal articles propose that the older philosophies of expanding organizations and increasing internal specialization are no longer viable means to enhance competitiveness as espoused in earlier journal articles. Downsizing, rightsizing, and business process reengineering have all been used as methods of accomplishing organizational work force reduction (OWFR) and enhancing organizational posture. It has been established that as organizations grow, specialization increases. Causes for OWFR have not been established nor have effects upon structure been studied. Previous structural factor studies have focused upon organizations engaged in end-game strategies done during periods of internal and economic growth. This study evaluates the impacts of OWFR and its relationship to the structural factor of specialization during a non-munificent economic period. Three independent variables, dis-integration, change in the number of employees, and change in technology, were used as measures to determine whether specialization decreased when organizations downsized. The dependent variable, specialization, was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire. The three independent variables were obtained using the Compustat data base as a secondary source of information. The Compustat data was verified using data from Compact Disclosure. Questionnaires were mailed to fifty-one fully integrated oil companies. Forty were returned after three mailings yielding a response rate of seventy-eight percent. The unit of analysis for the data collected was the firm. The data were analyzed using multiple regression to determine the strength of the relationship between the variables. Results indicate a significant relationship between two of the independent variables and the dependent variable: dis-integration and specialization and change in the number of employees and specialization. Findings were insignificant for the third independent variable and the dependent variable: change in technology and specialization. Analysis of the quantitative results and the qualitative responses of the participants show that dis-integration and a ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Tucci, Jack E. (Jack Eugene)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Structural Holes and Simmelian Ties: Exploring Social Capital, Task Interdependence, and Individual Effectiveness

Description: Two contrasting notions have been put forward on how social capital may influence individual effectiveness in organizations. Burt (1992) sets forth the informational and control advantages that are possible by building an open network characterized by large numbers of structural holes. In contrast, Coleman (1990) and Simmel (1950) have suggested that network closure, exemplified by large numbers of Simmelian ties, enables actors to develop trust, cohesiveness, and norms which contribute to effectiveness. Simmelian ties are strong, reciprocal ties shared by three actors. It is proposed that an actor's network cannot be dominated by both structural holes and Simmelian ties. Thus, this study examines whether a moderating variable is at work. It is proposed that the actor's task interdependence in the workplace influences the relationship between network closure and individual effectiveness. Actors in less task interdependent environments will benefit especially from the information and control benefits afforded by a network characterized by structural holes. Conversely, actors in highly interdependent environments will benefit especially from the creation of trust and cooperation that result from large numbers of Simmelian ties. Data was collected on 113 subjects in three organizations. Subjects were asked to rate the strength of their relationship with all organization members and their own level of task interdependence. Contrary to expectations, nearly all subjects reported high levels of task interdependence. Raters in each organization provided individual effectiveness measures for all subjects. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical set regression and bivariate correlation. The results indicated support for the hypothesized relationship of Simmelian ties with task interdependence. When examining all cases, no support was found for the hypothesized relationship of structural holes and Simmelian ties with individual effectiveness and of structural holes with task interdependence. Nonetheless, additional analyses provided some indication of an association between Simmelian ties and individual effectiveness. Task interdependence did ...
Date: December 1999
Creator: Engle, Scott L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Customer Induced Uncertainty and Its Impact on Organizational Design

Description: How firms facing environmental uncertainty should organize their activities remains an important and challenging question for today's managers and organizational researchers. Proponents of contingency theory have argued that organizations must adjust their activities to fit the level of environmental uncertainty to ensure long-term survival. Although much work has been done on contingency theory, it is clear that our understanding of uncertainty is far from complete. One important aspect of today's organizations is their focus on service, mass customization, and continuous innovation. This focus often results in the customer being brought either into the organization or at least into closer contact with it. Even though the literature provides numerous evidences of the increasing customer focus, it is yet to empirically explain how the complications of customer-organizational interactions might create uncertainty for contemporary organizations. The traditional measure of uncertainty still considers customers as an environmental factor causing demand uncertainty while ignoring the complex nature of customer and organizational encounters. Seeking to further refine the concept of uncertainty and focusing on the contemporary business phenomena, this study develops measures aspects of customer induced uncertainty and examines their relationships with three organizational design variables. Specifically, this study explains the complicated nature of customer - organizational encounters that creates organizational uncertainty. Also, this study develops three operational measurement instruments for the three aspects of customer induced uncertainty. Finally, this study shows specific relationships between aspects of customer induced uncertainty and specific organizational design variables. This study conducted a mail survey of middle level managers. With a sample size of 118 the measurement instruments were shown to have validity and reliability using factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. Regression analyses indicate the presence of specific rather than general relationship between customer induced uncertainty variables and organizational design variables. Regression results suggested that the relationships between customer induced ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Chowdhury, Sanjib Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determinants of Small Firm Performance: the Importance of Selected Managerial Personality Traits, Perceived Environmental Uncertainty, Scanning Activities, and Managerial Goal Setting Activities

Description: Much of the previous research on organizational performance deals with the larger businesses. As such, the owner/managers of small firms and researchers interested in small businesses have had to work with planning models which were not formulated with small businesses in mind. Therefore, the general purpose of this study is to help correct this deficiency and add to the body of knowledge concerning the contributions specific factors make toward increasing the performance of small firms. Specifically, selected managerial personality traits, managerial perceived environmental uncertainty, managerial scanning habits, and managerial goal setting activities are utilized to develop three models. The three models are used to determine the relationship the factors have to each other and the contribution the variables make toward the performance of the firm. The firms included in this study are located in a South Central metropolitan area. The firms have between 2 and 100 employees, sales of less than 3 million dollars, and have been in operation 2 years or longer. This study utilizes regression analysis and path analysis to determine the effects the factors have on each other and their contribution to the firm's performance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSx) is utilized to run the regression analysis. An Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by the Method of Maximum Likelihood (LISREL) is utilized for the path analysis. Using path analysis, the third model demonstrates a total coefficient of determination for structural equations of 0.09. However, only two of the four factors have a t value of 2.0 or greater. The study also indicates the personality trait of dogmatism is inversely related to managerial scanning -.349 p <.01. Perceived environmental uncertainty is negatively correlated to performance at -.215 p <.05. None of the remaining factors demonstrated significant relationship to the firm's performance.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Walker, Jim L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Trends in Strategic Planning in Private Social Service Agencies: A Test of the Ramanujam and Venkatraman Planning Model

Description: This study modified the Ramanujam and Venkatraman (1987) questionnaire that was used to develop their model of planning system dimensions and planning effectiveness, and tested the model on a sample of private social service agencies. The criterion measures were level of planning sophistication, agency size, perceived environmental uncertainty, and relative competitive position. The sample was randomly drawn from private social service agencies which were members of the Community Council of Greater Dallas. Telephone interviews with fifty executive directors were conducted by a trained, impartial interviewer. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to predict group membership between informal and formal planners. Of the nine dimensions in the model, three dimensions correctly classified 84 percent of the sample. The three dimensions were fulfillment of planning objectives, use of decision making techniques, and lack of resistance to planning. The level of perceived environmental uncertainty was another criterion set. Directors who perceived high uncertainty paid more attention to the external environment, used more decision making techniques, and relied on functional specialists when planning. Large and small agencies were classified by their annual budgets. Stepwise discriminant analysis using the planning system dimensions failed to reject the null hypothesis. Agencies reporting strong relative competitive positions placed greater emphasis on seeking information for planning from external sources. These agencies also reported less resistance for planning within their organizations, fulfillment of more planning objectives, and a flexible planning system. The discriminant analysis correctly classifed 74 percent of the sample. Finally, the study provided some baseline information on the use of planning techniques by private social service agencies. Just over half of the sample reported having written strategic plans covering at least three years.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Gilbertson, Diana L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of Organizational Communication and Its Relationship to Two Organizational Models Involving Job Performance and Job Satisfaction

Description: The correlates of organizational communication to other organizational constructs have been scarcely researched. Two constructs of interest to management researchers and practitioners are job performance and job satisfaction. This interest arises from the fact that the quality of organizational life and effectiveness may be determined by the quality of the two constructs. This study investigates the moderating influence of organizational communication on two models involving the variables of performance and satisfaction: (1) the relationship between performance and satisfaction and (2) the relationship between the congruence of the individual and the job with performance and satisfaction. Organizational communication is assessed in terms of ten dimensions: trust in superiors; influence of superiors; accuracy of information; desire for interaction; communication satisfaction; overload and underload information; and upward, downward, and lateral communication. Executives, research and middle management people, office workers, and manufacturing individuals from two firms provided the data for the study. An expected moderating influence was evaluated through differential validity or differential predictability, as appropriate, and moderated regression analysis. Organizational communication received very weak support as a moderator of both the relationship between the target variables of performance and satisfaction and the individual-job congruence association with the same target variables. Accuracy of information, desire for interaction, and directionality of communication—upward, downward, and lateral—received support as moderators of particular performance/satisfaction relationships. Trust in superiors, influence of superiors, accuracy of information, and desire for interaction acted as moderators of specific individual-job congruence relationships with performance and satisfaction. Organizational communication received moderate-to-strong support as a predictor of the two relationships researched. Thus, either as a moderator or as a predictor, communication constitutes an avenue for improving the quality of organizational life and effectiveness; the performance and satisfaction of individuals may he fostered through communication.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Goris, Jose R. (Jose Rafael)
Partner: UNT Libraries