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Strategic Management and the Effectiveness of Selected Social Responsibility Programs in Selected Multinational Corporations -- Empirical and Case Approach, with Perceptions of Top Management

Description: The research examines perceptions of top management in U. S. Multinationals (MNCs) about strategic management processes involving social responsibility, particularly issues on plant and employee safety, education and human resources, and health delivery and services. Strategic management processes consider setting objectives, environmental analyses, and evaluation of social responsibility programs emphasizing planning activities. The study focuses on firms' decision making in planning and execution of social responsibility programs and their impact on foreign country environments as perceived by company executives, at corporate headquarters and regional/subsidiary offices.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Haydel, Belmont F. (Belmont Felician)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness in Company-sponsored Foundations : A Utilization of the Competing Values Framework

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the criteria used by foundation directors in assessing the effectiveness of contribution programs in company sponsored foundations. Quinn and Rohrbaugh's Competing Values Approach of organizational effectiveness was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The Competing Values Approach is an integrative effectiveness model which clusters eight criteria of effectiveness into four theoretical models of organizational effectiveness.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Bormann, Carol J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting the Use of External Labor Arrangements: A Transaction Costs Perspective

Description: Firms' use of external labor arrangements (ELAs), such as temporary, contract and seasonal workers, has become increasingly prevalent over the last two decades. Despite the increasing importance of this phenomenon, little is known about firms' reasons for using ELAs. Most research to date has been exploratory, using qualitative methods or archival data not well suited to the constructs. The result of this research has been a long and often contradictory list of proposed antecedents of ELA use. In this study, I tested the ability of the transaction costs theory to predict when firms will fill a given job using an ELA rather that a permanent employment relationship. According to this theory, three characteristics of the job will determine whether the job will be filled using an ELA: transaction-specific investment, likelihood of repetition, and uncertainty of performance. Firms will be less likely to staff a given job using an ELA when the job requires investment in idiosyncratic skills, when the firm is likely to require a person with that set of skills regularly, and when performance in that job is difficult to measure.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Masters, John K. (John Kendall)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Trust and Governance in Hybrid Relationships: An Investigation of Logistics Alliances

Description: Transaction cost economics (TCE) theorists traditionally have classified transactions between firms as governed by either market or hierarchy. By assessing characteristics of the transaction - asset specificity, uncertainty, and frequency - firms choose the governance form which minimizes transaction costs, the costs of administering the business deal. During the 1980s, however, TCE has found itself unable to explain the proliferation of strategic alliances. These hybrid relationships seek the benefits of both markets and hierarchies, including quasi-integration, the control of assets without actual ownership. Further, hybrids tend to prefer trust-based relational contracting. TCE's acknowledgment of hybrids, however, raises other questions surrounding the behavioral assumptions which supposedly influence the transaction characteristic governance linkage. Various dissenting researchers have theorized that (1) trust is more dominant in business than opportunism (2) the behavioral assumptions actually function as variables in different contexts, and (3) trust offers an integration mechanism for behavioral variables.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Orr, John Patrick, 1950-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategic Reorientation in the Computer Software and Furniture Industries: a Hierarchical Regression Analysis

Description: Insufficient literature exists in the area of incremental and revolutionary change to explain and predict the convergence and reorientation phenomena happening in organizations. The process of strategic reorientation involves the internal organizational complexities of fast-paced (within two years) changes in competitive strategy as a necessary condition coupled with changes in at least two of organization structure, power distribution, and control systems. Antecedent forces believed to influence the discontinuous change process include industry sales turbulence, structural inertia/firm size, firm past financial performance, CEO turnover, top management team turnover, management team heterogeneity, management environmental awareness, and external attributions for negative financial performance. Punctuated equilibrium was the foundational theory for this study in which a strategic reorientation model published in Strategic Management Journal was reconstructed. The research question was: What seem to be the significant time-based antecedent forces or conditions that lead to strategic reorientation? The study used two hierarchical logit regression models to analyze data gathered from COMPUSTAT PC Industrial Data Base and Compact Disclosure (CD-ROM) over the years 1987-1993 from the turbulent computer software and stable furniture industries. Qualitative data were found in 10-K reports and President's Letters in Annual Reports filed with the SEC and available on Laserdisclosure. The sample, exclusive of 3 multivariate outliers, included 74 software firms and 43 furniture firms for a pooled total of 117 firms. When separate industries were analyzed using the first of the Systat logit hierarchical regressions, results showed no statistically significant effects. By contrast, when data were pooled, the second hierarchical logit regression model, which included industry turbulence and firm size, showed these one-tailed statistically significant results: strategic reorientation is positively affected by prior industry turbulence and CEO turnover, but is negatively affected by prior top management team turnover and the interaction between industry turbulence and external attributions for negative financial performance.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Gordon, Shelley S. (Shelley Sampson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Environmental Barriers and Modes of Technology Transfer: A Study of United States Companies with Operations in Mexico

Description: This study is an empirical evaluation of the relationship between perceptions of the elements of the remote environment of business and the mode of transfer utilized by 90 United States companies transferring technology to Mexico. Characteristics of the technology, the company, and the industry were found, from a thorough search of the literature, to be the key aspects of technology transfer. The primary hypothesis predicted that a significant relationship would exist between perceptions of barriers and choice of transfer mode.
Date: August 1994
Creator: LeMaster, Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Theoretical Model of Technical Professionals in Work Teams

Description: The purpose of this research project was to develop and test a theoretical model of technical professionals in self-managing work teams using a number of constructs that have not been tested with this population. The overall aim was to begin to humbly fill a significant gap in the research literature focused on self-managing work teams. The rationale for the need to address technical professional perspectives in team settings is discussed in the following section.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Beyerlein, Susan T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Toward the Development of Information Technology Variables to Help Predict Organizational Structure

Description: There is a growing awareness that information technology plays a critical role in helping determine organizational structure. Unfortunately, that role has not been adequately defined. This study provides a foundation for an increase in our understanding of the relationship between information technology and organizational structure by defining a new set of information technology variables and identifying differences in organizational structure based on these new variables.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Sweo, Robert (Robert Edward)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategic International Human Resource Management: an Analysis of the Relationship between International Strategic Positioning and the Degree of Integrated Strategic Human Resource Management

Description: In Strategic International Human Resource Management (SIHRM), the human resource function is actively involved in the strategic activities of the firm. While the idea holds promise as a useful response to global competition, previous research has provided limited supporting empirical evidence. Specifically, few studies have sought to equate certain outcomes with the degree of SIHRM practiced across various types of international firms. By separating firms into categories such as multidomestic, global, and hybrid, and by classifying SIHRM according to the degree of integration with strategic planning, a clearer picture could emerge as to the relationship between firm and SIHRMtype. To that end, top strategic executives, such as CEOs, and top HRM executives from eighty four U.S. based firms were surveyed regarding their firm type, the degree of SIHRM practiced, and certain outcomes such as amount of expatriate training and expatriate failure. Additionally, financial results were obtained to determine performance of various firms. Results indicated that while many companies choose a highly integrated formof SIHRM, there is no significant relationship between firm type and SIHRMtype. Additionally, there was no association detected between SIHRMtype and expatriate training and expatriate failure. Finally, there was no significant difference infinancialperformance between firms with the most integrated type of SIHRMand firms with less integrated versions. Interestingly, the HRMprofessionals were more likely to equate their firms with the most integrated types of SIHRMthan were other managers. This may mean that the relationship between HRM and strategic planning is often one of perception. A model of the relationships between SIHRM, firm type, HRM activities, and outcomes is proposed, along with suggestions for future research and limitations of the study.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Steingruber, William G. (William George)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Institutionalization of Ethics: a Cross-Cultural Perspective

Description: Business ethics is a much debated issue in contemporary America. As many ethical improprieties gained widespread attention, organizations tried to control the damage by institutionalizing ethics through a variety of structures, policies, and procedures. Although the institutionalization of ethics has become popular in corporate America, there is a lack of research in this area. The relationship between the cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity and the perceptions of managers regarding the institutionalization of ethics is investigated in this study. This research also examined whether managers' level of cognitive moral development and locus of control influenced their perceptions. Data collection was performed through a mail survey of managers in the U.S. and India. Out of the 174 managers of American multinationals who responded to the survey, 86 were Americans and 88 were Indians. Results revealed that managers' perceptions were influenced by the four cultural dimensions. Managerial perceptions regarding the effectiveness of codes of ethics and the influence of referent groups varied according to their nationality. But, managers from both countries found implicit forms of institutionalizing ethics, such as organizational systems, culture, and leadership to be more effective in raising the ethical climate of organizations than explicit forms such as codes of ethics, ethics officers, and ethics ombudspeople. The results did not support the influence of moral reasoning level and locus of control type on managerial perceptions. The results suggested that in order for ethics institutionalization efforts to be successful, there must be a fit or compatibility between the implicit and explicit forms of institutionalizing ethics. The significance of this study rests on the fact that it enriched our understanding of how national culture affects managerial perceptions regarding the institutionalization of ethics. This is the first comparative study between U.S. managers and Indian managers that examines the variables, ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Jose, Anita
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measuring the Implementation of Employee Involvement in the Maquiladora Industry : A Matched-pairs Analysis of United States Parent Companies and Their Mexican Subsidiaries

Description: Participative management practices between United States parent companies in the maquiladora industry and their Mexico assembly plants were investigated for this study. It was hypothesized that managers of parent maquiladora companies in the United States encouraged greater levels of worker participation than did expatriate managers in Mexican subsidiaries. However, the findings of this study indicate that expatriate managers in a number of the Mexico subsidiaries are currently implementing employee involvement approaches. In some instances, highly participative team-based approaches are being used.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Stanford, Jane Herring
Partner: UNT Libraries

Corporate Entrepreneurship: Strategic and Structural Correlates and Impact on the Global Presence of United States Firms

Description: Corporate entrepreneurship, its correlates, and its impact on the global presence of firms were examined through 439 United States companies, represented in all geographic realms of the world. Executives responded to a lengthy survey of organizational characteristics which enabled corporate entrepreneurship and its dimensions--innovation, proactiveness, and risk taking--to be examined in firms with varying global presence. Risk factors were assigned to countries and realms from the averaged rankings of three published risk-forecasting services. Maximum risk country, maximum risk geographic realm, average risk of countries, average risk of geographic realms, number of countries, and number of geographic realms, were differentially weighted to equalize scales and combined into a composite global presence scale. Strategy-related variables--competitive aggressiveness and adaptiveness--dominated other organizational attributes in explaining corporate entrepreneurship, and corporate entrepreneurship dominated other variables in explaining global presence, according to correlation and multiple regression analysis. Although no variables correlated strongly with measures of global presence, corporate entrepreneurship consistently had significant positive correlations across all six measures of global presence and the composite global presence scale. In forward stepwise multiple regressions, corporate entrepreneurship was the first variable entered into the prediction equation for five of the six measures of global presence; only when the dependent variable was the number-of-countries measure of global presence did scanning load before corporate entrepreneurship. Of the dimensions of corporate entrepreneurship, risk taking had the weakest correlations with measures of global presence, although risk was the theoretical basis for the first four measures of global presence; the risk taking dimension of corporate entrepreneurship represents executives' perceptions of risk, whereas global presence was derived from published risk rankings of countries. Environmental dynamism and heterogeneity, although not hostility, correlated with corporate entrepreneurship; however, neither environmental element showed a systematic relationship with global presence. Overall, corporate entrepreneurship, driven primarily by strategy-related variables, influenced the global ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Dean, Carol Carlson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of Managers in Kuwait on the Role of the Multinational Corporations in Change in Kuwait

Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of managers in Kuwait (both Kuwaiti and non- Kuwaiti) on the effects of multinational corporations (MNCs) in Kuwait and whether these effects were beneficial. The problem motivating this study is the effects that MNCs have on the social, cultural, political, legal, economic, business, and technological environments of their host countries, especially in developing nations. This study is based on a survey of the perceptions of 1,344 managers in Kuwait on the role of MNCs in changes in Kuwait. A review of the literature on MNCs and their relationships with their host countries is provided. This review focuses on four major environmental dimensions (Social-Cultural, Political-Legal, Business-Economic, and Technological) that are affected by MNCs. The factor analysis performed for this study supports this classification of the dimensions in the environment. An English questionnaire was developed from the list of major items in each of these dimensions. An Arabic version was developed using a "double-translation method." Both the English and Arabic versions of the questionnaire were pilot tested. The instrument proved to be reliable and valid. The study utilizes a 2 x 3 block design, categorizing subjects by nationality (Kuwaiti, other Arab, others) and type of organization (public and private). Since most of the variables in the study were measured using nominal and ordinal scales, mostly non-parametric statistics were used for data analysis. The major finding from this study was that managers in Kuwait perceive positive effects of MNCs on change in Kuwait, with the exception of the cultural environment. The favorable perceptions were about the MNCs1 effects on the change in business, economic, and technological environments in Kuwait. The results of the study should be beneficial to the Kuwaiti government, MNCs doing business in Kuwait, and also to cross-cultural researchers interested in ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Al-Daeaj, Hamad S. (Hamad Saleh)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Visual Aspects of Internal Correspondence and Their Impact on Communication Effectiveness

Description: Technologists predict that electronic information dissemination will create a paperless work environment. In spite of such predictions, paper-based internal communication will remain the primary medium for disseminating information in organizations for decades to come. However, electronic technology will have an impact on paper information production that may be more profound than changes following word processing's introduction. Previously unavailable for everyday production to enhance word meaning, certain graphic techniques now can be used to access readers' preconditioned symbol meanings to increase comprehension of routine correspondence and information internalization. This quasi-experimental field study examines interactions among laser-printer graphic treatment and communication variables as contributors to explaining variance in comprehension. Set Multiple Regression/Correlation analysis identifies significant variance explained by conditional relationships between near-typeset quality text and readers' self-interest and between near-typeset quality text and text's readability. The conditional relationship of near-typeset quality and self-interest shows increase in reader comprehension at a greater rate than the comprehension increase rate attributed to the reader's self-interest increase alone. This suggests that conditional relationships may be accessing an internal judgment process interpreting greater self-interest in near-typeset printed text. The conditional relationship between near-typeset quality and readability reveals that at more difficult reading levels comprehension is greater for near-typeset text. The significance of this relationship indicates that an internal judgment process is involved rather than the difference being attributed to legibility treatment. The strength of these conditional relationships suggests that planning for communication policies and practices should be a part of organizational strategic planning in the same ways as are financial analysis, operations planning, or human resource management.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Sturges, David L. (David Lynn), 1947-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Associated with the Use of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings: an Empirical Investigation

Description: Although ingratiatory behaviors have been investigated by social psychologists for almost twenty-five years, and have been discussed as being used in organizational settings as an upward influence strategy, few empirical studies have explored the use of ingratiation in organizations. The intent of this study has been to empirically investigate the use of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. In doing so, a theory-based rationale for the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings was developed. The framework developed for this study examined ingratiation as both an individually initiated and organizationally induced behavior. Next, a scale was developed to measure the frequency with which employees resort to ingratiatory behaviors in relationships with their superiors. Finally, a series of research propositions about the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizations were tested across a variety of organizational settings.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Kumar, Kamalesh
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Decision-Making Process in Commercial Motor Carrier Selection

Description: This study is designed to gain a better understanding of the decision process of freight shippers who use commercial truckers. Pursuant to this study, it is possible to gather some insights into the phenomenon of the selection of a trucking company to transport goods. Planning is essential to the attainment of goals in any type of firm, and that is especially true in the volatile environment of commercial trucking. Development of the external environment of trucking is prerequisite to the planning process and essential to the attainment of goals. The external environment of a trucking firm is generally represented by economic, social, and political influences, which extend specifically to the nature and tendencies of its markets, i.e., the shippers.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Little, Charles D. (Charles David)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Environmental Scanning Behavior in Physical Therapy Private Practice Firms: its Relationship to the Level of Entrepreneurship and Legal Regulatory Environment

Description: This study examined the effects of entrepreneurship level and legal regulatory environment on environmental scanning in one component of the health services industry, private practice physical therapy. Two aspects of scanning served as dependent variables: (1) extent to which firms scrutinized six environmental sectors (competitor, customer, technological, regulatory, economic, social-political) and (2) frequency of information source use (human vs. written). Availability of information was a covariate for frequency of source use. Three levels of entrepreneurship were determined by scores on the Covin and Slevin (1986) entrepreneurship scale. Firms were placed in one of three legal regulatory categories according to the state in which the firm delivered services. A structured questionnaire was sent to 450 randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association's Private Practice Section. Respondents were major decision makers, e.g., owners, chief executive officers. The sample was stratified according to three types of regulatory environment. A response rate of 75% was achieved (n = 318) with equal representation from each stratum. All questionnaire subscales exhibited high internal reliability and validity. The study used a 3x3 factorial design to analyze the data. Two multivariate analyses were conducted, one for each dependent variable set. Results indicated that "high" entrepreneurial level firms scanned the technological, competitor and customer environmental sectors to a significantly greater degree than "middle" or "low" level groups, regardless of type of legal regulatory environment. Also, "high" level firms were found to use human sources to a significantly greater degree than did lower level groups. Empirical evidence supporting Miles and Snow's (1978) proposition that "high" level entrepreneurial firms (prospectors) monitor a wider range of environmental conditions when compared to "low" level (defender) firms was presented. The results also confirmed that market and technological environments were scanned most often. Finally, the results added to the construct validity of the ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Schafer, D. Sue
Partner: UNT Libraries

Influence of Significant Other and Locus of Control Dimensions on Women Entrepreneur Business Outcomes

Description: The personality characteristic locus of control internality is widely-accepted as a trait possessed by women entrepreneurs. Recent research also suggests the presence of a coexisting attribute of similar strength, characterized as influence of a significant other. The presence of one personality characteristic implying perception of self-directed capability, together with indication of need for external assistance, poses a theoretical paradox. The study's purpose was to determine the nature and extent of direct and interactive effects which these and related variables had on entrepreneur return on investment. It was hypothesized that dimensions of significant other, as operationalized for this research, would support internality of locus of control and also modify constraining effects of educational and experiential disadvantage which the literature cites as pertinent to women entrepreneurs. This was nonexperimental, exploratory research of correlational cross-sectional design which examined hypothesized variable linkages. A convenience sample from a women's entrepreneur networking group was surveyed. Significant other elements were derived from factor analysis, resulting in four common dimensions. These factors, together with Rotter's Locus of Control instrument scores, reports on levels of education and experience, and hypothesized interactions, were independent variables. Hierarchial multiple regression was used to test a proposed path model. Two interpretable four-factor solutions derived from significant other variables were tested in two models. Although neither model attained overall significance, individual variables were directionally as hypothesized, and locus of control and certain factoral dimensions attained bivariate significance. Significant other factors appear to influence locus of control through statistical suppression as they interact with other variables. Results point toward a possibility that significant others who most affect female entrepreneur performance are those who give specific advice and aid, rather than moral support. Further research to explore what seems a strong relationship between return on investment and locus of control internality is recommended.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Nelson, George W. (George William), 1938-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Manager as a Source of Departmental Power in a Manufacturing Company

Description: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between position-related sources of power and person-related sources of power in organizations. The subject is the power of an organizational sub-unit compared to other units. Theory on the structural sources of power is well established in the literature. The question in this study is whether the individual manager, the person, is another major source of power for the organizational unit. A major objective of the study is to fill this gap in the literature on power in organizations. A secondary objective of this study is to see if one can rank the individual position-related sources of power and person-related sources of power, identified through a literature review, within each group in terms of their relative importance. The type of this study is exploratory. It is a descriptive study explaining the "what is" about the relationship between position and person sources of power in a manufacturing company. Results indicate that there is a two-way relationship between manager power and department power, and that one can rank order the sources of power in terms of their contribution to a department's or manager's power. Power is defined in this study as the ability to get things done.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Nasif, Ercan G. (Ercan Gultekin)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Application of the Materials Management Concept to the Hospital Purchasing Organization

Description: Hospitals have increasingly come under close public scrutiny in the last several years because of the constantly escalating price of health care in the United States. It has been estimated that approximately 30 per cent of a typical hospital's operational budget is devoted to purchasing consumables plus the cost of materials support. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare materials management practices of selected individual hospitals in Texas Health Services Area 5 in order to determine the extent and manner in which they utilize the materials management concept. In addition, the investigation focuses on determining if there are any relationships between the variables of type of ownership, size and the extent to which the study hospitals utilize the materials management concept.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Vassar, John
Partner: UNT Libraries