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Effects of Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Satisfaction on Mall Consumption

Description: The modern consumer expects a consumption experience with both hedonic and utilitarian rewards during a single visit to the mall. The orchestrating of both hedonic and utilitarian benefits in one visit challenges mall management and retailers to deliver the maximum shopping experience. This study seeks to reveal relationships among six variables: demographic characteristics, mall shopping orientation, mall perception, hedonic satisfaction, utilitarian satisfaction, and mall consumption. The intercept survey was conducted at a major entertainment-themed mall in north Texas. Multiple regression analyses (N = 202) indicate that demographic characteristics and mall shopping orientation were significant predictors of mall perception. Also, two mall perception factors (Sensation and Physical Environment) were predictors of hedonic and utilitarian mall shopping satisfaction. However, hedonic and utilitarian mall shopping satisfaction were found not to predict mall consumption in terms of cross-shopping, money spent, and time spent.
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Date: August 2002
Creator: Buhrman, Tiffany
Partner: UNT Libraries

Transformation of Relational Social Capital to Purchase Intention in Virtual Engagements at QQ China

Description: QQ China features interactive and connective online channels that generate social relational resources, encourage individual engagement, and facilitate embedded economic potential. The objectives of this research are to describe QQ users’ demographics and virtual behavior characteristics, to identify the underlying dimensions of relational social capital and virtual engagement, and to investigate the impacts of social capital and virtual engagement on purchase intention. Results from an analysis of data (n = 216) from China reveal the significant impacts of relational social capital and virtual engagement on purchase intention. First, functional purchase motivations, channel usage, and purchasing behaviors are captured to portray characteristics among QQ’s users. Second, trust, identification, and norm of reciprocity are primary antecedents to predict purchase intention in QQ. Third, three dimensions of relational social capital facilitate QQ users’ virtual engagements. Finally, information seeking and knowledge creation leads to product purchase intention.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Huang, Ran
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploring Sustainability VALS: Sustainability Value, Lifestyle Practices and Stewardship

Description: Living sustainability is a set of behaviors for the long-term functioning of society. Sustainability VALS provides the clothing and textiles industry distinctive insight into comprehending the phenomenon through the application of the appropriate theoretical platform. The objectives are to identify the dimensionality of sustainability value, sustainability practices and sustainability stewardship in consumers’ perceptive, and to examine the impacts of sustainability value and stewardship on sustainability practices. Analyzing data (n = 239) from a southwestern university reveals the critical dimensions of sustainability lifestyle practices, sustainability value and sustainability stewardship. 62 out of 64 hypotheses were confirmed the significant impacts of sustainability values and stewardship on sustainability lifestyle practices. The findings revealed that the altruistic, openness to change, anthropocentrism, and ecocentrism values are influential sustainability values affecting on sustainability lifestyle practices. Given the theoretical perspective of sustainability VALS, sustainability stewardships can facilitate the holistic idea to incur consumer’s sustainability lifestyle practices.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Lee, Stacy Hyun-Nam
Partner: UNT Libraries

Multi-Channel Retailing: Function of Consumers' Perceived Benefits and Costs and Retail Synergy

Description: This study investigated the consumers' intention towards multi-channel shopping and the function of synergy in a multi-channel retailing format (i.e., brick-and-mortar stores, catalogs, and the Internet). Two questionnaires were developed, one for the multi-channel consumers and the other for the multi-channel retailers. The structural equation modeling was used to predict the effect of shopping benefits and costs perceived from each channel on the consumer's purchase intention. Data analysis (N = 500) indicated that the purchase intentions were affected by different shopping benefit and cost variables. Qualitative analysis of retailers (N= 10) revealed that the retailers considered synergy to be an important part of their multi-channels. Also, there existed a high level of synergy among the existing three retail channels.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Pookulangara, Sanjukta Arun
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Perception of Western Wear Status Symbols Among Western Wear Consumers

Description: This study determined whether an association exists between the perception of western wear status symbols and demographic characteristics {i.e., gender, age, income, and education level) among Texas American Paint Horse Association members.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Lindsey, Julie E. (Julie Elizabeth)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fashion-brand Experiences in Multi-channel Retailing: Impacts of Experience Dimensions and Experience Types on Brand Resonance

Description: The brand behind the garment is what gives the product popularity, relevance to the consumer, and overall profitability. As time passes, markets are becoming flooded with more brands that inherently provide the commodities. As a result, fashion marketers must put more time and investment into stipulating ways for which their brand can reach a select target consumer and enhance repeat purchase intentions with their competitive differentiations. As their efforts engage, an experiential perspective emerges in the fashion industry. By comparing fashion brands and their different distribution channels, the objectives of this study are to identify consumers’ perceptions of fashion brand experience dimensions and experience types, and to investigate the effect of brand experience dimensions and types on brand resonance. Upon extending Schmitt and Brakus, Schmitt, and Zarantonello’s experience dimensions and types, in conjunction with Keller’s brand resonance model, 12 out of 20 hypotheses confirm the significant impact of consumers experiences on brand resonance by analyzing the data (n = 374) from a university in the United States. Sensory and affective experiences are primary factors for establishing fashion brand association, while cognitive and relational driven experiences lead to establishing fashion brand loyalty. Sensory, affective, and relational experiences affect both product and store type experiences, while only product experience affects brand resonance. With the depiction of different brand effects, this study concludes that while Forever 21 may focus on relational experiences with the consumer, Gap utilizes positive cognitive experiences to develop a link to brand loyalty and fashion product reliability.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Evans, Leslie J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Consumer Shopping Motivations on Online Auction Behaviors: An Investigation of Searching, Bidding, Purchasing, and Selling

Description: The purposes of the study were to: 1) identify the underlying dimensions of consumer shopping motivations and attitudes toward online auction behaviors; 2) examine the relationships between shopping motivations and online auction behaviors; and 3) examine the relationships between shopping attitudes and online auction behaviors. Students (N = 341) enrolled at the University of North Texas completed self-administered questionnaires measuring shopping motivations, attitudes, online auction behaviors, and demographic characteristics. Using multiple regression analyses to test the hypothesized relationships, shopping motivations and shopping attitudes were significantly related to online auction behaviors. Understanding the relationships is beneficial for companies that seek to retain customers and increase their sales through online auction.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Jeon, Sua
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Interactivity and Online Store Atmospherics of a 3-D Retail Store in Second Life on Consumer Purchase Intentions

Description: Second Life, a 3-D virtual world, has evolved as a shopping channel for both consumers and retailers. This channel of retailing offers interactive environment, allows designing atmospherics, and provides enjoyable shopping experience as compared to website stores. The purpose of the study was: (1) to identify the key features of Second Life stores and (2) to determine the relationship of the Second Life store features with consumer purchase intentions. The online survey was administered in Second Life by an external research agency, and 249 usable surveys were collected. The data were analyzed utilizing factor analysis and regression. Three key features of Second Life stores were explored in this study. These three features were: (1) interactivity via the two components of two-way communication and active control, (2) store atmospherics, and (3) shopping enjoyment. Regression analysis showed that shopping enjoyment and two-way communication (i.e., the presence of an avatar sales representative) were significant predictors of purchase intention in Second Life stores, while active control and store atmospherics did not influence purchase intentions.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Thombre, Avantika
Partner: UNT Libraries

You are what you wear: The examination of fashion leadership and general leadership among African American and Caucasian American college students.

Description: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study compared fashion personality characteristics and shopping behaviors of African-American and Caucasian-American college students. Secondly, this study examined characteristics of leadership in general, and fashion leadership specifically, on fashion personality characteristics. The fashion personality characteristics studied included fashion leadership, fashion involvement, shopping enjoyment, and fashion consciousness. The participants consisted of 268 African Americans and 239 Caucasian Americans from two universities in the United States. Ethnicity was found to be an influence on fashion personality characteristics and shopping behaviors in this study. African Americans in the sample were found to have higher levels of fashion personality characteristics and shopping behaviors than Caucasian Americans. Fashion leadership was found to be positively related to general leadership, fashion involvement, shopping enjoyment and fashion consciousness. General leadership was found to be positively related to fashion involvement, shopping enjoyment, fashion consciousness, academic classification level. However, there was no significant difference found between general leadership and age.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Angelo, Davette
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impacts of Blogging Motivation and Flow on Blogging Behavior

Description: With the development of free and easy-to-use software programs, blogging has helped turn Web consumers into Web content providers. Blogging provides distinctive insight into comprehending e-consumer behavior explicitly with respect to social networking and information searching behaviors while facilitating a state of flow. The objectives of this study are to identify determinant dimensions of blogging motivations and flow, and to investigate the hypothesized relationships of the motivational blogging behavior. Analyzing data (n = 432) from a southwestern university, results reveal the critical dimensions of motivations, behaviors, and flow in blogging. Upon extending Hoffman and Novak's (1996) flow model, 14 out of 26 hypotheses were confirmed regarding the significant impacts of blogging motivations and flow on blogging behaviors. The findings revealed that the desire for information, enjoyment, and loyalty are the primary drivers for experiential blogging behavior. Specifically, information-seeking is the decisive motivation to urge experiential and e-shopping behavior concurrently. This study shows that indulgence and telepresence in flow might play pivotal mediating roles to promote the goal-oriented e-shopping behavior resulting enjoyment and loyalty-seeking motivations.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Park, Boram
Partner: UNT Libraries

Generation Y Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising: Impacts of Modality and Culture

Description: Mobile phone usage has grown rapidly and is widely used as an advertising channel. Both short message service (SMS) and multimedia messaging service (MMS) are typically used for mobile advertising. The goals of this study are to examine the determinants of attitudes toward mobile advertising in an apparel context and subsequent impact on behavior intention and to investigate the effects of modality and culture on attitudes toward apparel mobile advertising. Results indicate that entertainment, informativeness, irritation, and credibility are determinants of attitudes toward apparel mobile advertising, and attitudes can explain behavioral intention at least in part. Perceived entertainment is different between SMS and MMS apparel mobile advertising, and perceived entertainment, informativeness, irritation, and credibility are different between U.S. and Korea participants.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Koo, Wanmo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Examining the Effects of Psychographics, Demographics, and Geographics on Time-Related Shopping Behaviors

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of psychographic (shopping orientation, lifestyle, social class), demographic (gender, ethnicity, age), and geographic (area of residence) variables on time-related shopping behaviors when shopping for clothing for the self. The concept of time-related shopping behaviors has not been the focus of any study of the American market. Data (N = 550) were collected via a questionnaire with an online survey company. Through analysis of chi square statistics, ANOVA, Pearson product-moment correlation, and factor analysis, it was found that psychographics and demographics affected time-related and other shopping behaviors. Geographics was found to affect shopping behavior, but not specifically the time-related shopping behaviors studied.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Garnett, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries

Environmentally-friendly purchase intentions: Debunking the misconception behind apathetic consumer attitudes.

Description: By measuring intentions to purchase, this research gives insight into environmental attitudes, pressures to purchase environmentally friendly apparel, factors that inhibit environmentally friendly apparel purchasing, awareness of environmentally friendly apparel purchase options, and marketing insight into the eco-friendly consumer. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to assess consumer purchasing intentions for environmentally friendly apparel. The TPB consists of a three-pronged measurement: individual attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Individual attitudes were gauged on three dimensions which included environmental attitudes, demographic patterns, and environmentally friendly apparel purchase intentions. Subjective norms involve social pressure to engage in eco-friendly behavior, perceived individual environmental impact, and desire for uniqueness in dress. Finally, perceived behavioral control was studied through previous environmentally friendly apparel purchases, accessibility of environmentally friendly apparel purchase options, and cost of environmentally friendly apparel. The results revealed that individual environmental attitudes, social pressure to behave environmentally friendly, perceived individual environmental impact, desire for uniqueness in dress, past environmentally friendly apparel purchases, accessibility of environmentally friendly apparel purchase options, and cost of environmentally friendly apparel all have an impact on intentions to purchase environmentally friendly apparel. The variable with the strongest relationship to intentions was social pressure. A demographic profile of intent to purchase environmentally friendly apparel, however, was not possible with this sample. This indicates there is not specifically one type of person who purchases environmentally friendly apparel.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Umberson, Kirsten
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploring the Impacts of Fashion Blog Type and Message Type on Female Consumer Response Towards the Brand

Description: The current study examines the influences of blog type and blog message type on consumers’ perceptions of brand credibility and brand similarity. Additionally, the study seeks to understand the interaction effects of blog type and message type on brand credibility and brand similarity and on consumer engagement with a blog. The findings reveal that message type, specifically product message, is an important consideration when marketers want to illustrate similarities between the brand and consumers. Additionally, it was found that product messages should be considered when encouraging consumer engagement with a blog. However, blog type did not have an effect on consumer perceptions of brand credibility and similarity or consumer engagement.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Melton, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries

Facebook Marketing for Fashion Apparel Brands: Effect of Other Consumer Postings and Type of Brand Comment on Brand Trust and Purchase Intention

Description: Social networking sites are a major networking tool for consumer interactions as they provide a platform for communication, socialization, and learning activity. Subsequently, social media has become an important marketing tool for advertising companies’ messages. As a result, fashion brands such as H&M and Victoria’s Secret started to show more brand ads on Facebook. Facebook is one of the most powerful social networking sties due to its ability to reach to broad consumer groups through a brand page. However, research regarding this topic is limited as the social networking sites is relatively a new phenomenon. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine the effect of the brand’s comments in attenuating (enhancing) negative (positive) influence of other consumer’s postings on brand trust and purchase intention of other consumer’s postings on social media. Findings from this study revealed that there is no moderating effect of brand comments of the relationship between other consumer’s postings and brand trust, while positive other consumer’s postings has a significant effect on consumers’ brand trust. Also, there were no significant differences among other consumer’s postings, brand comments and purchase intention relationships. These findings add to the previous literature explains that brand should interact with consumers frequently in order to induce positive other consumer’s postings to develop brand trust. By using the consumer socialization theory to investigate Facebook marketing, this study provides insights and information on consumer attitudes and behaviors related to Facebook brand page.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Jung, Yeo Jin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Examining E-loyalty Model in Social Shopping Websites: the Impact of Social Shopping Website Quality on E-loyalty Formation

Description: The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of customer e-loyalty to a social shopping website. The formation of customer e-loyalty to a social shopping website is examined based on cognitive-affective-conative-action loyalty framework. This study proposes that customer e-loyalty is strongly associated with website quality, e-satisfaction and participation. Seven website attributes (i.e., visual aesthetics, navigation, efficiency, user friendliness, security/privacy, entertainment and community driveness) identified in previous research are employed to measure website quality that affects e-loyalty formation. There are 449 data collected from a southwestern university in the U.S., but only the responses from 333 Pinterest users are used to test the hypotheses. Exploratory factor analysis is used to identify dimensionality of social shopping website attributes, and multiple regression and linear regression analysis are conducted to test hypotheses in this study. Results of the study indicate that five significant factors including efficiency, user friendliness, security/privacy, entertainment and community driveness are directly associated with customer e-loyalty. Indeed, such website quality factors as the determinant of cognitive e-loyalty directly affect overall customer satisfaction (affective e-loyalty), customer purchase/return intention to the website (conative e-loyalty), and customer participation, positive eWOM and co-shopping (action e-loyalty). The findings of this study have provided evidence that social shopping website quality dimensions are directly associated with customer e-loyalty to the website. Also, the findings have shown important implications to ensure quality website attributes to increase customer loyalty to a social shopping website.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Li, Xiaoshu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Facebook Brand Page: an Exploratory Study of Facebook Brand Page Attributes and Their Influence on Purchase Intentions

Description: This study explored attributes of a Facebook brand page (FBP). Seven variables were derived from the framework and applied to FBPs. The goals of this research were to discover which attributes contribute to a successful FBP, determine which attributes increase purchase intentions, and help marketers determine where to focus their efforts. A total of 421 surveys were gathered from men and women ages 18 and older. The methods of this research included factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results yielded two loading factors for the trustworthiness variable and supported hypotheses of trustworthiness increasing purchase intentions. It was also discovered that participation positively influences purchase intentions. It is advised that information content be monitored to avoid information overload.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Karam, Marian T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Examining the Effects of Apparel Attributes on Perceived Copyright Infringement and the Relationship Between Perceived Risks and Purchase Intention of Knockoff Fashion

Description: The growth of fast fashion retailers, availability of knockoff fashion apparel, and proposed apparel copyright law prompted this study. Fast fashion retailers are expanding rapidly and producing knockoffs fashion apparel in a matter of weeks, but current U.S. copyright laws do not protect apparel. The primary purpose of this study was to identify prominent visual fashion apparel attributes that could determine perceived copyright infringement. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of fashion apparel attributes on perceived copyright infringement, perceived risk, and purchase intention. A sequential exploratory mixed method approach was used to explore the relationship between: Attributes, perceived copyright infringement, perceived risk, and purchase intention. This study consisted of a: Study one, study two, and study three. Twelve hypotheses were proposed, and five were supported. Quality significantly affected both perceived copyright infringement and purchase intention. Performance, social, and asset significantly affected purchase intention of knockoff fashion apparel.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Chaykowsky, Kelly
Partner: UNT Libraries

Using the S-o-r Model to Understand the Impact of Website Attributes on the Online Shopping Experience

Description: Using Mehrabian and Russell’s (1974) stimulus (S) - organism (O) - response (R) model, this study developed online shopping experience framework that explains consumer behavioral responses toward online and offline stores. The results of the examined hypothesized relationships in this study reveal website attributes that create positive affective and attitudinal states and behavioral responses toward the retailers and retailers’ websites. Among website attributes, interface design is the strongest predictor of all behavioral responses, while website attributes relating to shopping services and security/privacy affect long term behavioral responses, such as purchase intention and brand loyalty. This study is imperative to practitioners and researchers, as they will help further develop online store environments and online shopping experience.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Zimmerman, Jonelle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluating the Role of Design in the Apparel Industry in the United States

Description: The purpose of this study was to better understand the role of design in the product development process in the apparel industry in the United States, looking for variations in how design is used in the industry. In order to obtain a snapshot of the fashion design industry, creativity, originality, innovation, and product development were examined, as well as corporate culture and strategic orientation. The study also sought to examine pedagogical strategies based on these findings. A mixed methods approach, consisting of an on-line survey and interviews, was employed. The findings suggest variations in the role of design based on the time design-department employees spent on creative tasks. These variations were examined and industrial and pedagogical implications are explored. The significance of this study relates to the findings of the importance of creativity in the product development process of the apparel industry in the United States, as well as considerations for pedagogical strategies.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Beard, Diana
Partner: UNT Libraries

Consumer Compulsive Buying and Hoarding in a World of Fast Fashion

Description: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the relationships between social media, fashion interest and fast fashion involvement and whether these psychographic variables affect propensity for compulsive clothing buying and (2) to determine whether a relationship exists between compulsive buying and propensity toward hoarding. Data was collected through consumer panel from Qualtrix. Screener questions ensured that all respondents were adult females with an interest in fashion. Responses yielded 232 usable surveys, which were analyzed using SPSS software. Social media was found to be positively related to fashion interest, fast fashion involvement, and compulsive clothing buying. Compulsive clothing buying was found to be positively related to all three compulsive clothes hoarding symptoms: clothing clutter disorganization, clothing acquisition, and difficulty discarding clothing.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Higgins, Kathleen M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determinants and Impacts of Pinterest Consumer Experiences

Description: Pinterest is one of the fastest growing social networking sites and is attracting the interest of retailers as an effective way to interact with consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine: 1) determinants and impacts of Pinterest consumer experiences. Specifically, this study examined the impacts of retailer reputation, trust, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness on Pinterest consumer experiences on retailer SNS. 2) To identify the impacts of Pinterest consumer experiences on consumer satisfaction, behavioral intention, and online retailer relationship. The instrument used existing scales drawn from the literature. A consumer panel (n = 300) of Pinterest users that connect to apparel retailers was used to collect data through an online consumer panel. Reputation is positively related to trust and to perceived ease of use. Perceived ease of use and usefulness significantly affected retailer Pinterest consumer experiences. The impact of Pinterest consumer experiences on satisfaction and behavior intention was positive and significant. Satisfaction and behavior intention also are significantly related to online retailer relationship. Results and business implications are discussed, as well are limitations and future research.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Vasquez, Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of Music on the Shopping Behaviors of Generation Y Consumers in a College Campus Bookstore

Description: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of background music in a retail setting on Generation Y students’ shopping behaviors by using the Mehrabian-Russell environmental psychology model. the study examined the impact of genre, volume, and song familiarity on purchase intention, as well as whether these musical factors would produce a change in mood. the influence of involvement with shopping on in-store music was also examined. a total of 251 students completed pre- and post-shopping surveys at the University of North Texas’ Follett Bookstore. Participants were all between 18 and 35 years of age (Generation Y). the surveys aimed to capture the participants’ entry and exit mood as well as information such as level of shopping involvement and intentions, musical awareness, overall shopping experience, and basic demographics. a positive mood change was found between entry and exit among those who were somewhat familiar and not at all familiar with the music, and entry mood affected overall shopping experience. There was a positive correlation between exit mood and the overall experience, and a negative correlation between exit mood and the amount of money spent.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Turner, Lindsey Jean
Partner: UNT Libraries

Consumer Shopping Motivations with Facebook Retailers: Utilitarian Versus Hedonic

Description: Retailers increasingly are connecting with consumers using social media. This two-way, networked communication method facilitates word-of-mouth that may ultimately impact retailer loyalty. The purpose of this study was to examine motivations of consumers’ purchase intention from apparel Facebook retailers, and the relationship between purchase intention and loyalty. Consumer motivations were examined in terms of the utilitarian values of cost, convenience, and information and the hedonic values of experiential shopping, bargain perception, sociability, and curiosity. The relationship of purchase intention and loyalty also was investigated. The instrument was developed from existing scales drawn from literature. A consumer panel (N = 250) of Facebook users that connect to apparel retailers was used to collect data through an online Qualtrics survey. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics of frequency and crosstab distributions, factor analysis, and regression analysis. Factor analysis resulted in four dimensions including convenience, information, experience, and bargains. All motivators were found to be significantly related to both purchase intention and loyalty for this consumer group. The variable with the strongest relationship to both purchase intention and loyalty was experience. Additionally, a strong relationship was found between purchase intention and loyalty. Lastly, practical business implications are reviewed, in addition to limitations of the study.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Anderson, Kelley B.
Partner: UNT Libraries