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Cyclic Polarization of AA 3102 in Corrosive Electrolytes Containing Sodium Chloride and Ammonium Sulfate

Description: Corrosion of all aluminum microchannel heat exchangers present a challenge in automotive and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) industries. Reproducibility of Salt Water Acetic Acid Test (SWAAT) has been questioned and a need to new corrosion tests with better reproducibility has risen. Cyclic polarization, that is an electrochemical test, was explored for its suitability for the assessment of AA 3102 tube material that is currently a popular aluminum alloy used in manufacturing of heat exchanger. Corrosive electrolytes containing 3.5 % sodium chloride with 0.5 % ammonium sulfate (high chloride) or 0.5 % sodium chloride with 3.5 % ammonium sulfate (high sulfate) at their pH or acidic (pH=4) were used to measure corrosion potential (Ecorr), protection potential (Epp), pitting potential (Epit), Tafel constants (βa and βc), corrosion rate (mpy). Corrosive electrolyte used in SWAAT test (4.2% Sea Salt at pH 2.9) was also used to compare corrosion resistance of AA 3102 in SWAAT electrolyte compared to the other electrolytes used in this research. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe and document sample surface corrosion damage after each electrochemical test on all samples. Results of the cyclic polarization tests indicated that SWAAT electrolytes was the most aggressive electrolyte resulting in highest corrosion rates compared to all other electrolytes used in this investigation. SEM results indicated AA 3102 alloy exhibited higher pitting tendency in electrolytes with high sodium chloride whereas high sulfate electrolytes cause appearance of uniform corrosion surface damage on this alloy. Both high sulfate and SWAAT electrolytes showed intergranular corrosion but high chloride electrolyte showed severe pitting of AA 3102. Mohammad Navid Dorreyatim- Cyclic Polarization of AA 3102 in Corrosive Electrolytes Containing Sodium Chloride and Ammonium Sulfate. Master of Science (Mechanical and Energy Engineering), December 2016, 98 pp., references, 31 titles.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Dorreyatim, Mohammad
Partner: UNT Libraries

Study of Mechanical Performance of Stent Implants Using Theoretical and Numerical Approach

Description: The coronary heart disease kills more than 350,000 persons/year and it costs $108.9 billion for the United States each year, in spite of significant advancements in clinical care and education for public, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading cause of death and disability to the nation. A cardiovascular disease involves mainly heart or blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) or both, and then mainly occurs in selected regions and affects heart, brain, kidney and peripheral arteries. As a surgical interventions, stent implantation is deployed to cure or ameliorate the disease. However, the high failure rate of stents used in patients with peripheral artery diseases has lead researchers to give special attention towards analyzing stent structure and characteristics. In this research, the mechanical properties of a stent based on the rhombus structure were analyzed and verified by means of analytical and numerical approaches. Theoretical model based on the beam theory were developed and numerical models were used to analyze the response of these structures under various and complex loading conditions. Moreover, the analysis of the stent inflation involves a model with large deformations and large strains, nonlinear material properties need to be considered to accurately capture the deformation process. The maximum stress values were found to occur in localized regions of the stent. These regions were generally found along the inner radii of each of the connected links connecting each of the longitudinal struts. Stress values throughout the whole stent were typically much lower. The peak engineering stress values were found to be less than the material ultimate strength (limit stress 515Mpa), indicating a safe stent design throughout expansion range. Lastly, the rheological behavior of blood can be quantified by non-Newtonian viscosity. Carreau model is introduced and simulates the situation in the artery, then the available shear stress in the model would ...
Date: August 2015
Creator: Yang, Hua
Partner: UNT Libraries

Quantification of Anthropogenic and Natural Sources of Fine Particles in Houston, Texas Using Positive Matrix Factorization

Description: Texas, due to its geographical area, population, and economy is home to a variety of industrialized areas that have significant air quality problems. These urban areas are affected by elevated levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify local and regional sources of air pollution affecting the city of Houston, Texas. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) techniques were applied to observational datasets from two urban air quality monitoring sites in Houston from 2003 through 2008 in order to apportion sources of pollutants affecting the study region. Data from 68 species for Aldine and 91 for Deer Park were collected, evaluated, and revised to create concentration and uncertainty input files for the PMF2 and EPA PMF (PMF3) source apportionment models. A 11-sources solution for Aldine and 10-sources for Deer Park were identified as the optimal solutions with both models. The dominant contributors of fine particulate matter in these sites were found to be biomass burnings (2%-8.9%), secondary sulfates I (21.3%-7.6%) and II (38.8%-22.2%), crustal dust (8.9%-10.9%), industrial activities (10.9%-4.2%), traffic (23.1%-15.6%), secondary nitrates (4.4%-5.5%), fresh (1%-1.6%) and aged(5.1%-4.6%) sea salt and refineries (1.3%-0.6%), representing a strong case to confirm the high influence of local activities from the industrial area and the ship channel around the Houston channel. Additionally, potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) analyses were performed to identify local and regional source-rich areas affecting this urban airshed during the study period. Similarly, seasonal variations and patterns of the apportioned sources were also studied in detail.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Peña Sanchez, Carlos Alberto
Partner: UNT Libraries

Tesla Turbine Torque Modeling for Construction of a Dynamometer and Turbine

Description: While conventional turbines have been extensively researched and tested, Tesla and boundary layer type turbines have not. In order to construct a dynamometer, thermodynamic flow apparatus and future turbines, we modeled the Tesla turbine using theoretical calculations and preliminary experiments. Thus a series of experiments were run to determine stall torque and maximum run speed for a known pressure range. This data was then applied to modeling formulas to estimate stall torque over an extended range of variables. The data were then used to design an appropriate dynamometer and airflow experiment. The model data also served to estimate various specifications and power output of the future turbine. An Obi Laser SSTG‐001 Tesla turbine was used in the experiments described. Experimental stall torque measurements were conducted in two stages. Shaft speed measurements were taken with an optical laser tachometer and Tesla turbine stall torque was measured using a spring force gauge. Two methods were chosen to model Tesla turbine stall torque: 1) flow over flat plate and 2) free vortex with a sink. A functional dynamometer and thermodynamic apparatus were constructed once the model was confirmed to be within the experimental uncertainty. Results of the experiments show that the experimental turbine at 65 PSI has a speed of approximately 27,000 RPM and a measured stall torque of 0.1279 N‐m. 65 PSI is an important data point because that data set is the cut‐off from laminar to turbulent flow. Thus at 65 PSI, a rejection of the null hypothesis for research question one with respect to the flow over flat plate method can be seen from the data, while the vortex model results in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. In conclusion, the experimental turbine was seen to have a laminar and a turbulent flow regime at different air pressures, rather ...
Date: May 2011
Creator: Emran, Tamir Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design of Bioinspired Conductive Smart Textile

Description: Electrically conductive fabrics are one of the major components of smart textile that attracts a lot of attention by the energy, medical, sports and military industry. The principal contributors to the conductivity of the smart textiles are the intrinsic properties of the fiber, functionalization by the addition of conductive particles and the architecture of fibers. In this study, intrinsic properties of non-woven carbon fabric derived from a novel linear lignin, poly-(caffeyl alcohol) (PCFA) discovered in the seeds of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia) was investigated. In contrast to all known lignins which comprise of polyaromatic networks, the PCFA lignin is a linear polymer. The non-woven fabric was prepared using electrospinning technique, which follows by stabilization and carbonization steps. Results from Raman spectroscopy indicate higher graphitic structure for PCFA carbon as compared to the Kraft lignin, as seen from G/D ratios of 1.92 vs 1.15 which was supported by a high percentage of graphitic (C-C) bond observed from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, from the XRD and TEM a larger crystal size (Lc=12.2 nm) for the PCFA fiber was obtained which correlates to the higher modulus and conductivity of the fiber. These plant-sourced carbon fabrics have a valuable impact on zero carbon footprint materials. In order to improve the strength and flexibility of the non-woven carbon fabric, lignin was blended with the synthetic polymer Poly acrylonitrile (PAN) in different concertation, resulting in electrical conductivity up to (7.7 S/cm) on blend composition which is enough for sensing and EMI shielding applications. Next, the design of experiments approach was used to identify the contribution of the carbonization parameters on the conductivity of the fabrics and architecture of the fibers, results show carbonization temperature as the major contributing factor to the conductivity of non-woven fabric. Finally, a manufacturing procedure was develop inspired by the ...
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Rizvi, Syed Hussain Raza
Partner: UNT Libraries