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Virtual Entrepreneurship: Explicating the Antecedents of Firm Performance

Description: Prior research has examined entrepreneurial businesses spatially located in the physical or offline context; however, recent radical information and technological breakthroughs allow entrepreneurs to launch their businesses completely online. The growth of the online business industry has been phenomenal. Predictions for worldwide online sales estimate it to reach $2 trillion in 2016. Virtual entrepreneurship refers to the pursuit and exploitation of opportunities via virtual platforms. Web 2.0 cybermediaries offer web-based platforms that function similarly to traditional intermediaries in a virtual setting and minimize barriers to entry for virtual entrepreneurial firms. The use of such cybermediaries with increasing success suggests an implicit shift in the dominant logic that typically underpins the functioning of entrepreneurial firms operating in the physical world. In this relatively uncharted territory, marked by a focus on profit, cooperation, collaboration and community, three ideal-type institutional logics i.e. Market, Corporation and Community, blend together. It is posited that a Virtual Entrepreneurial Logic guides the norms, behaviors, and practices of entrepreneurial firms operating via these virtual platforms. This raises the question whether the blending of three ideal-type logics leads to the existence of different antecedents of performance. A business model antecedent addressing the economic dimension, a community antecedent addressing the community dimension and a co-creation antecedent addressing the collaborative dimension of the Virtual Entrepreneurial Logic were therefore empirically examined in this study. Thus, three research questions were investigated to explicate the antecedents. Primary data from 1396 virtual entrepreneurial firms was collected (business model antecedent n=366, community antecedent n=732 and co-creation antecedent n= 298) to test the proposed hypotheses. Results provided support for the three antecedents. This study makes important theoretical and practical contributions to understanding the domain of virtual entrepreneurship from a blended logics perspective. Using the theoretical lens provided by institutional logics helps shed light on the pivotal role ...
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Chandna, Vallari
Partner: UNT Libraries

Incumbent Response to Radical Technological Innovation: the Influence of Competitive Dynamics on Strategic Choice

Description: Prior research on incumbent firm response to radical technological innovation identifies firm, technology, and environmental factors associated with incumbents’ performance after a technology shift. What remains unexplored are factors affecting choice of response made before a technological shift occurs. Such ex ante choices are important intermediate outcomes affecting long-term performance outcomes. Competitive considerations may be influential inputs in choice processes because technological innovation is often related to competitive strategy. The resulting research question for this study is: What role do competitive considerations play in incumbent firms’ ex ante strategic choices in response to potentially radical technological innovations? Findings from a survey of key informants in the electronics industry whose firms face a potential technological disruption (n=120) suggest that incumbents’ response choices are affected by competitor-related orientations and by perceptions of relative strength of their strategic assets. Limited support is found for a moderating effect of perceptions of the competitive environment. The results of this study extend theory on incumbent response to radical technological change by shedding light on the influence of competitor interdependence. Findings also suggest the importance of strategic choice as an intermediate variable in understanding incumbents’ long-term performance. Research examining choice factors at varied stages of a technology’s diffusion can further advance understanding of the evolving nature of strategic response choices and the effects they have on long-term performance.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Carter, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Unethical Prosocial Behavior: Theory Development and Experimental Findings

Description: Job performance has historically been divided into two subsets, that which is prescribed and that which is discretionary. Further, discretionary workplace behavior has typically been described as either helpful or ethical (i.e. organizational citizenship behavior) or harmful and unethical (i.e. workplace deviance behavior) with behavior that is both helpful and unethical rarely discussed. I term this lesser discussed type of discretionary workplace behavior unethical prosocial behavior and define it as discretionary actions that are intended to benefit a specific referent outside the self, either an individual or a group, that are illegal and/or morally inappropriate to larger society. In addition to defining unethical prosocial behavior, this paper places the behavior in an organizing framework of discretionary workplace behaviors and tests several hypotheses regarding unethical prosocial behavior. The hypotheses address three primary research questions. First, are there contextual conditions that make it more likely that a person will engage in unethical prosocial behavior? Second, does the nature of the relationship between the actor and the beneficiary make unethical prosocial behavior more or less likely? And third, are there individual characteristics that serve to either constrain or enhance the likelihood that and individual will engage in unethical prosocial behavior? A 2 x 2 experimental design was used to test these hypotheses. As expected, in-group (vs. out-group) salience increased the likelihood of UPB. Individuals in the in-group condition engaged in significantly greater UPBs than those in the out-group condition. Contrary to expectations, shared reward (vs. no reward) decreased the likelihood of UPB. Individuals who were due a reward engaged less in UPBs than those who were not due a reward. Possible explanations for this relationship (both methodological and theoretical) are explored. While the overall effect of reward structure on UPB was in the opposite direction from that which was expected, propensity to morally ...
Date: August 2015
Creator: Herchen, Julia L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An investigation of the relationships between job characteristics, satisfaction, and team commitment as influenced by organization-based self-esteem within a team-based environment

Description: Team-based management is a popular contemporary method of redesigning jobs in order to more effectively utilize the human potential of employees. The use of such management techniques should result in increased satisfaction and team commitment; however, many research studies have failed to demonstrate increases in affective outcomes on the part of the employee. The research question examined in this study is, "What specific job dimensions and situational factors result in higher levels of satisfaction and team commitment?" The Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham, 1975) provided a basis for this study. The model was designed for individual contributors and has not been extensively used in team research. As expected it was found that within a team-based environment higher levels of the five core job dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job feedback were associated with increased satisfaction and team commitment. Organization-based self-esteem was found to mediate the relationship between the five core job dimensions and the affective outcome variables. Contrary to expectations, however, it was found that consultative team members experienced higher levels of satisfaction and commitment than substantive team members. In addition, consultative team members reported higher levels of two core job dimensions, skill variety and task significance, and on the overall Job Diagnostic Survey than did substantive team members. These findings have significant implications for companies undergoing organizational redesign and questions whether those companies should implement advanced levels of employee involvement activities if the organizational goal is to increase satisfaction and commitment. The study employed a survey research design in which data was collected using a self-report questionnaire. A heterogeneous sample of 183 team members participating in either a consultative and substantive team from four different companies in nine locations provided the data for this field survey. Multivariate analyses, including hierarchial set regression, were ...
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Abbott, John B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Leader Emergence and Effectiveness in Virtual Workgroups: Dispositional and Social Identity Perspectives

Description: In today's global competitive environment, many organizations utilize virtual workgroups to overcome geographic and organizational boundaries. Research into their dynamics has received the attention of scholars within multiple disciplines, and the potential for an integrative approach to the study of virtual workgroups exists. This dissertation is a first step towards such an approach. The primary aim of this research is to examine antecedent and contextual factors that affect the emergence and effectiveness of leaders in virtual workgroups. To achieve this aim, an integrative model assembled from theory and empirical findings in leadership, management, social identity, and communications research is posited. Hypothesized relationships depicted in the model identify key dispositional and contextual variables linked to leader emergence, member behavior, and leader effectiveness within virtual workgroups. This study employed a nonexperimental research design, in which leader emergence and social identity manifest as naturally occurring phenomena. Data collection occurred via two web-based surveys administered at different points in time. Hypothesized relationships were tested utilizing correlational and hierarchical moderated multiple regression analyses. The findings of this dissertation suggest that traits, such as personality and cognitive ability, are not associated with leader emergence in virtual workgroups. In addition, the results indicate that the exhibition of relationship-oriented leader behaviors enhances group identity. In turn, identification is associated with increases in perceptions of leader effectiveness and decreases in counterproductive behavior exhibited by group members. This dissertation exposes an important limitation to the application of trait leadership theory. It also demonstrates the importance of relationship-oriented behavior and social identity in virtual contexts. Further, it advances an integrative theoretical model for the study of virtual workgroup phenomena. These contributions should assist and inform other researchers, as well as practitioners, interested in leadership and group member behavior in virtual workgroups.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Hite, Dwight M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An empirical investigation of manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance as moderated by strategic integration and organizational infrastructure.

Description: The purpose of this study is empirically investigating four research questions related to manufacturing flexibility. 1) What are the components of manufacturing flexibility? 2) Is there a relationship between manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance? 3) Do integrated strategies strengthen the relationship between manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance? 4) Are there organizational characteristics that strengthen the relationship between manufacturing flexibility and organizational performance? This study used a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from manufacturing organizations in multiple industries. Organizational performance was quantified using common manufacturing measures. Strategic integration and organizational infrastructure were also measured. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression were used to analyze the data. The results indicate the variables and expected relationships exist as hypothesized. This study contributes to the manufacturing flexibility body of knowledge by identifying relationships between the manufacturing flexibility component, performance, strategic integration, and organizational infrastructure. The instrument development in this study is of particular value as there are few rigorously developed and validated instruments to measure the manufacturing flexibility components and performance. Understanding these relationships will help practitioners make better decisions in manufacturing organizations as well as enable application of the concepts in this study to other contexts such as service organizations.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Rogers, Pamela Rose Patterson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Absorptive Capacity: An Empirical Examination of the Phenomenon and Relationships with Firm Capabilities

Description: The field of strategic management addresses challenges that firms encounter in an attempt to remain competitive. The ability to explain variation in firm success through examination of knowledge flows has become a prominent focus of research in the strategic management literature. Specifically, researchers have sought to further examine how firms convert knowledge, a phenomenon conceptualized as absorptive capacity. Absorptive capacity is the firm’s ability to acquire, assimilate, transform, and exploit knowledge. Few studies have captured the richness and multi-dimensionality of absorptive capacity, and it remains to be understood how the dimensions of the phenomenon convert knowledge. Furthermore, how absorptive capacity influences the firm remains to be understood. To address these research gaps, this dissertation seeks to (1) determine how absorptive capacity converts knowledge, and (2) determine how absorptive capacity influences firm capabilities. The research questions are investigated using structural modeling techniques to analyze data collected from software-industry firms. The findings offer contributions to the absorptive capacity and capability literatures. For example, absorptive capacity is hypothesized to consist of complex relationships among its internal dimensions. However, findings of this study suggest the relationships among the dimensions are linear in nature. This finding is in line with the theoretical foundations of and early literature on absorptive capacity but contrary to recent conceptualizations, which suggests relationships among the dimensions are more closely related to the theoretical origins of absorptive capacity. Additionally, to examine how absorptive capacity influences the firm, a capability-based perspective is used to hypothesize the influence of absorptive capacity on firm capabilities. Findings suggest absorptive capacity positively influences each dimension of firm capabilities (e.g., operational, customer, and innovation capabilities); thus, absorptive capacity influences the firm by altering firm capabilities. Given the richness of the findings, numerous fields are likely to benefit from this investigation. Through an examination of absorptive capacity and ...
Date: May 2012
Creator: Daspit, Josh
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Emotional Business: the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Entrepreneurial Success

Description: Successful entrepreneurial activity is important for a healthy economy and can be a major source of job creation. While the concept of entrepreneurship has been around for quite some time, researchers continue to explore the factors that underlie entrepreneurial performance. Specifically, researchers have sought to further examine why some entrepreneurial ventures are more successful than others. the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) has gained the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. Practitioners have realized that employees can no longer be perceived as biological machines that are capable of leaving their feelings, norms, and attitudes at home when they go to work. Researchers are embracing the concept of emotional intelligence because of its relationship with efficiency, productivity, sales, revenues, quality of service, customer loyalty, employee recruitment and retention, employee commitment, employee health and satisfaction, and morale. While there is considerable evidence documenting the effects of emotional intelligence on leadership performance, job performance in large firms, and educational performance, very little research has examined how emotional intelligence affects entrepreneurial performance and the variables that account for this relationship. Individuals in entrepreneurial occupations face business situations that necessitate unique skills and abilities in social interactions. Emotional intelligence has implications for entrepreneurial situations and social interactions such as negotiation, obtaining and organizing resources, identifying and exploiting opportunities, managing stress, obtaining and maintaining customers, and providing leadership. the primary purpose of this study is to investigate emotional intelligence in the context of entrepreneurship. in addition, the study will shed light on the mediating effects of individual competencies, organizational tasks, and the environmental culture and climate. the results of the study provide insights for emotional intelligence researchers, entrepreneurship researchers, individuals with entrepreneurial aspirations, academic institutions, as well as government and financial entities that provide resources to new ventures.
Date: May 2012
Creator: McLaughlin, Erin B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Effective Leadership in the Chinese Context

Description: Leadership has attracted a significant amount of scholarly attention in the past few decades. However, most research and theory contributions are to a great extent limited to accounting for leadership practices in the West (Littrell, 2002). This study is designed to develop an effective leadership model that works in the Chinese context. Paternalistic leadership, a dominant leadership style in an Eastern business environment, is compared with transformational leadership, a dominant leadership style in a Western business environment. The notion of transformational leadership was developed under the tutelage of Bernard Bass (1998). Transformational leadership is found to be compatible with collectivistic values (Walumbwa & Lwwler, 2003) and is believed to be appealing and generalizable to Chinese leadership situations (Chen & Farh, 1999). Other researchers have found that within Chinese organizations, leader behaviors are quite distinct from transformational leadership, referring to this leader style as paternalistic leadership (Redding, 1990; Cheng, 1995). The questions are asked, “Transformational or paternalistic leadership, which one is more effective in Chinese organizations? Is one type of leadership superior to the other one in the Chinese culture?” To answer these questions, a model is proposed to clarify the mediating effects of trust and harmony on the relationship between leadership style and its effectiveness, and to interpret the moderating effects of generation on the relationships between both paternalistic and transformational leadership with trust and harmony. Most theories of leadership in organizational behavior originated in the United States and Western Europe and are hypothesized to be universally applicable to non-Western contexts. Departing from this tradition, the current study proposes a Chinese culture-specific leadership theory, built on traditional Confucianism. The principle aim is to examine and articulate a culturally informed and warranted ground for a leadership model in the Chinese context. The results of the study provide a new perspective on ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Lau, Wai Kwan
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study in Human Resources Utilization: A Critical Examination of the Role of the Self-Concept in the Vocational Choice Process of College Students

Description: The specific problem confronted by this dissertation research is this: Do college students who are quite decided about their vocational choices have more developed and implemented self-concepts than do college students who are quite undecided about their vocational choices? If the decided students have more developed and implemented self-concepts than the undecided students, it can be logically reasoned that the developing and implementing of the self-concept is essential in the vocational choice process of college students. The purpose of this study is to resolve the problem concerning the possible self-conceptual differences between highly decided and highly undecided college students.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Davis, Jefferson Jackson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Executive Participation in Innovation as a Function of Age and Tenure

Description: This study is designed to investigate the relationship between the age and tenure of the chief executive officer of a corporation and his participation in innovation. The chief executive is assumed to be the key participant in the innovation process. Two questions form the basis of the study, Firsts, are younger chief executives more innovative than older executives? And second, does the tenure of chief executives affect performance in innovation?
Date: August 1973
Creator: Donnelly, Clifford V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modern Problems and Practices of Management as Revealed in Selected Contemporary American Novels

Description: This study is an examination of the hypothesis that selected contemporary American novels offer vivid illustrations of modern problems and practices of management as seen in business and industry. Too often, university management courses treat management processes as isolated cases in limited and static settings. Novelists, on the other hand, treat these same processes in a broader context and often deal quite subtly and perceptively with everything from the mammoth corporation to the single proprietorship. Students proposing to become businessmen, therefore, should benefit from this novelistic perspective so frequently overlooked.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Ashley, Janelle Coleman 1941-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Value of Ties: Impact of Director Interlocks on Acquisition Premium and Post-acquisition Performance

Description: Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) evolved as alternative governance structures for firms seeking to combine resources with other firms, access larger markets, or acquire strategic assets. In spite of managers’ enthusiasm about the practice, studies show mixed results regarding post-acquisition performance of acquiring firms. The impact of acquisitions on the performance of acquiring firms has therefore remained inconclusive. A few reasons for this have been suggested and recent meta-analytic research efforts indicate that studies in M&A may have ignored variables that have significant effects on post-acquisition performance. In a bid to extend the literature on M&A and identify cogent variables that impact on acquisition performance, this dissertation draws on social network theory to advance a proposition for the value-of-ties. This was done by examining the impact of directorate interlocks on acquisitions specifically and organizational strategy in general. A non-experimental cross-sectional study of 98 interlocked directorate companies simultaneously involved in acquisitions was conducted. Several multiple regression analyses were conducted and the results obtained suggest that there is a positive linear relationship between director interlocks and post-acquisition performance and that to some extent this relationship is moderated by acquisition experience. The study also showed that director interlocks have a negative linear relationship with acquisition premium. This study complements the body of knowledge on acquisitions and network theory. It also successfully combined a multi-level approach to research on organizations and strategic management.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Lawani, Uyi
Partner: UNT Libraries

When and Where Does It Pay to Be Green: Intra- and Inter-organizational Factors Influencing the Environmental/Financial Performance Link

Description: Managers are coming under increasing pressure from a wide array of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of their firms while still achieving financial performance objectives. One of the most researched questions in the business and the natural environment (B&NE) literature is whether it pays to be green. Despite more than three decades of research, scholars have been unable to clearly answer this question. The purpose of this dissertation was to attempt to identify the antecedents that lead to increased, firm-level environmental performance and the conditions in which firms are then able to profit from enhanced environmental performance. First, I assessed three intra-organizational factors of top management teams (i.e. female representation, concern for non-financial stakeholders, and risk-seeking propensity) that theory indicated are associated with increased corporate environmental performance (CEP). Theory also leads us to believe that top management teams with these attributes should perform better in dynamic settings, so I tested to see if industry dynamism moderates these relationships. Second, I then examined industry-level forces that theory indicates would moderate the relationship between CEP and corporate financial performance (CFP). These moderating forces include industry profitability, industry dynamism, and the degree of industry environmental regulation. Hypotheses were tested using panel data obtained from the KLD, Compustat, and Environmental Protection Agency databases for the years 2000 to 2011. The sample consists of firms comprising the Standard and Poor’s 500 and was analyzed using fixed-effect regression and moderating variables were analyzed using the Johnson-Neyman technique.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Cox, Marcus Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Changing Role of Planning in Commercial Banks: The Computer and Management Science

Description: This dissertation examines the relationship between computer technology and management science and changes in the role of profit planning within the commercial banking system of the U.S.A. The objective of the study is to develop a generalized profit-planning model which employs the existing decision processes to create pro-forma financial statements for a commercial bank. The study concentrated on the 300 largest commercial banks (ranked by deposits as of December 31, 1969) of the Federal Reserve System. These particular banks held the greatest potential for having a Planning Department, the computing capability necessary for problem solving, and a Management Science Department actively employing management science techniques to profit-planning problems. The research for the dissertation included an in-depth study of secondary sources, an interrogation of commercial bank executives and a detailed questionnaire which was submitted to each of the 300 largest banks. Sponsorship for the Financial Planning Questionnaire was obtained from the Southwestern Graduate School of Banking at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. The sponsorship helped obtain a large sample return (in excess of 50.0 percent) and thereby increased the statistical reliability of the results of the study.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Colin, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Facilitating and Inhibiting Personality Dimensions in Occupational Identification

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of examining the association between personality as measured by a standard scale and the extent of projection in a social perception role projection task. The investigation assumes that perceptions regarding environment are systematically related to choice behavior. In this regard, the research examines those specific dimensions of personality that facilitate or inhibit social perception. Chapter I presents an introduction to the problem. Additionally, the background of the problem, purpose of the study, the hypotheses, the limits of the study, and the assumptions are given. Chapter II is the methodology. The nature of the subjects, the procedure, the research instrument and the methodological steps used for analysis of data are explained. Results of the investigation are given in Chapter III, while Chapter IV presents a discussion of the results, including the conclusions, implications of the study, and suggestions for further research.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Chaney, Warren H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Career Decisions and Job Values of Seniors in the College of Business Administration, North Texas State University

Description: Much has been done to promote the use of management techniques designed to develop human resources within the business enterprise. Unfortunately, most of these procedures are applied after the individual has become an employee of the firm. Similar management techniques are needed for the proper recruitment and placement of each new employee. A major source of employee dissatisfaction and turnover lies in the incapacity of some jobs to satisfy the aspirations and job values of certain types of employees. Therefore, one key to employment stability for the college graduate is the relative compatibility between his job values and the capacity of the job to provide fulfillment for those aspirations. Much needs to be done in the areas of predicting the job values of a college senior and matching the individual graduate with that job which is most apt to provide a productive and meaningful career. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between grade point averages, job values, and career decisions as perceived by the Ma3 1973, graduating seniors of the College of Business Administration at North Texas State University, their professors, and their employment recruiters. The students provided background data such as grade point average, SAT scores, and marital status in addition to Likert-type rankings of family experiences and job values. The professors also provided rankings of their job values. Those employers who had interviewed seniors through the Business Employment Services office during the spring semester of 1973 ranked the same job values and selected student characteristics in accordance with the emphasis placed upon them during recruitment. Significant relationships were identified through the calculation of product-moment correlation coefficients. Comparisons were made utilizing t-tests of significance.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Burton, Gene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of the Understanding of Authority Relationships Between Chief District Administrators and Chief Campus Administrators in Multicampus Junior College Systems

Description: One of the newest organizational developments in the junior college world is the multicampus junior college system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the understanding of authority relationships between chief district administrators and chief campus administrators in multicampus junior college systems. This information should be valuable to junior college administrators who are now, or will be, faced with the problem of clarifying this authority relationship in daily activities and future planning. The semantic differential was the measuring instrument used in this study. Its use required that a questionnaire be developed to include functions to be differentiated against a set of corresponding bi-polar adjectives. The functions selected were evaluated by several individuals experienced in multicampus junior college administration. The nine pairs of bi-polar descriptive adjectives selected were from general adjectives previous factorial studies showed to have high factor loadings on either the evaluative, potency, or activity dimensions of connotative meaning.
Date: December 1972
Creator: VanTrease, Dean Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conglomerate Performance as Influenced by Selected Management Practices

Description: The latest surge of corporate mergers has been characterized by a steadily increasing rate of conglomerate combinations. It would appear that one of the prime motivating factors in conglomerate merger is a firm belief in the principle of "synergism," or the mutually cooperating action of separate substances taken together to produce an effect greater than that of any component taken alone. It would also appear that in such instances wherein there is no direct relationship in regard to raw material source, product development, production technology, or marketing channels, the principle of synergism is not automatic, but must be implemented by appropriate management action. The hypothesis of the study is that the goal of achieving synergism through centrality of management influence has not yet become a reality in conglomerate business organizations as a group. It is the purpose of the study to investigate the degree of centralized management development in a number of management functions and relate this development to success in selected performance areas.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Ablowich, Edgar Allen, 1913-
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Probabilistic Model for Evaluating Capital Investment Proposals for Petroleum Refineries

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop a probabilistic model that could be used by petroleum refiners to evaluate the economic potential of refinery capital investment proposals. The following two requirements were placed on the development at the outset: (1) that the model use linear programming to simulate refinery operations; and (2) that the model keep computer time within reasonable bounds. A probabilistic model was developed that requires the following steps for its application: (1) use linear programming to simulate both the operations of the existing refinery and the operations assuming that the investment is made; (2) select two variables that can be treated as probabilistic variables and assign either a theoretical or a subjective probability distribution to represent future values for the two variables; (3) develop return on investment interpolation data by computing a return on investment for all pair combinations of three tenth year values for each of the two probabilistic variables; (4) develop a return on investment distribution by selecting values at random from the two probability distributions and interpolating among the interpolation data to obtain return on investment data; (5) interpret the return on investment distribution. The model was applied to an actual refining situation that involved determining the expected internal rate of return of a proposed hydrocracker addition to a United States refinery. Total computer time required to evaluate the hydrocracker proposal was about 159 minutes. Accuracy of the interpolation feature of the model was also determined during the application. The average error of ten interpolated return figures that were selected at random for the accuracy check was 1.89 per cent.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Martin, William Basil, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The role of strategy in the innovation process: A stage approach.

Description: Organizational innovation has been of central interest in recent years because of its importance for organizational survival and competitive advantage. Researchers in the field have divided the innovation process into stages in an attempt to understand the innovation process and the factors that affect it. However, empirical studies that examine the relationship between the stages are scarce. In addition, although business strategy is emphasized as an important factor in the innovation process, little is known about its role in the innovation process and its effect on the stages. This research provides empirical support for the relationship between the stages of the innovation process and the moderating effect of organizational strategy on the relationship between the stages within the two stage model of innovation. In this study, a direct, positive relationship is proposed between the innovation generation (first stage) and innovation outcome (second stage) stages of the innovation process. Dimensions of innovation outcome that are examined include innovation type (product innovation and process innovation), innovation radicalness and innovation frequency. Low cost, differentiation and market orientation strategies are proposed to be moderators on the relationship between the stages. To test the proposed relationships, a survey was mailed to executives who are involved in the innovation process in organizations where innovation is expected to be common and they were asked to complete the questionnaire. Hierarchical regression was the primary data analysis method and General Linear Model was applied as the pot-hoc data analysis method. Results of the primary data analyses provided support for the direct, positive relationship between the innovation generation and innovation outcome stages of the innovation process. Specifically, there was a direct, positive relationship between innovation generation and product innovation, process innovation, innovation frequency and innovation radicalness. Result of the primary data analysis provided support for the moderating effect of strategy ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Goktan, Ayse Banu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Examining Curvilinearity and Moderation in the Relationship between the Degree of Relatedness of Individual Diversification Actions and Firm Performance

Description: Corporate diversification continues to be an important phenomenon in the modern business world. More than thirty years of research on diversification suggests that the degree of relatedness among a firm's business units is a factor that can affect firm performance, but the true effect of diversification relatedness on firm performance is still inconclusive. The purpose of this dissertation is to shed more light on this inconclusive association. However, attention is focused on the performance implications of individual diversification actions (e.g., acquisitions and joint ventures) rather than on the overall performance of firms with different levels of diversification. A non-experimental, longitudinal analysis of secondary data was conducted on over 450 unique acquisitions and on more than 210 joint ventures. Results suggest that even when individual diversification actions rather than entire business portfolios are examined, an inverted curvilinear association between diversification relatedness and performance is likely to emerge. This pattern is observed in both acquisitions and joint ventures. However, the association between diversification relatedness and performance in acquisitions is moderated by the level of industry adversity, though factors such as corporate coherence and heterogeneous experience do not moderate the association between diversification relatedness and performance. This study augments the body of knowledge on diversification and adds refinement to the traditional curvilinear finding regarding relatedness. By studying acquisitions and joint ventures independently, the results reveal differences in both slope and inflection points that suggest the relative impact of relatedness may vary depending on the mode of diversification.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Cernas Ortiz, Daniel Arturo
Partner: UNT Libraries