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Factors of the Geriatric Depression Scale that may Distinguish between Four Cognitive Diagnostic Groups: Normal, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, and Vascular Dementia

Description: The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between cognitive status and depression in a sample of geriatric patients. Participants included 282 geriatric patients ranging in age from 65 to 96 years who were classified according to diagnosis as: DAT, VaD, MCI, and Norm. All were referred for neurocognitive testing from the Geriatric Assessment Program (GAP) at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) in Fort Worth, Texas. This study sought to identify factor structures for two versions of the GDS using a geriatric sample of cognitively impaired and intact patients. It then compared these factors to each other to determine whether the GDS-15 is truly a shorter version of the GDS-30. These were then compared to a previously determined factor structure. This study explored whether the four-factors of the GDS-30 are able to differentiate cognitive diagnostic groups. Further, this study sought to identify whether the severity of cognitive decline impacted GDS factor score for each of the cognitively impaired groups. Results revealed a two-factor model of the GDS - 15 and a four-factor model with the GDS - 30. The GDS-15 factors did not differ from the first two factors of the GDS-30. Comparison between the GDS-30 factor structure and that reported by Hall and Davis (in press) revealed no significant differences despite the inclusion of a normal, non-demented group in the current study. Comparisons of subscale scores revealed that DAT patients tended to score lower than the other groups on all but the cognitive impairment subscale. Severity level analyses indicated that as severity of deficits increases, awareness of deficits decreases. This study found that although the GDS-30 is a good screening tool for depression in geriatric patients, it is not particularly useful in differentiating cognitive status group. Also, the GDS-15 was not found ...
Date: December 2009
Creator: Cornett, Patricia F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Symptom Based Classification of Environmentally Ill Patients: an Exploratory Study

Description: The purpose of the present study was to discern a symptom pattern for environmentally ill patients and provide evidence of the uniqueness of the resultant pattern to this population. Patients' environmental exposure was confirmed by the presence of toxins in the blood serum. All patients were administered psychological and physical symptom checklists, the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire, and a standardized intermediate neuropsychological examination. Results indicate a response pattern of symptoms including fatigue, low energy, weakness, poor concentration, poor memory, poor comprehension, headaches, aches and pains, clumsiness, sinus discomfort, mucus, eye problems, restlessness, and present performance inferior to prior level of functioning. Presence of these symptoms, as well as the uniqueness of this symptom pattern was supported by comparisons of the patient and standardization groups on the two standardized tests.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Flanagan, William Joseph, 1963-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessing the Psychological Impact of Fertility Treatment

Description: This controlled descriptive study was designed to investigate the psychological status of couples who are engaged in advanced fertility treatments. A battery of psychological test instruments, including the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI), the Health Attribution Test (HAT), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), was used to measure psychological variables that have been shown in the infertility research literature to be associated with the psychological experiences of infertility patients. The scores from the four assessment instruments were compared with those of pregnant couples in childbirth education classes to differentiate the impact of stress associated with fertility treatment from the stress experienced by third trimester pregnant couples. Eighty-five subjects (42 male and 43 female) volunteered for the study and completed packets of questionnaires. The groups were designated Treatment (infertile couples) and Control (pregnant couples). The resulting data were collected and analyzed on the basis of group mean scores on the test instruments.
Date: August 1997
Creator: McKenna, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Allen)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biopsychosocial Factors Related to Health among Older Women

Description: Older adults are more vulnerable to the ill effects of life stress due to physiological changes associated with aging that result in decreased immunocompetence. Stressors interacting with an aging immune system may produce further declines in health. Variables shown to modulate the effect of stressors on neuroendocrine and immune function and health include social support, personality, coping style, and health locus of control. A comprehensive model is proposed that includes: life stressors, social resources, psychological resources, interaction between stressors and social resources, neuroendocrine and immune function, and symptomatology. This model was evaluated using structured equation modeling. Participants were 97 active, community dwelling, older women, ranging in age from 60 to 93 years.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Carter, Alice Powers
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography to Indicate Neurotoxicity in Cases of Pesticide and Solvent Exposures

Description: This study examined the effect of neurotoxic chemical exposures on brain processes using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). A control group carefully screened for good health and minimal chemical exposures was compared to two groups of patients diagnosed with health problems following exposure to pesticides or to organic solvents.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Fincher, Cynthia Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Brief Imagery Training : Effects on Psychological, Physiological and Neuroendocrinological Measures of Stress and Pain

Description: The present study investigated the influence of a brief, intensive biofeedback-assisted imagery training regimen on psychological, physiological and neuroendocrinological measures of pain and stress in injury related chronic pain patients. The subjects were 36 patients (myelography examcandidates) who were assigned to the imagery or wait-list control group by order of referral presentation and to formulate equivalent groups.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Osborne, Connie M. Brajkovich (Connie Marie Brajkovich)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Acute and Chronic Glycemic Control on Memory Performance in Persons with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Description: Memory performance was measured in 48 persons between the ages of 40 - 65 with Type II diabetes. Correlations between performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, tests of Working Memory, Priming Memory, and Prospective Memory and several predictor variables were examined. These variables included the Slosson Intelligence Test Scores, demographic variables, presence of diabetic complications, finger-stick and HbA1c measures. Subjects performed worse than the normative sample on the California Verbal Learning Test. Higher chronic and acute blood glucose tended to be associated with worse performance on the CVLT, Priming, and Working Memory. However, after the effects of intelligence, education, and sex were statistically controlled, glycemic status predicted performance on just a few memory measures. These were short-delay recall compared with recall on List A trial 5, and List B on the CVLT, and recall accuracy on digit forward of the Working Memory Test. Glucose status was unrelated to performance on a prospective memory test. Several other demographic and diabetic complication factors predicted performance beyond the contribution of intelligence. These results contrast with previous studies which found strong effects of glycemic control, but did not statistically control for the contribution of intelligence. Differential effects of diabetic status on different aspects of memory were discussed.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Hall-Johnson, Richard Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation of the Expanded McCarron-Dial System for Diagnosis of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Adults

Description: The McCarron-Dial System (MDS) has successfully predicted vocational and independent living outcomes with neuropsychologically disabled individuals receiving rehabilitation services. In addition, preliminary validation studies suggest that the abbreviated MDS is useful for clinical neuropsychological diagnosis. The present study represents part of an ongoing research project aimed at validating the expanded version of the MDS for diagnosis of neuropsychological dysfunction. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the expanded MDS would be able to accurately discriminate between brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged individuals. Accurate diagnosis facilitates rehabilitation efforts for individuals with neuropsychological disabilities and the data profile provided by the expanded version of the MDS can consequently form the basis from which more complete individual treatment and rehabilitation plans can be conceptualized.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Colaluca, Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Other Perceptions under Challenge: a Personal Construct Approach to Hostility and the Type A Behavior Pattern

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine if exposure to a challenging interpersonal situation would have an adverse impact on intra- and interpersonal constructs. Individual difference variables including level of hostility and anger, Type A behavior, control in social situations, depression and sex were examined as "predictors" of those more likely to be adversely affected by personal challenge. Eighty subjects, 40 male and 40 female, completed questionnaires at a pretesting session including measures of hostility, the Type A behavior pattern, trait anger, exaggerated social control, depression, and self-other constructs. Twenty subjects then participated in a "supportive" role-play condition where the confederate was agreeable and friendly. Sixty subjects participated in a "challenge" role-play condition; the confederate was disagreeable, confrontive, and unpleasant. The posttesting measures were then completed.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Bollinger, Hautina K. (Hautina Kay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Music Training on Electroencephalographic Coherence of Preschool Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music training on electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence of preschool children. EEG coherence is a measurement of brain wave activity that reflects anatomical and neurophysiological parameters and functional connectivity between areas of the brain. Participants were 4- to 6-year-old children divided into two groups: one received music training for 20 minutes twice a week for 10 weeks while the other group served as controls. Nineteen channels of EEG data were collected from each child pre- and post-training. Data were collected from three conditions: eyes-open resting, listening to music, and performing the Object Assembly subtest of the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (1989). The hypothesis was that the music training group would show increased EEG coherence as compared to controls. The EEG data was reduced into seven bandwidths and analyzed separately for each condition. Multiple ANCOVAs were used to factor out pre-test variability and to maximize connectivity changes between the two groups. The dependent measures were the post-QEEG electrode pairs and the covariates were the pre-QEEG electrode pairs. Results indicated the eyes-open and listening to music conditions showed more significant changes between the groups than the Object Assembly condition. Overall, each condition showed increased connectivity for the music training group versus controls. The eyes-open condition differentiated children with and without music training during a resting condition, and showed similar patterns as those identified by other researchers comparing musicians versus nonmusicians. The listening to music condition identified connections including a topographical pattern of auditory analysis, increased working memory activation, increased activity between musically sensitive areas, and increased interhemispheric activity. Findings with the Object Assembly condition were not as robust as expected. However, patterns of increased connectivity associated with visuospatial processing were found with the music training group.
Date: August 1999
Creator: DeBeus, Roger J. (Roger John)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Coping with Severe, Acute Psychological Trauma: the Killeen Shooting Incident

Description: The present study examined the relationship between coping and psychological and psychosomatic distress of 25 individuals who experienced the same severe, acute traumatic event: the violent shooting that killed 23 people and severely injured 20 more in Luby's Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas, on October 16, 1991. Distress was assessed by one-month pre-event and post-event scores on the SCL-90R, Psychosomatic Questionnaire, and by a Life Event Questionnaire score for the year before the incident. Coping was measured by a modified version of the Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman et al., 1986) and Response Style Questionnaire (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991). All post-event distress scores, except the Psychosomatic score, significantly increased over their corresponding pre-event scores regardless of gender. Although female distress scores were consistently higher than male scores, gender was predictive of post-event distress only for the SCL-90R Anxiety, Somatization, and Global Severity Index scales. The only pre-event score found to be predictive of post-event distress was the Psychosomatic scale. Regression analysis, with demographic and pre-event variables controlled, found a significant positive relationship between Escape/Avoidance coping and one-month post-event levels of Anxiety and Psychosomatic distress. Findings were discussed in the context of the process-oriented stress-illness model and were compared to current disaster and crime victimization literature. Implications for helping professionals, methodological issues, and implications for future research were explored.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Forté, Beverly K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neuropsychological Functioning of Adult Subjects with Diabetic Retinopathy Compared to a Normal Blind Population

Description: To investigate the possibility that chronic diabetes mellitus was related to specific neuropsychological deficits, cognitive functioning was measured in subjects with diabetic retinopathy (without secondary disabilities), and in subjects classified as normal blind adults (also without secondary disabilities). The scores for the two groups were then compared.
Date: August 1994
Creator: McGee-Hall, Joanne M. (Joanne Moore)
Partner: UNT Libraries

High-Risk Sexual Behaviors of Young Adults: AIDS Prevention

Description: The Health Belief Model was used to study HIV/AIDS beliefs of 419, 18 to 24 year old, never married, sexually active, heterosexual college students and predict their AIDS preventive behaviors from a larger sample of 662 college students. The structural properties of the scales used were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Recent preventive behaviors were predicted in a LISREL Structural Equation Modeling analysis.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Bloodgood, Martha Madden
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Hostility and Social Support with Chronic Pain and Health Indicators

Description: The purposes of the study were to examine the psychosocial variables of hostility and social support, and their independent relationships with resting physiological levels and chronic pain symptoms, and to examine the independent relationships of chronic pain chronicity and social support with hostility.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Witham, Kevin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Frontal Lobe Functions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder from Children to Young Adults

Description: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without a learning disorder (LD) and a control group of clinically referred individuals with behavioral problems were compared on four neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe functioning. Test results were collected to examine if ADHD individuals with and without LD have deficits in frontal lobe functioning. Two age groups were used to examine developmental differences. In the six to ten age group there were 27 ADHD, 17 ADHD/LD and seven other clinically referred individuals. In the 11 -20 age group there were 12 ADHD, 23 ADHD/LD and 24 other clinically referred individuals. The ADHD and ADHD/LD groups performed at a lower level than the other diagnostic group on the freedom from distractibility factor of the WISC-R and the omission and commission errors of the Gordon Diagnostic system. Differences for the ADHD and ADHD/LD groups were also found on the number of correct responses for the Gordon Diagnostic system, the Speech Sounds test and the Seashore Rhythm test. The developmental differences that were found were not influenced by diagnosis. The deficits that the ADHD individuals with and without LD demonstrated were not affected by age.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Kramer-Stutts, Traci A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neuropsychological Sequelae of Adult Subjects with Retinopathy of Prematurity Compared to Other Blind Populations

Description: The blind have generally been considered to be a homogeneous population whose deficits arise from an interaction of loss of vision, age of onset and socialization. Sequelae are posited to exist merely due to the limiting effects of blindness on experience. This is believed to affect all blind persons equally regardless of cause of blindness provided that independent secondary disabilities do not exist. This study investigated the possibility that different causes of blindness are related to specific neuropsychological deficits which cannot be explained by the mere presence of blindness. It was found that neuropsychological differences existed among specific sub-populations of blind persons. These results suggested that the cause of blindness may be a marker for specific Central Nervous System involvement.
Date: August 1992
Creator: O'Brien, Eugene Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Dysfunction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine the point prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to investigate its association with corticosteroids and depression. The severity of dysfunction and the pattern of cognitive changes were examined. This study hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction is common in SLE and many previous studies have underestimated its prevalence, partially due to using limited neuropsychological batteries and insensitive test instruments. It was further hypothesized that the pattern of cognitive changes in SLE patients will resemble that observed in subcortical dementias.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Niemela-Waller, Kirsi (Kirsi M.)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Breast Cancer Screening Health Behaviors in Older Women

Description: Health beliefs of 221 postmenopausal women were assessed to predict the Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of breast self-examination (BSE) and utilization of mammography. Champion's (1991) revised Health Belief Model (HBM) instrument for BSE, which assesses the HBM constructs of Seriousness, Susceptibility, Benefits, Barriers, Confidence and Health Motivation, was utilized along with her Barriers and Benefits instrument for mammography usage. Ronis' and Harel's (1989) constructs of Severity-Late and Severity-Early were evaluated along with Cuing and demographic variables. These exogenous latent constructs were utilized in a LISREL path model to predict Breast Cancer Screening Behavior.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Hammond, Marsha V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Memory Patterns: Differentiated between Environmental Sensitive Patients and Psychiatric Patients

Description: The purpose of the present study was to ascertain if environmentally sensitive patients would demonstrate different memory deficit patterns than psychiatric patients on objectively measurable memory tasks. One-hundred sixteen patients were surveyed; 56 environmentally sensitive patients were compared to 60 psychiatric patients. All subjects were administered a Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised screen, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and the Harrell-Butler Comprehensive Neurocognitive Screen after history of head injury was ruled out. Results indicate a significantly different pattern of memory dysfunction between the environmental patients and the psychiatric patients, indicating two different etiologies. A screening device derived from the coefficients from a Canonical Analysis is proposed to distinguish between the two populations in the absence of blood serum levels of environmental toxins or poisons. The detrimental effects of misdiagnosis and the beneficial effects of accurate diagnosis of environmental illness are discussed.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Lockart, Esther
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation of the Spanish Dallas Pain Questionnaire

Description: The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ). Not only does the DPQ offer the potential of statistical and clinical diagnostic value but also is easily interpretable across cultural lines. No such instrument has presently been validated for the Mexican-American population. A total of 81 Spanish speaking subjects participated in this study. Of these subjects, 56 were classified as chronic pain patients by nature of their medical diagnosis and duration of pain. The 25 normal subjects were family members of the chronic pain patients and members of the Northern New Mexico Hispanic community chosen at random. Hypothesis one predicted that reliability would be obtained on Spanish speaking populations based on test-retest with correlation coefficients of the items. The second hypothesis predicted that the Spanish DPQ would have content validity or consistent internal structure on those items that measure the trait or behavior of interest based upon factor analysis approaches and internal consistency measures. Hypothesis three predicted that the Spanish version of the DPQ would significantly correlate with the English version of the DPQ on all four factors. All four hypotheses were supported. The Spanish DPQ showed reliability over time based on test-retest. The statistics revealed an internally reliable test, alpha coefficient analysis and factor analysis. The validity was supported by significant correlations with the English DPQ and discrimination between chronic and nonchronic pain patients. While all four hypotheses were upheld, interpretation of the present findings should be moderated by recognition of the limitations of the studies. Future studies should test larger samples to improve confidence in the psychometric properties of the instrument. Still notable limitations of the questionnaire are that the Spanish DPQ is a form that is more accurately viewed as a global measure.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Keeping, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Directed Relaxation as a Treatment for Essential Hypertension

Description: Male (8) and female (22) Essential Hypertensives (130/85 mm Hg or above) were randomized into a nonspecific treatment or an experimental treatment utilizing eight relaxation strategies. Both groups had eight training sessions which consisted of baseline blood pressures (BP), 15 minute relaxation tapes, and post-relaxation BP's. Subjects were instructed to use their tapes three times between sessions. Five BP readings were taken at the one and two month follow-ups. It was hypothesized that the experimentals would have greater within and across session decreases in BP, and that the differences would be maintained during a no treatment follow-up. Eleven experimentals and 8 controls were on medication. Mean medication compliance percentages were 99.9 and 99.6 while mean relaxation compliance percentages were 95.2 and 115.2 for experimentals and controls respectively. Efficacy was checked at each training session on a seven-point scale and group means were 6.5 and 5.4 for experimentals verses controls. Within session decreases in BP were compared with t tests and no significant differences (p < .05) were present for the eight training sessions with systolic (SBP) or diastolic (DBP). Across session changes were compared with ANCOVA and no significant differences (p < .05) were present for the eight training or two follow-up sessions for SBP or DBP. In summary, the experimentals showed within and across session decreases in BP consistent with prior research, but the effect was not significantly better than "sitting quietly". It was concluded that nonspecific treatments must be included in BP research on effectiveness of treatments. A final conclusion was that both groups did show clinically useful decreases in BP which were maintained at follow-up and the effectiveness of noninvasive treatments for Essential Hypertension was demonstrated.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hafer, Donald G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological Stress: Effect on Humoral Immune Functioning as Measured by Immunoglobulin Levels

Description: The purpose of the present study was to determine if psychological stress, defined as academic examination stress, would systematically produce changes in immune parameters (immunoglobulin concentration) and psychological functioning. It was hypothesized that as examination stress occurred there would be an effect on immunological function consistent with heightened psychological activity/stress. Subjects were 23 master's and doctoral students in psychology who volunteered for the research project. All subjects were administered a series of psychological tests to measure stress, personality factors, emotional states, and anxiety levels. All tests were administered and.blood samples drawn over a period of 15 months across two lowstress and two high-stress periods. Immunological tests included white blood cell (WBC) differential count and radial immunodiffusion (RID) for the determination of concentration of different immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgG, IgM) in serum. Data were treated to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, t /test for correlated samples correlational matrix between variables across assessments and discriminant function analysis. Results showed (1) increased immunoglobulin levels during periods of stress; (2) immunoglobulin G most consistently related to stress and probably most indicative of the stressed condition and biological resistance to stress; (3) anxiety related to external events; (4) increase in anxiety under stress; and (5) anxiety inversely correlated with emotional stability and coping skills while positively related to tension, increased number of somatic complaints, and obsessive-compulsive trends. Firm support was provided for the hypothesis that as stress occurred, there would be consistent changes in immunological functioning associated with heightened psychological activity/stress. It was concluded that a response pattern to stress was adaptive along both psychological- and immunological dimensions and that the concept of bodymind interaction was the most realistic approach to understanding the total response patterns.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Didriksen, Nancy A. (Nancy Andrews)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality and Behavioral Correlates of Autonomic Imbalance

Description: Individual differences in autonomic nervous system responsiveness have been linked to a variety of physical disorders and personality and behavioral tendencies. The present study attempted to correlate specific personality characteristics hypothesized to be associated with either sympathetic or parasympathetic dominance based on the work of M. A. Wenger. The Clinical Analysis Questionnaire Personality Inventory, a physical disorders questionnaire, a self-report stress measure, and seven psychophysiologic tests were administered to 60 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class at North Texas State University. The results provided limited support for the hypotheses. A skewed population with 50 of the 60 subjects achieving scores indicative of sympathetic dominance occurred. Statistical comparison (t-tests) of the CAQ personality traits, and clinical factor scores of these 50 subjects labeled sympathetic dominant with CAQ norms for college students revealed means on five personality traits and three clinical factors were significantly different for the sympathetic dominant group at the .05 or greater level of significance. These findings were interpreted as limited support for Wenger's work and for the positions of Acker and Kagan that individuals with more reactive sympathetic nervous systems tend to have difficulty binding anxiety, poor emotional controls and outlets, ambivalence about interpersonal relationships, and a need for group acceptance.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Sawyer, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries