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Teachers' Perceptions of Computer Use in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms in Thailand

Description: The purpose of this study was to create a base of descriptive information about computer applications in the elementary and secondary classrooms of Thailand. To accomplish this task, two forms of questionnaires were developed and administered to a randomly selected sample of 527 school teachers and 94 college instructors throughout the Northeastern area of Thailand. Data were analyzed using a chi-square test, a £-test, and a one-way analysis of variance procedure.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Loipha, Suladda
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Role of a Developmental Screening in Kindergarten - First Grade Placement

Description: The purposes of this study were to determine if a kindergartener's developmental stage correlates with subsequent scholastic achievement, to determine whether developmentally younger children who repeat kindergarten attain higher academic achievement than developmental 1y younger children who do not repeat kindergarten, and to investigate the relationship between head circumference, developmental age, and achievement. Ninety-seven kindergartners of various ethnicity and socio-economic status were administered the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test to determine developmental age and were followed academically for three years. Head circumference was noted periodically to measure brain growth. The hypotheses predicted significant positive correlations between developmental age in kindergarten and scores on later achievement tests. Further, it was predicted that children below 5.3 years in developmental age who delayed entrance to first grade would score significantly higher on first grade achievement tests than match-paired promoted students. It was hypothesized that there would be significant correlations between head circumference growth and (a) gains in achievement test scores and (b) developmental age at kindergarten. The first hypothesis, tested by Pearson Product Moment Correlations, established the existence of significant correlations between developmental ages of test subjects and their scores on four academic achievement tests. The results indicated that developmental age was a better predictor of achievement test scores than chronological age. Since only five children in this study were retained in kindergarten, hypothesis 2 was analyzed descriptively. Mean scores on first grade achievement tests were higher for the retainees than for the "at risk" non-retainees. Hypothesis 3 was tested by stepwise multiple regression. At the first step, the linear trend between the independent variable, CTBS score, and the dependent variable, I TBS score, was calculated and found to be significant at the .001 level. The addition of head circumference growth to the equation did not add significantly to the prediction of I ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Sanders, Karen Nordberg
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Guided Practice on Student Achievement in Social Studies and Science in Grades Five and Six

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess whether guided practice is more effective than no guided practice (1) in fifth and sixth grade classrooms, (2) in fifth and sixth grade social studies classrooms and fifth and sixth grade science classrooms, and (3) in science classrooms and social studies classrooms. In this experimental study, all fifth and sixth grade students in a small school district in north Texas were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and two control groups in each grade. Over the course of one month two teachers who had previously been trained in the use of guided practice procedures taught the experimental groups in each grade, using, extensive guided practice. Two other teachers taught the control groups in each grade without the use of guided practice. Students in both groups were administered a pretest before beginning each of two chapters in each textbook, while a posttest was administered after the study of each chapter. The analysis and interpretation of data yielded the conclusions that the use of guided practice in classes can be expected to result in higher student achievement than in classes using little or no guided practice in the following areas: science classes, social studies classes, sixth grade classes in general, fifth grade classes in general, fifth grade science classes, and fifth grade social studies classes. The use of guided practice did not result in significant gains in student achievement in sixth grade science classes and sixth grade social studies classes when compared with classes which used little or no guided practice.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Scallan, Bob
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Sex and Age at Entrance to School to Second Grade Achievement

Description: This investigation compared achievement of boys and girls in second grade who were seven years old in June, July, and August of 1983 to the boys and girls in second grade who were eight years old in September, October, and November of 1983. The students were tested using the Iowa Test of Basic Skills using the following areas: reading, total math, and composite scores. The study also looked at the correlation of sex and age of students who had been retained in first grade. A comparison of teacher grades to standardized test scores and ability grouping was also presented. One way analysis of variance was applied to the test results. A chi square test of independence was conducted on students retained in the first grade to determine if interaction between sex and age was indicated. Older children scored higher in all three areas measured, while girls scored higher in reading. This may seem contradictory, but is not. Age was significant beyond the .05 level, while sex was significant beyond the .001 level. This difference is explained by the extremes in means for younger boys and older girls. Since first grade curriculum emphasizes reading, this gave girls a definite advantage over boys. Boys, however, scored significantly higher in math. The results indicate a need for restructuring curriculum to meet the needs of boys and girls. Younger boys in second grade scored the lowest in all areas tested, except math. These scores would have been even more significant if the boys who were not promoted to second grade could have been included in the second grade testing. These findings indicate that total developmental age is the most important factor when considering admission for school. A closer look should be taken at the requirements for school entrance. The factors that must be considered ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Jernigan, Sharon Reynolds
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Relationships Between Teachers' Knowledge of and Attitude Toward Selected Teaching Strategies and Their Implementation in the Elementary Classroom

Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the variables of content knowledge, individual attitude, and span of time from initial training with regard to implementation of selected teaching practices in the elementary classroom. The sample consisted of thirty-two elementary classroom teachers who teach reading or mathematics in a large suburban school district in the Dallas Metropolitan Area. After completion of the second day's training in an inservice program on teaching strategies, the teachers were given a test to measure content knowledge of and attitude toward the teaching strategies. The test results were used in determining four groups for follow-up classroom observations four weeks and eight weeks after the in-service sessions. Using three-way analysis of variance, the data were analyzed. Results indicated that teachers with high content knowledge of the teaching strategies implemented these strategies to a greater degree than did teachers with low content knowledge. No significant relationship with regard to implementation was found for the variables of attitude or span of time. It can be concluded that teachers who know the content of inservice training are able to and do implement the training in their classrooms. Of equal significance is the conclusion that teachers who do not know the content do not demonstrate teaching skills which duplicate the training concepts. It can also be concluded that training of this type is beneficial to teachers regardless of their attitude, and that teachers who implement training will do so with knowledge of the content not affected by the factor of time. It is suggested that additional studies be conducted using these and other variables and combinations of variables which may have a relationship to the teachers' use of inservice training in the classroom.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Speak, Lynda Overton
Partner: UNT Libraries

First-Year Teacher Usage of Manipulatives in Mathematics Instruction: A Case Study

Description: This qualitative case study examined the use of manipulatives in mathematics instruction by six first-year intermediate teachers in a north Texas school district. Their preparation for, access to, and perceptions about manipulatives were examined. Specific content associated with manipulative usage was identified.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Sylvester, Barbara N. (Barbara Nelson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Usage of Whole-Language Instruction in Elementary-School Classrooms: a Case Study

Description: This qualitative research study examined the usage of whole-language instruction in the classrooms of four self-professed whole-language teachers. Data were collected from the following sources: classroom observations; interviews with the teachers and their principals; and a study of lesson plans, student work, textbooks, and curriculum guides. The following conclusions were drawn from the study. The teachers' pre-existing philosophical views regarding language instruction influenced the effectiveness with which they implemented whole-language instruction more than any other single factor. These philosophical bases also determined, to a large extent, the kinds of whole-language practices and strategies the teachers used in their instruction. The skills-oriented teachers most often stated that they used whole-language instruction in order to review or reinforce skills. The more holistic teachers most often stressed language development, language appreciation, and self expression. The data collected in this study led to the conclusion that teachers must become knowledgeable of whole-language principles and make a personal commitment to the whole-language philosophy in order to develop integrated, coherent whole-language instructional programs. The data also led the researcher to conclude that assessment of whole-language instruction was an area of ambiguity and uncertainty for the teachers involved in the study. The following recommendations were made from the study. Teachers should make conscious efforts to become cognizant of their basic philosophies and beliefs regarding how children learn and develop. Teachers should then ensure that their practices are consistent with their beliefs. Increased emphasis should be placed on developing appropriate means for assessing the effectiveness of whole-language instruction. School districts should provide adequate in-service opportunities and support services and receive the commitment of the teachers before initiating district-wide whole-language programs. Further research should be conducted on how teachers are affected when they are required to teach in ways which are inconsistent with their basic philosophies and/or teaching styles.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Miller, Frank J. (Franklin Joe), 1943-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Learning Styles in Teaching Social Studies in 7th and 8th Grade: A Case Study

Description: This qualitative case study examined the extent to which learning styles were used by teachers in four seventh and eighth grade social studies classrooms in a large suburban north Texas junior high school. The conclusions were as follows: 1) The environment on the junior high level did not afford the flexibility found in the elementary classroom. The changing of students, teachers, and the multi-purpose use of rooms did not afford flexibility of light, temperature, sound, and design preference. 2) The physical and the psychological categories had elements within each category that overlapped. A right brain activity closely aligned to a tactile/kinesthetic activity. A parallel between physical-mobility and psychological-global was noted, as well as a pattern between the global and the tactile/kinesthetic projects. 3) The split lunch period created problems for the global, kinesthetic, impulsive students. The academic environment was interrupted for a thirty minute period; students had to re-acclimate to a more analytic environment after lunch. 4) Each teacher alternated between primary style and secondary and tertiary styles. This mediation ability enabled each teacher to use all styles in lessons the researcher observed. 5) Abstract random and concrete random teachers did more group and team teaching than concrete sequential and abstract sequential teachers. Further, dominant sequential ordering in a teacher limited random activities. Whereas, dominant random ordering in a teacher limited sequential ordering activities. Both groups of teachers experienced teacher burnout when forced out of their primary style. 6) It was easier for those teachers whose primary and secondary ordering were opposite (CS/CR or AS/AR), as opposed to those whose primary and secondary ordering were the same (CS/AS or CR/AR), to align to a different environment. 7) These results suggest that teachers should not be required to stay in any one style. The flexibility of being able to alternate between ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Woodring, Betty Gregory
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Changes Over Time in State Anxiety in a Computer-Assisted Instructional Program

Description: The purposes of this study were to analyze (1) the changes over time in the state anxiety level of children in a computer-assisted program of reading instruction and in classroom reading instruction, (2) the changes in state anxiety patterns as related to gender, achievement level, and ethnicity, and (3) the difference in anxiety levels of the students while in computer-assisted reading instruction and classroom reading instruction.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Spence, M. Janet (Martha Janet)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Brain Growth Spurts and Plateau Periods in Normal Elementary School Pupils

Description: The purposes of this study were to determine whether brain growth spurts occur in normal pupils and to determine whether there was a uniform difference in head circumference between boys and girls. Subjects were 3,062 normal elementary pupils, grades one through six, from one suburban school district. Fiberglass measuring tapes were used to measure pupils' head circumference. The hypotheses of the study predicted that the relationship between head circumference and age would be linear. Further, it was predicted that the differences in head circumference between boys and girls would be uniform over seven specified ages. The first hypothesis was tested using a test for linear trend and deviation from linear trend using the General Linear Models procedure. The results indicated that there was a significant linear trend between head circumference and age. The test for deviation from the linear trend was not significant. This would suggest that any deviation from a straight line observed in the data can be attributed to chance. It was concluded that since there was no significant deviation from linear trend, it would suggest a continuous growth of the brain for the ages included in this study. A two-way analysis of variance was used to test the second hypothesis. The results indicated that the male mean head circumference was significantly larger than that of the female in all age groups. As the interaction of sex and age groups was tested, there was no interaction between sex and age groups. It was concluded that since the interaction between sex and age groups was not significant, there is no indication of differences in the rates of brain growth between boys and girls.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Bhulpat, Cheerapan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Better Teaching Model? Middle School Science Classroom Using the 4MAT Instructional Strategy vs. Lessons Created Without this Model

Description: The problem investigated was the need for effective and efficient learning for middle school science students to meet expectations set in Goals 2000. The use of the 4MAT Instructional Method was investigated as a possible method for attainment of current science standards. The study included one middle school science instructor's classes with 89 participating students. Measurements were taken and comparisons drawn using three assessment methods to determine if improved academic achievement and attitude scores resulted. Data analysis yielded no significant conclusion in either academic achievement or attitude improvement; however, observations of the researcher indicated potential usefulness of the 4MAT approach. The t-value calculated in the assessment methods was insufficient with a .05 probability of error present in the findings. The limitations of the study skewed the results and outweighed the possible observational insight.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Delaney, Alice
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of Transitional First Grade on Students' Readiness and School Attitude

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a transitional first grade program on the attitude and readiness scores of a group of regular first grade students who qualified for the transitional program but attended regular first grade (control group) and a group of transitional first grade students (experimental group). The study utilized a pretest/posttest design. The regular first grade students received formal instruction in all academic areas. The experimental group received no formal instruction.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Reed, Jewel Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Attitudes and Achievement of Fourth Grade Students in Reading and Mathematics

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participation in a Computer-Assisted instructional program (CAI) on fourth grade student attitudes and achievement in reading and mathematics. This study, based on Campbell and Stanley's quasiexperimental design 10, utilized Diascriptive Reading software for the CAI mathematics group and Milliken Math Sequences software for the CAI mathematics group and was completed by 242 students. The time span between pretests and posttests was seven months. Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Level 10, Form 7/8 was used for achievement testing and Estes Attitude Scale was used for attitude testing. Analysis of covariance was used to determine significance at the .05 level. The findings for this study were: 1. Reading Comprehension posttest scores were significantly higher for the control group than for the reading experimental group; 2. Reading Comprehension posttest scores were not significantly higher for boys than for girls within the reading experimental group; 3. Total math posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group; 4. Concepts and Computation math subsets posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group. There were no significant differences between the posttest scores of the two groups for the Math Problem Solving subset; 5. Total Math posttest scores were not significantly different for boys than for girls within the mathematics experimental group; 6. Attitude toward reading posttest scores were significantly higher for the reading experimental group than for the control group; 7. Attitude toward reading posttest scores were not significantly different for the boys than for girls within the reading experimental group; 8. Attitude toward mathematics posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group; 9. Attitude toward mathematics posttest scores were significantly higher for girls than ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Todd, Wilma Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Relationship of Selected Variables to Reading Achievement in a Computer-Assisted Instructional Setting

Description: The focus of this study was to determine the unique contribution of I.Q., gender, instructional organization, time on the computer, classroom instructional time, ethnicity and total instructional time to the predictability of achievement gain in a computer-assisted instructional setting in reading. The sample consisted of 2,000 students in grades three and five from a large suburban school district in the Dallas - Fort Worth area. The students were given the Iowa Test of Basic Skills to determine reading achievement gains and the Cognitive Abilities Test to determine I.Q. levels. The study was conducted over a five month period during the 1984 - 1985 school year. Using multiple regression, the data were analyzed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Schneider, Judith K. (Judith Kahan)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness of a Transitional First Grade Program

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a transitional first grade program. A comparison of reading and math achievement and school attitude was the focus of the study. The study utilized a pretest/posttest design. The group of regular first grade students who qualified for the transitional program but attended regular first grade was the control group. The group of transitional first grade students was the experimental group. The regular first grade students received formal instruction in all academic areas. The experimental group received no formal instruction. All students were pretested and posttested using the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and the Minnesota School Attitude Survey. Testing was administered to small groups of five or less by the researcher. Scoring was done also by the researcher. An analysis of covariance was used to determine if a significant difference existed between the groups. The analysis of covariance did not produce a significant F at the .05 level when applied to the Iowa Test of Basic Skills except for reading for boys in both groups. The numbers in each cell were low and no further comparisons were made. Due to a testing date that was approved late in the year, the Minnesota School Attitude Survey was determined to be invalid. Scores are reported for the reader's perusal only.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Day, Mary Jo, 1940-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of IOX Objectives-Based Reading Test Collections upon Fifth-Grade Comprehension and Word-Attack Skills

Description: This study compares the effect of the objectives-based test collections of the Instructional Objectives Exchange on reading comprehension and word-attack skills of fifth-grade students in a basal reader program. The IOX, a non-profit educational organization, was established in the late 1960's to provide educators with instructional materials such as criterion-referenced tests to allow realistic assessment of students in reference to specific instructional objectives. IOX Director James Popham states the Exchange's purpose as encouraging educators throughout the country to use criterion-referenced instructional procedures. The study compares gains in reading comprehension and word-attack skills of a research group with the gains of a control group, using the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test for both pre-test and post-test. The IOX criterion-referenced tests were added to the reading program for the research group but were not given the control group.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Hoff, Jean Estelle
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Work-Study Methods Instruction on Student Achievement in Fifth Grade Social Studies

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the effect of work-study method instruction upon the achievement of students in fifth grade social studies. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effects of the SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) Study Method instruction upon the achievement of students in fifth grade social studies. The subjects ranged in age from ten years two months to thirteen years three months. Th I.Q. for the subjects ranged from 70 to 135. Of the 102 subjects involved in the study, 42 were male and 60 were female. The I.Q. score from the California Test of Mental Maturity, S Form was used to structure the subjects into three intelligence levels. Fifty-four subjects served as the experimental group, and forty-eight served as the control group. The instrument used to obtain pretest and posttest scores on the variable relating to achievement was the SRA Assessment Survey, Blue Level. Form E was used for the pretest, and Form F was used for the posttest. The subjects were assigned to four classes which were near equal. Two classes were selected by the principal to serve as the experimental group. The other two classes served as the control group. The investigator spent equal time with the control and the experimental group. The four classroom teachers rotated between experimental and control groups on an equal basis. Students in the experimental group met nineteen times during the study for a thirty-minute period. During these sessions, the experimental subjects used the SQ3R Study Method to do social studies assignments. The control group met for the same number of sessions and for an equal amount of time. They worked with the same content but without using the SQ3R Study Method. The analysis of covariance was employed with pretest scores as the ...
Date: December 1973
Creator: Walker, Gaston Lea
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Opinions of Three Professional Groups with Regard to Various Levels of Deviant Behavior in Children

Description: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which fifth-grade teachers, teachers in special education, and child psychiatrists hold similar views regarding the seriousness of commonly observed student behaviors. In addition, the views of these three groups are compared to research regarding which behaviors in children are predictive of future delinquency. The Wickman Scale, consisting of fifty commonly observed children's behaviors, and a fifteen-pair Semantic Differential Scale, designed for use in this study, were administered to a group of fifth-grade teachers, a group of special education teachers, and a group of child psychiatrists.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Woodruff, Ralph S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Learning-Center Concept in Open-Space Elementary Schools of Texas

Description: The first purpose of this study is to determine whether significant differences exist among the perceptions of principals, librarians, and teachers with respect to the following categorical practices or conditions relative to the learning-center concept in open-space elementary schools: (1) teacher preparation for use of the learning center; (2) student preparation for use of the learning center; (3) learning center personnel and their role; (4) operation of the learning center; (5) facilities, materials, and equipment in the learning center; (6) use of the learning center for individualizing learning; and (7) use of the learning center for developing independent learning skills. The second purpose of this study is to determine whether a significant correlation exists among specific categories. The third purpose of this study is to establish the degree of emphasis placed upon various practices or conditions relative to the learning-center concept in open-space elementary schools of Texas.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Dunlap, Donald Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determining the Predictive Value of Selected Measures for First Grade Reading Success

Description: This study was undertaken to investigate the predictive value of certain tests in relationship to first grade reading success. The following predictor tests were administered to seventy first grade students during the first two weeks of school: Metropolitan Readiness Test, Naming Letters Test, Light Response Test and Matching Symbol Test. The Teacher's Reading Readiness Rating Scale was filled out by each of the seven teachers at the end of the sixth week. The Wechsler Intelignce Scale for Children was administered to each child during the fall. The seventh predictor test was computed by finding the difference in individual scores of the Light Response Test and the Matching Symbol Test.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Black, Bob Gene, 1925-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effectiveness of a Structured Mathematics Program with Culturally Deprived Kindergarten Children

Description: This study is limited to the mathematics performance of two intact groups of culturally deprived kindergarten students, mostly blacks, with a few whites and Mexican-Americans, who were enrolled at Robert E. Lee Elementary School (Denton, Texas) for the entire school year of 1970-1971. The purposes of the study are to compare the effectiveness of two methods of teaching mathematics to culturally disadvantaged children and to check for interaction of treatments when these children are classified by sex.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Fairman, Billie Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Effect of Certain Curiosity Constructs and Thought Processes Upon the Responses of Black Sixth-Grade Pupils

Description: This investigation is concerned with determining the value, if any, of certain curiosity constructs and thought skill experiences upon "raw score" responses of black sixth grade pupils to selected standardized and experimenter made tests. The major purpose of this study is to determine whether the curiosity levels of black children will be increased and if gains will be made in reading comprehension and responses when selected questioning procedures are used. The study is confined to teacher-directed instructional situations where pupils are engaged in reading acts.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Chandler, George H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Teachers' Attitudes Toward the "New" Social Studies

Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of three different types of in-service or preservice training on the attitudes of sixth-grade teachers in selected Texas school districts toward the "new" social studies. The types of preparation compared are the following: completion of a social studies methods course within the last two years, attendance at a social studies in-service training session at least three hours in length within the past year, a major or minor in one of the social science disciplines, or combinations of these. Additional variables such as age, teaching experience, classroom organization, degrees held, and textbooks being used are also considered. Three hundred twenty-four respondents from thirteen school districts completed a two-part questionnaire. Part A seeks biographical, educational, and experiential information. Part B contains thirty-nine statements about social studies education to which the participants respond on a six-point Likert-type scale. Data are treated with a one-way analysis of variance, and hypotheses are retained or rejected at the .05 level of significance. When a significant F-ratio is found on data having more than two groups, the Fisher's t for multi-type comparisons is applied to determine where the significant differences occur.
Date: August 1973
Creator: McIntosh, Carolyn Jo Johnson, 1938-
Partner: UNT Libraries