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Play Therapy Behavior of Sexually Abused Children

Description: This survey research was designed to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. A survey instrument was developed from a comprehensive review of the professional literature and the assistance of an expert panel. After a field test, 140 items of play therapy behavior were developed into a survey instrument. The respondent was asked to rate on a Likert scale the frequency of occurrence of these play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Each play therapy behavior was rated for the following four groups: Males, 3-6 Years; Females, 3-6 Years; Males, 7-10 Years and Females, 7-10 Years. The entire international membership of the Association of Play Therapy (APT) was used to obtain the largest possible number of viable responses. As anticipated, of the 786 replies, 41% were not seeing sexually abused children in play therapy. In order to insure the most robust findings possible, it was determined to utilize data from the 249 most experienced play therapists (having worked with 16 or more sexually abused children). The typical respondent in this group was a female play therapist, 40-50 years of age, with a Masters degree in Counseling or Social Work.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Homeyer, Linda.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Parents of Children Experiencing Learning Difficulties

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the Landreth 10-week filial therapy model as an intervention for the parents of children experiencing learning difficulties.The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: 1) increasing parental acceptance of children with a learning difficulty; 2) reducing the stress level of parents of children with learning difficulties; 3) decreasing social problems and total behavior problems of children with learning difficulties as reported by parents and teachers.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Kale, Amy L. (Amy Louise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Efficacy and Selected Variables as Predictors of Persistence for First Quarter Students at a Proprietary Institution

Description: Proprietary colleges are uniquely different from two or four year colleges due to the emphasis on the student establishing a definite career path prior to enrollment. Because of this career track emphasis, Bandura's (1977) postulation that self-efficacy is a significant variable influencing task completion may offer insight into the challenge of student retention at a proprietary college. The study's purpose was to determine if career self-efficacy, demographic factors, and academic preparedness measures in first quarter students could predict student persistence, class attendance, and academic performance. The statistical technique of multinomial logistic regression was applied to data files of 725 first quarter students who attended The Art Institute of Dallas from Summer 1996 through Winter 1997. The predictor variables included a measure of career self-efficacy, ASSET scores (American College Testing Program, 1994), ethnicity, age, gender, full-time/part-time attendance, high school grade point average, parents' educational level, socioeconomic status, and developmental course placement. Criterion variables were completion, class attendance, and cumulative grade point average.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Baughman, Leslie C. (Leslie Claire)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Immigrant Chinese Parents in Canada

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy training in: (a) increasing immigrant Chinese parents' empathic behavior with their children; (b) increasing immigrant Chinese parents' acceptance level toward their children; (c) reducing immigrant Chinese parents' stress related to parenting; (d) reducing immigrant Chinese parents' perceived number of problem behaviors in their children; and (e) enhancing the self concept of the Chinese children of immigrant Chinese parents.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Yuen, Tommy Chi-man
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adlerian Life Style and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Description: The possibility of a relationship between Adlerian life style, as measured by the Life Style Personality Inventory (LSPI), and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was examined by this research. The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between these instruments to broaden the applicability of both instruments for both research and clinical endeavors. Life style is a concept which is vital to therapeutic intervention from an Adlerian frame of reference. Assessment of life style typically involves lengthy therapist interviews. Both the LSPI and the MBTI are questionnaires designed to measure personality variables. The 117 subjects for this study were solicited from individuals seeking counseling from an urban community counseling center. The individuals served by this agency are primarily those diagnosed with Adjustment Disorders. The LSPI and the MBTI were administered individually to each subject. Means and standard deviations were computed for the seven LSPI themes and the MBTI total. Due to a lack of research support for Theme 4 by the LSPI author, the data for this theme were disregarded. The same research indicated a strong bipolar relationship for Themes 7 and 8 (Displaying Inadequacy and Social Interest), which prompted the inclusion of Theme 8 in subsequent data analysis. A correlation analysis was developed. Using the correlation matrix, a factor analysis program was run using the SPSS-X statistical package. The principal components analysis extracted three factors which were refined by a factor rotation using the varimax rotation option. To clarify Factor 3, further analysis was performed with the MBTI data divided by continuum and a second factor analysis was run. Four factors emerged from the data with Factors 1 and 2 remaining unchanged. Factor 1 (Emotional Focusing) and Factor 2 (Confrontation) were loaded with the LSPI themes. Factor 3 (Temperament) and Factor 4 (External-Internal) were loaded with the ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Doss, Carol Rose
Partner: UNT Libraries

HIV and Duty to Protect: a Survey of Licensed Professional Counselors and Physicians

Description: This study was designed to investigate what course of action therapists and physicians report they would take in reconciling their conflicting duties to maintain confidentiality and protect third parties from harm in HIV-related situations. The physicians surveyed were licensed to practice medicine in Texas and board certified in Internal Medicine. The therapists surveyed were licensed professional counselors in Texas and members of one of three selected divisions within the Texas Counseling Association. A survey instrument developed by the researcher was mailed to 200 subjects randomly selected from each group.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Johnson, Laura K. (Laura Kimberly)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Hardiness, Coping Style, and Burnout: Relationships in Female Hospital Nurses

Description: This study investigated relationships among and between psychological hardiness, coping style, and burnout in 101 female hospital nurses. The third generation (50-item) hardiness scale, scored by the revised scoring procedure, was used to measure hardiness and its components. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used as the measurement for burnout. Coping style was assessed by the COPE Inventory. The components of hardiness, commitment, control, and challenge, were hypothesized to be negative predictors of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and positive predictors of personal accomplishment. In addition, hardiness and its components were postulated to be positively related to adaptive coping styles and negatively related to maladaptive coping styles. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were thought to be related positively to maladaptive coping styles and negatively related to adaptive coping styles. Personal accomplishment was thought to be positively related to adaptive coping style and negatively related to maladaptive coping style. Simple and multiple regressions were used.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Fusco, Phylann S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parent Training and Guided Imagery: Comparison of a Traditional and a Modified STEP Program

Description: The effectiveness of guided imagery as an enhancement to the Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) program was explored during a shortened 8-week program using three parent groups of elementary-age students matched for parent training experience and couple participation: a) an imagery-modified STEP group (STEP-Im, n = 14); b) a traditional STEP group (STEP, n = 14); and c) a drop-out comparison group (n = 10). Guided imagery consisted of centering exercise(s) for focus and concentration; structured imagery of Adlerian concepts; and open-ended role-assumption imagery for clarifying personal values, the perspectives of others, and concept practice.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Smith, Dianne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Selected Adlerian Personality Constructs and Counselor Effectiveness in a Master's Level Counseling Practicum

Description: This study was designed to examine the relationship between selected Adlerian personality constructs and counselor effectiveness in a master's level practicum. In addition, the relationship between counselor age and counselor effectiveness was examined.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Watts, Richard E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Family Stress Factors Across Three Family Types

Description: This study investigated the difference in stress levels of stress factors according to the structure or type of family. The relatedness of the ranking of stress factors within and across three family types and the relationship between level of stress and number of years in current family type were also examined. Important aspects of this study were using three family types, using families seeking counseling as the subjects, and investigating numerous stress factors across family types. These research techniques avoided the limitations of previous research which investigated only one family type, thus isolating special stress issues for a certain family type where those special issues actually might not differentiate among family types. Also, considering numerous stress factors at one time, rather than only a few factors, indicated relative levels of stress as well as absolute stresses that families are likely to experience. Targeting families who had sought counseling should give counselors a more realistic view of clients and their problems.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Barlow, Karen Haun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Therapeutic Effects of Group Counseling with Visually-Impaired Elderly Adults

Description: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of group counseling with visually-impaired elderly adults, and (b) to provide information concerning the effectiveness of group counseling to practitioners in the field. The study reviewed the literature regarding aging and vision, psychosocial reactions to vision loss, and group counseling with the visually-impaired and the elderly. Twenty subjects, who were above age 65 and had recently experienced a severe loss of vision, were selected to participate in the study. Ten subjects were assigned to an experimental counseling group and 10 subjects were assigned to a no-treatment control group. The experimental group participated in 1-1/2 hour group sessions once a week for 10 weeks. Both the experimental group and the control subjects were administered pre- and post-tests. The tests measured depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Schor, Mark Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adjustment of Kindergarten Children through Play Sessions Facilitated by Fifth Grade Students Trained in Child-Centered Play Therapy Procedures and Skills

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of the application of child-centered play therapy procedures and skills by trained fifth grade students in play sessions with kindergarten children who had adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this research determined if play sessions with trained fifth grade students facilitated change in kindergarten children's self concept, internalizing behavior, and externalizing behavior and their parents' stress level.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Baggerly, Jennifer N. (Jennifer Nalini)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Analysis of Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy and intensive individual play therapy on the above identified dimensions.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Tyndall-Lind, Ashley
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Profiles of Success in Two Instructional Methods

Description: The problem of this study was to isolate predictors of academic success in both self-paced classes and lecture classes in Introductory Accounting. The purposes of the study were to determine if learning style, locus of control, reading ability, age, sex, accounting work experience, and prior accounting academic experience are predictors of success in Introductory Accounting classes taught using self-paced methods of instruction and lecture methods of instruction. Another purpose was to determine if there is a difference in the set of predictors of success in the two instructional methods and to provide some direction as to determinants of success which may be addressed by counselors in advising students. The data were collected from 463 students at a suburban community college in the Southwest. Each of the variables was analyzed by a stepwise multiple regression analysis and a backward elimination regression for students grouped according to instructional method. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine whether the distribution of scores on the potential predictor variables were equivalent for students in the two teaching methods and for successful completers of the course and noncompleters. Consideration of the data findings of this study permitted the following conclusions: 1. Age and reading ability have a positive relationship to academic success in an Introductory Accounting course taught in a lecture format. 2. Concrete learning style, as measured by the Learning Style Inventory, age, reading ability, and accounting work experience have a positive relationship to success in an Introductory Accounting course taught in a self-paced format. 3. Age, reading ability, accounting work experience, and a concrete learning style have a positive relationship to academic success in Accounting courses taught using either method. 4. There is a difference in the set of predictors of success for Accounting classes taught using the two instructional methods. ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Williams, John David, 1948-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of a Nursing Program on Stress, Physical Illness, Anxiety, and Self-Concept of Participants in a Community College Nursing Program

Description: This research study was designed to investigate the relationship between participation in a nursing education program and the factors of stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept experienced by the participants. Also, the study examined the relationship between age of participants and these same factors. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if beginning and ending nursing students differ in stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept, (2) to examine the relationship between age of nursing students and stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept, (3) to provide information that may help develop a theoretical base concerning stressful life events and illness in nursing students, and (4) to provide information that may be beneficial with regard to future research involving stress, physical illness, anxiety, self-concept, and age in nursing students.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Gray, Sylvia Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Group Counseling and Group Discussion on Selected Personality Variables of First-Year Theology Students

Description: This study examined the use of group counseling and group discussion as a method of demonstrating changes on selected personality variables of first-year theology students. It was hypothesized that the subjects would become less dogmatic (more open-minded), motivated from a more internal locus of control, feel less anxious, and demonstrate greater creativity and self-concept following their participation in either group counseling or group discussion. Group counseling was hypothesized to be the best method for effecting changes. The subjects were first-year theology students at a southwestern theological seminary. These participants planned to work in some phase of ministry; several planning to be ordained as priests or to enter the deaconate. This study was based upon the premise that ministers often assume a counseling role and they therefore, need training in counseling skills and an opportunity to enhance their personal development. Group counseling and group discussion were explored as possible means to achieve these ends. Each of the five personality variables was measured on a pretest-posttest design. The subjects were tested prior to meeting in one of the two formats and tested again after fifteen hours of participation in one of the groups. A control group was also tested at these same times to allow for a comparison to be made as to which method was most effective. Chapter I presents a review of related literature on the five variables and the need for training of ministers in counseling skills and for providing an opportunity for self-growth. Chapter II states the procedures and includes definitions, the method of the study and a discussion of the instrumentation. Chapter III presents the results of the study and a discussion of the implications. Although the findings indicated some changes in the variables as predicted by the hypotheses, none of the changes was statistically significant. Therefore, ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Qualia, Linda R. (Linda Raffel)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Generational and Transgenerational Issues of the Japanese American Internment : A Phenomenological Study

Description: This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine the generational and transgenerational issues of five identified Japanese American families. To be included in this study, families were identified to contain at least one member who was interned during World War II or who had parents, grandparents, or great-grandparents who were interned. Semistructured interviews, including Adlerian lifestyle assessments, were conducted with the 28 research informants who represented the second, third, and fourth generations of their families.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Mayeda, Karen A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ann Richards : An Adlerian Psychobiography

Description: This psychobiography used the framework of Individual Psychology to examine the life style development of the Honorable Ann Richards in order to provide insight into the creation of a life style by a successful, contemporary female leader. This single case study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine from Ms. Richards' point of view the manner in which a highly visible and well-known individual created her particular style of life.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Pearson, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries

Intensive Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive play therapy as a method of intervention for child witnesses of domestic violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intensive play therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and social problems, thought problems, and attention problems, of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) improving play behaviors in the areas of affection, contact, physical proximity, self-direction, aggression, mood, play themes, and food nurturing themes.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Kot, Sarina (Sarina Ying-Lai)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Structural Approach to Four Theories of Group Development

Description: The goal of this study was to attempt to develop a classification scheme that systematically related individual behavior, interpersonal behavior, and group interactions for the purpose of using the resulting classification scheme to evaluate theories of group development proposed by Bion, Bennis and Shepard, Bales, and Tuckman and Jensen. It was assumed that theorists' presuppositions about the structure of groups might influence their theories. Using a qualitative process of analysis, a structural classification scheme (SCS) was developed based upon transformative and generative rules, utilizing the General System Theory subsystem process of self-regulated boundary operations. The SCS protocol was employed to categorize and compare the theories of group development proposed by Bion, Bennis and Shepard, Bales, and Tuckman and Jensen. The resulting categorization of theories indicated that relationships existed among and between a group's structural properties, the complexity and type of communication connections among and between group members, and the size of the group. In addition, a common structural relationship was demonstrated to exist among and between individual, dyadic, and triadic group forms. A similar structural relationship was also speculated to exist between groups of any size. It was concluded that a structural approach to groups may offer insight to group leaders and members in recognizing and creating alternative frameworks that best fit a group's structure to its task. This approach may have broad implications in that it suggests that group goals might best be considered before the structure of the group is determined. In addition, a structural approach was also speculated to be an emotionally neutral alternative method of discussing individual and group behavior.
Date: May 1997
Creator: King, Dennis J., 1945-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Characteristics of Psychological Safety in Group Counseling

Description: Psychological safety is a concept mentioned throughout the literature as a necessary component in the process of change in group counseling. Despite its frequent mention, no study has examined the characteristics of psychological safety. The purpose of this study was to lay the groundwork for a definition of the concept of psychological safety using self reports of group leaders and group members on a constructed Likert format psychological safety questionnaire of three attributional categories: self, other members, and leader. The study utilized group members (n = 44) and group leaders (n = 4) participating in laboratory groups as a part of a counseling related masters curriculum. The questionnaires were filled out on the first, eighth (middle), and fourteenth (last) sessions. Hierarchies for characteristics and attribution were constructed by using a summing procedure of the Likert responses. Results on the attribution of psychological safety by group members showed a consistent pattern over the three time measures. Group members reported leaders as the most attributed to facilitating psychological safety, other members as second, and self as least attributed to facilitate psychological safety. Group leaders showed no apparent agreement between groups, but each group leader attributed psychological safety consistently over time within one's own group. Results on the characteristics of psychological safety yielded a comprehensive list of characteristics, arranged in hierarchical format, as reported by both group members and leaders. Results indicated that psychological safety has some core concepts in each of the attributional categories. For group members, the characteristics of "warmth and support" and "active listening" were stable across every attributional category and time measure. For group leaders, "self disclosing feelings", "warmth and support", and "responding in an emotional, feeling manner" were reported in every time measure and attributional category. Characteristics that had a negative effect on psychological safety and recommendations for ...
Date: May 1997
Creator: Fall, Kevin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness of Filial/Play Therapy Training on High School Students' Empathic Behavior with Young Children

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a filial/play therapy training model with high school juniors and seniors enrolled in a Peer Assistance and Leadership program (PALs). Filial/play therapy is an intervention that focuses on strengthening and enhancing adult-child relationships. The high students are trained to be a therapeutic change agent for primary school children identified as having adjustment difficulties by utilizing basic child-centered play therapy skills in weekly play sessions with young children. Specifically, this study is designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in increasing: 1) the high school students' observed empathic behavior with young children, 2) the high school students' observed attitude of acceptance toward young children, 3) the high school students' observed ability to allow self-direction in young children, and 4) the high school students' observed level of involvement with young children. The experimental group, consisting of 16 volunteer high school students enrolled in a PALs class for high school credit, received a total of 24 weeks of filial/play therapy didactic training, application, and supervision for the playtimes they conducted with pre-kindergarten/kindergarten students identified with adjustment difficulties. The comparison group consisted of 15 volunteer high school students enrolled in a PALs class for high school credit. The comparison group received the standard PALs class curriculum. All students were videotaped playing with a young child 4 to 6 years of age before and after the training as a means of measuring empathic behavior with young children. An Analysis of Covariance revealed statistically significant findings in all four hypotheses. Specifically, the experimental group of high school students exhibited statistically significant increases in empathic interactions with young children when compared to the comparison group. The experimental group also exhibited statistically significant increases in communication of acceptance of young children's feelings and behaviors, acceptance and behavioral willingness ...
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Jones, Leslie D.
Partner: UNT Libraries