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Developmental Stressors and Associated Coping Skills in the Development of Disordered Eating in College Females

Description: There is a lack of clarity in the current literature in how potential etiological factors interact and result in disordered eating. The purpose of this study was to examine an expanded model of Personality, Social Support, Appraisal/Coping Processes, Abuse History, Internalization of Sociocultural Standards, Psychological Disturbances, and Body Disparagement in the development of disordered eating. The current model was evaluated using 276 women in their transition to college, a time period highly associated with symptoms believed to increase a woman's risk for the development of disordered eating including perceived difficulty coping, weight gain, and negative affect. Structural equation modeling was used to allow simultaneous examination of the causal relationships between the factors. Structural analyses confirmed that college women with previous stressful experiences appraised the adjustment to college as more stressful and reported feeling less able to cope with the transition. Those women who identified the transition as overwhelming were also aware of increased negative mood and psychological states since beginning the school semester. Further, women with previous traumatic sexual experiences appeared to be at additional risk for increased negative affective symptoms. The resulting model confirmed that those women who experience negative mood states and those that endorse strong internalization of cultural values regarding attractiveness encountered increased dissatisfaction and disapproval of their bodies. Finally, women with higher levels of body concern engaged in more eating behaviors associated with disordered eating. The roles of personality functioning and perceived social support could not be identified in the developmental model. The predictive links between constructs in the resulting model provide meaningful information regarding the transition to college and associated risks for development of disordered eating. Validation of the model in an independent sample would provide confirmation of these relationships and longitudinal research examining females' attitudes across crucial developmental periods might provide important information regarding ...
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Date: August 2002
Creator: Tripp, Margaret Murphy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Denial of Risk: the Effects of Intentional Minimization on Risk Assessments for Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic Offenders

Description: Risk assessments for offenders often combine past records with current clinical findings from observations, interviews, and test data. Conclusions based on these risk assessments are highly consequential, sometimes resulting in increased criminal sentences or prolonged hospitalization. Offenders are therefore motivated to intentionally minimize their risk scores. Intentional minimization is especially likely to occur in offenders with high psychopathic traits because goal-directed deception is reflected in many of the core traits of the disorder, such as manipulativeness, glibness, and superficial charm. However, this connection appears to be based on the conceptual understanding of psychopathy, and it has rarely been examined empirically for either frequency or success. The current study examined the connection between psychopathic traits and the intentional minimization of risk factors using a sentenced jail sample. In general, offenders were able to effectively minimize risk on the HCR-20 and SAQ, while the PICTS, as a measure of cognitive styles, was more resistant to such minimization. Psychopathic traits, especially high interpersonal facet scores, led to greater minimization using a repeated measure, simulation design. Important differences in the willingness and ability to use deception were found based on (a) the content of subscales, and (b) the mode of administration (i.e., interview vs. self-report). The important implications of this research are discussed for risk assessment procedures regarding likely areas of deception and its detection. It also informs the growing literature on the connection between psychopathic traits and deception.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Gillard, Nathan D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Multi-method Approach to Examining Stress and Anxiety Among Mexican American College Students

Description: United States post-secondary education continues to see an increase in Hispanic enrollment, particularly those of Mexican heritage. The present study was designed to examine this population’s experience of stress, anxiety and academic approach-avoidance conflict. Data were collected at North Texas postsecondary institutions. Participants (N = 197) completed an online survey including a Picture Story Exercise (PSE), open-ended responses to hypothetical scenarios, and self-report measures. The current study utilized a mixed-method approach integrating content analysis measures and self-reports. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms expressed to academic, familial, and minority social situations differed, partial η2=.39; with the academic scenario including the highest and minority social scenario the lowest anxiety. Results suggested that Mexican-American college students may express cognitive and affective symptoms of anxiety more frequently than physical symptoms on scenarios but not on self-report scales (Personality Assessment Inventory Anxiety; PAI Anxiety). PSE responses suggested that Conflict and Drive for Goal Orientation were frequent among this sample. Academic Total Anxiety and Academic Physical Anxiety related positively to PSE Conflict, while Academic Cognitive Anxiety related negatively to PSE Positive Outcomes. Exploratory models predicting PSE variables from Academic Anxiety and PAI Anxiety were inconclusive but suggested that gender accounted for significant variance in PSE scores.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Durón, Kelly M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Attention and Metacognition in the Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire

Description: The elaborated intrusion (EI) theory of desire is a cognitive model that describes the processes involved in craving as intrusive thoughts that are elaborated upon leading to dissonance when desires are not met. While the theory is based on a wide body of research, certain theoretical predictions have not been fully examined. Specifically, EI theory argues that mental imagery has a central role in craving, and predicts that attempts to suppress substance-related intrusive thoughts and mental imagery is related to increased craving. Further, EI theory suggests that elaboration of craving imagery is related to attention and working memory processes, however, there are questions about whether differential performance in these domains is related to craving. The current study examined the relationship between attention/working memory performance and alcohol craving in a sample of 119 young adult males. Additionally, metacognition was examined to clarify the phenomenological aspects of craving within EI theory. Attention and working memory performance did not significantly predict intrusive thought and mental imagery elaboration. Individuals with high craving reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, thought suppression, and greater strength and frequency of craving-related mental imagery. They were also more likely to try to control their own thoughts and make negative judgments on their ability to do so. The strength of craving-related intrusive thoughts, not mental imagery, was the most significant predictor of craving. Implications for the understanding of craving and treatment recommendations based on the findings are discussed.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Yates III, Robert D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Seasonality of Birth in Schizophrenia in Taiwan

Description: The phenomenon of seasonality of birth in schizophrenia is important in the study of the etiology of this mental disorder because it helps to give directions for further research. Patients' hospital files from 1981 to 1991 of two of the largest hospitals with psychiatric wards in Taiwan were reviewed, and dates of birth collected on 3346 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. After adjusting for the variations of the total monthly births in the population, an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was applied. Results support a seasonality phenomenon and indicate a disproportional excess of births in schizophrenia in the cold months (Nov. to Feb.) compared to the hot months (May to Aug.). These findings are compatible with many other studies in other countries and climates. Further investigations of season-related environmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia are recommended.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of "Game" and "Test" Instructions on the WISC-R Performance of High- and Low-Test-Anxious Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of "game" and "test" instructions on the intelligence test performance of high- and low-test-anxious children. Eighty-one subjects diagnosed as learning disabled were given the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC) to determine their level of test anxiety. Based on TASC scores, 44 subjects were classified as either fljgj- or low- test-anxious. These subjects were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) using either game or test instructions to introduce the test. The resulting 10 and subtest configuration scores were used to compare high- and low-test-anxious subjects by the type of instructions they received prior to testing. This comparison yielded no significant differences between high and low-test-anxious subjects, indicating that the way the WISC-R is Introduced does not play a significant role in the WISC-R performance of high- and low-test-anxious children.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Martin, Laura Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries

Autostereotypes and Acculturative Stress in Hispanic College Students: Implications on Self-Esteem and Achievement Motivation

Description: This study evaluated the impact of acculturative stress and negative autostereotypes on the level of self-esteem and achievement motivation among subgroups of Hispanic college students. Subjects were classified by generational level as Second-generation (i.e., foreign-born parents), or Other (i.e., first-generation, foreign-born individuals, and third-generation, foreign-born grandparents;). By country/region of origin, subjects were divided into Central-Americans, Puerto-Ricans, Mexican, Mexican-Americans, and South Americans. Results showed that acculturative stress may facilitate loss of self-esteem particularly in Second-generation individuals, while negative autostereotypic attitudes may actually increase the student's level of motivation for achievement, particularly in Mexican-American individuals. Also, country/region of origin overall influenced negative autostereotypic attitudes.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Fantoni, Patricia (Patricia Maria Angelica)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Permeability of Selves and Compliance with Therapeutic Homework

Description: A model of the person as a "community of selves" was used to investigate how adopting the perspective of different selves influenced anticipated compliance with therapy homework designed to decrease academic procrastination. A model of resistance to change derived from personal construct theory was used to predict which selves subjects would tend to see as more likely to take on the role of carrying out the homework. Focusing on different selves was found to influence anticipated compliance, and the model of resistance to change was partially successful in predicting which selves would be seen as more likely to carry out the homework. Implications for therapy and research are discussed within the framework of a model of first and second order change.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Scott, Gregory Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Nightmare Frequency and Hypnotic Susceptibility: Valid Correlation or Context-Mediated Artifact?

Description: The possibility that a positive correlation between nightmare frequency and hypnotic susceptibility reported by Belicki and Belicki (1986) was an artifact of administering a sleep questionnaire in the context of a hypnosis experiment was tested in the present study. Measures of vividness and absorption were also administered. Forty subjects, twenty of whom were told that the measures were related to hypnotic responding, completed the questionnaires immediately prior to hypnosis. Twenty other subjects, who completed the questionnaires in contexts unrelated to hypnosis, were later hypnotized. The hypothesis that context of administration of the questionnaires influenced the relationship between the measures and hypnotic susceptibility was not supported. Replication using a larger sample was recommended.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Callahan, Theresa A. (Theresa Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Note-Taking and Trust Level on Self-Disclosure of Prisoners

Description: This study investigated the effects of trust level and note-taking upon the level of self-disclosure among prisoners. Sixty inmates at a federal prison were administered the Rotter Interpersonal Trust Scale. Next, using a median split, participants were divided into two groups of high and low mistrust. Subjects within each of these groups were then randomly assigned to a high, low, or no note-taking condition. Each prisoner then discussed an intimate topic for thirty minutes. Level of self-disclosure was measured by an abbreviated version of the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank. No significant differences were found as a function of trust level or note-taking condition. Some implications for further research are suggested.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Gontz, Barbara J. (Barbara Jeanne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparability of the WPPSI-R and the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of children on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) with their performance on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SB:FE). One hundred and four children between 3 and 7 years of age were administered both tests. A moderate correlation was found between the WPPSI-R Full Scale IQ and the SB:FE Composite Score with a Pearson product-moment correlation of .46. This correlation suggests that the two tests are not interchangeable measures of children's intelligence. They may measure different, equally important aspects of intelligence. As both tests used are relatively new, the current findings should be considered one step in the accumulation of knowledge about the usefulness of the WPPSI-R.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Bass, Catherine
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Lateralization of Task on the Use of the Dual Task Paradigm as a Measure of General Intelligence

Description: Stankov's work on attention and intelligence suggests that the dual task paradigm, requiring the division of attention, is a better measure of general intellectual ability than the single task paradigm which does not make this demand. Sixty right handed undergraduates remembered digit and visual-spatial sequences alone and in two dual task conditions involving lateralized key tapping as the primary task. R gher intercorrelations were found under dual task conditions in which the tasks competed for the same hemisphere's resources. Better memory performance resulted when both tasks were lateralized to the same hemisphere. Hierarchical models combining general attention resources with ,lateralized hemispheric resources best account for these resutsi
Date: December 1985
Creator: Urbanczyk, Sally Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Back Pain Patients' Compliance with Vocational Rehabilitation: Use of the MMPI and HAT to Predict Outcome

Description: The use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Health Attribution Test (HAT) for predicting referral compliance to a state vocational rehabilitation program was evaluated. Subjects included 53 patients (26 males, 27 females) who were chosen at random three to 18 months following discharge from an inpatient chronic and spinal pain center. Subjects were administered the MMPI and HAT upon hospital admission and seven outcome measures of referral compliance were obtained. A discriminant analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that certain items would best discriminate compliance. Most discriminative of compliance was the MMPI validity scale K (Wilks Lambda = .751, p ≤ .033). A regrouping of data into two groups, active and inactive, yielded ego strength (MMPI, ES) and ability to trust others (PA) as significant differentiating variables.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Weisberg, James N. (James Noah)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of the Relationship Between Holland's Vocational Scales and a Measure of Interpersonal Needs

Description: Previous research has provided evidence of relationships between vocational interests and other psychological variables. Test scores from the VPI and FIRO-B for 699 white male job applicants were subjected to multiple regression analyses to determine if individual interest scales could be predicted by particular configurations of interpersonal need scales. It was hypothesized that Enterprising, Realistic, and Investigative interests would be predicted by Inclusion and Control needs and Social interests by Inclusion, Control, and Affection needs. To control for effects of sample size, a smaller sample (n = 125) was randomly drawn from the original data and subjected to identical analyses. Results indicated only partial support for some hypotheses and revealed little common variance between the two domains.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Crumpton, Gerald W. (Gerald Wayne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Prototypical Analysis of Antisocial Personality Disorder: Important Considerations for the DSM-IV

Description: Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) represents a controversial diagnoses which has gone through many revisions over the past 25 years and is scheduled to be revised again for the DSM IV. A comprehensive survey was composed of APD criteria from the DSM II, DSM III, DSM III-R, PCL-R, Psychopathic Personality Disorder, and Dyssocial Personality Disorder. The survey was completed by 321 forensic psychiatrists based on which criteria they believed to be the most prototypical of antisocial personality. The results identified four factors: irresponsibility, unstable self image, and unstable relationships; manipulation and lack of guilt; aggressive behavior; and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. A diagnostic set composed of the most prototypical criteria was proposed for the DSM IV diagnosis of APD.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Duncan, Julianne Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessing the Object Relations of Sexually Abused Females

Description: The TAT stories of 38 sexually abused females between the ages of 5 and 18 years and a clinical group of 26 females with no recorded history of abuse were analyzed using the Object Relations and Social Cognitions TAT Scoring System (Westen et al., 1985). Subjects in the sexual abuse group showed significantly lower mean scores on a scale measuring affect-tone of relationship paradigms and on a scale measuring complexity of representations of people. In addition, pathological responses were given significantly more often by sexual abuse victims on the complexity of representations of people scale. Thus, sexually abused children showed more primitive and simple characterizations of people and more negative, punitive affect in their representations. Moreover, these results were independent of age, race, and intelligence. Group differences are discussed in terms of object relations development.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Freedenfeld, Robert N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Importance of Staff Cohesiveness in Treatment Effectiveness as Demonstrated by Client Self-Disclosure

Description: Much research has studied cohesiveness within client groups in terms of making therapeutic gains. These studies have defined cohesiveness in terms of a) attraction of the group as perceived by a group member, b) how clearly each member sees his/her role within the group, and c) the effectiveness of one's skills in attaining group goals. Little research has dealt with the role of staff cohesiveness in developing an effective treatment program. Effectiveness, in this study, is defined as the degree to which clients are willing to disclose personal information to the staff. The results show a positive correlation between staff's perceived effectiveness with clients and the clients' willingness to self-disclose. On-hand experience with clients seems important in involving clients in therapy.
Date: December 1984
Creator: MacMullan, Peter Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychoneurological Responses Associated with Chemicals in Serum of Environmentally Ill Patients

Description: The purpose of the present study was to determine the degree of relationship between neurotoxic chemicals in the blood of chemically sensitive patients and psychoneurological functioning. Blood samples were drawn from 30 patients being treated for environmental illness. All patients were administered a standardized intermediate psychoneurological examination. Results indicate a significant positive relationship between psychoneurological (cognitive neurobehavioral) functioning and the number of and total parts per billion of certain environmental toxins (solvents) in the blood of the subjects. The symptoms most commonly exhibited included deficits in short-term memory, problems with coordination and motor sequencing, somatosensory deficits, and cognitive dysfunction.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Baldridge, Jeffrey T. (Jeffrey Turner)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Anger/Hostility: Reliability of Measurement and Correlates of Health History

Description: The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the reliability and validity of anger/hostility measures, (2) examine the relationship between anger/hostility and other negative emotions, and (3) examine the relationship between anger/hostility and health history. Sixty-five subjects were given the Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Profile of Mood States pomsS), the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Health and Wellness Attitude Inventory (HWAI), and a health questionnaire designed to provide information about past disease and alcohol/drug use. Overall, the BDHI and POMS displayed good test-retest reliability. All six of the global indices of anger/hostility intercorrelated at a significant level, thus demonstrating good concurrent validity. The six global measures of anger/hostility also correlated at a significant level with other negative emotions.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Buri, Robert J. (Robert John)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Rorschach Assessment of Object Relations Development in Sexually Abused Children

Description: Sexual abuse of children has profound negative effects on psychological development. This study examined the effects of sexual abuse on object relations functioning by using the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MAS, Urist, 1977) to score Rorschach protocols of 63 abused children and 60 non-abused clinical controls. The hypothesis that abused children would have less developed object relations than their non-abused counterparts was not supported. Neither was the hypothesis that children who experienced greater severity of sexual abuse would exhibit more malevolent object relations. The hypothesis that mean and modal MAS scores would be highly intercorrelated and interchangeable as research variables was supported. Comparisons of this sample to a normative sample are discussed.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Isler, Diane E. (Diane Evelyn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Race of Counselor, Cultural Mistrust Level and Willingness to Seek Psychological Treatment Among Mexican-American Adolescents

Description: The effects of cultural mistrust level and race of counselor on the willingness of Mexican-American adolescents to seek psychological help were examined in this experiment. A total of 79 Mexican-American adolescents consisting of 50 females and 29 males completed a Background Information Inventory, a modified version of the Cultural Mistrust Inventory, and the Help Seeking Attitude Scale. Five regression analyses were performed resulting in a significant interaction between cultural mistrust level and willingness to seek help. Mexican-American adolescents with high levels of mistrust were less willing to seek psychological treatment than those with a low level of mistrust. Results also indicated that females as well as individuals with higher levels of education were more willing to seek help than males and those with lower levels of education. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Lira, Caryn C. (Caryn Celeste)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children of Battered Women: Personality Patterns and Identification

Description: Mental health professionals have observed that children who witness interparental violence frequently display either an affrontive, demanding personality style, or a passive, compliant style. The prevalence of these personality types and their relation to identification, stress, and other variables was evaluated in a sample of 40 children (age range = 6 - 12 years old) who have witnessed parental spouse abuse. Children completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and the Parental Identification Questionnaire. Mothers completed the Life Experiences Survey. Independent ratings of the children's personality were made. The results validated the existence of these two personality styles among both male and female witnesses, and supplied evidence for their relation to paternal identification, familial instability, and parental ineffectualness. The implications of these findings for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Adler, Jeffrey Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

Magical Contagion and AIDS Scale: Development and Validation

Description: A Magical Contagion and AIDS Scale was developed to address problems with existing Contagion and AIDS measures. Magical Contagion is an influence that exists after contact is terminated. It is comprised of Permanence, Holographic Effects, Moral Germ Conflation and Backward Action. Data from 280 undergraduates revealed low mean levels of Magical Contagion and AIDS. Contagion effects did not differ on demographic variables. Content validity, criterion-related validity, discriminate validity, and internal consistency were evaluated. Significant correlations were found between the Contagion Scale and Merging/Separation and Homophobia Scales. Negative correlations were found between the Contagion scale and the AIDS knowledge and social desirability scales. Alpha reliabilities were high (a > .93) for the Contagion scale and subscales. Factor analysis suggested the existence of a single factor and mixed support for three factors.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Oizumi, Joelle J. (Joelle Julienne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting Sexual Abuse by Analyzing Manifest Content of Thematic Material

Description: The TAT protocols of 30 sexually abused female children and 30 female children with no documented history of abuse were analyzed using the Scoring Scheme for the TAT and Other Verbal Projective Techniques (Fine, 1955). No significant differences were found between groups on mean number of negative feelings portraited in the TAT stories. Similarly, no significant differences were found between groups on mean number of unfavorable outcomes to TAT stories. However, when specific feelings were considered, subjects in the sexual abuse group showed a significantly higher incidence of reference to guilt and sexuality. These results were independent of age, race, and intelligence.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Pistole, Debbie R. (Deborah Rene)
Partner: UNT Libraries