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The Effectiveness of a Cholesterol Reduction Intervention Program Among Female Employees in a Corporate Setting

Description: Three cholesterol interventions were evaluated in a work-site setting to determine which was most effective in modifying physiological, behavioral, and knowledge measures related to total serum cholesterol. Of the 246 employees initially screened, 135 (55%) were identified as having elevated total serum cholesterol levels (>200 mg/dl) and were eligible for the study. Treatment consisted of either a six-session cholesterol reduction course requiring 30 days dietary monitoring, a six-session course without dietary monitoring, or an incentive only approach. Significant increases in cholesterol knowledge and dietary fiber consumption was found in both the education intervention with logging and intervention without logging groups. The results indicate that positive learning effects can take place in work-site settings and that such learning can lead to dietary changes that reduce the effects of high serum cholesterol.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Dahlke, David K. (David Keith)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ecological Analysis of Physical Activity and Health-related Quality of Life in Female College Students.

Description: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a comprehensive construct including physical and psychosocial health functioning. Despite significant health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), over 40% of female college students do not meet recommended PA guidelines to improve their health. This study investigated the influences of individual, social, and physical environmental factors on students’ PA and HRQOL. Participants were 235 female university students who completed validated surveys assessing their perceptions of PA, HRQOL, and social ecological factors. Three hierarchical regressions revealed individual and physical environmental factors as predictors of PA and HRQOL. These findings indicated health professionals need to consider students’ individual factors and physical environmental factors to promote female students’ PA and HRQOL.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Dunn, Jacqueline
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Resistance Training on Cytokines in Hiv+ Men with Chemical Dependence

Description: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and substance abuse (drug and/or alcohol) independently impair the immune system; importantly, the combination of HIV infection and substance abuse might produce more than an additive effect on this system. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and Interferon gamma (IFN?) are pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in differentiation of Th0 cells into Th1 cells. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) are anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in differentiation of Th0 cells to Th2 cells. Unbalanced Th1 and Th2 cells can lead to immune suppression. Thus, changes in these cytokines could have important implications for people infected with HIV (HIV+). Resistance training can counteract muscle wasting, improve strength, and improve muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of resistance training on resting concentrations of circulating TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10. Sixteen men (42 ± 11 years, 180.4 ± 9.1 cm, 89.2 ± 20.7 kg) infected with HIV and enrolled in an intensive 60-day in-patient substance addiction/abuse treatment program were recruited shortly after admission to the treatment facility. Participants were assigned to one of two groups using randomization: supervised resistance exercise 3 times per week using a progressive and non-linear periodized program (Exercise) or no exercise training (Non-Exercise) for six weeks. Before (Pre) and after (Post) the 6-week period, resting and fasted blood samples were obtained and analyzed for serum TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10 concentrations using a high-sensitivity ELISA. TNF-? did not change following the 6-week period for Exercise (Pre: 4.8 ± 2.7 pg·ml-1; Post: 4.6 ± 2.4 pg·ml-1) or Non-Exercise (Pre: 3.0 ± 1.3 pg·ml-1; Post: 2.7 ± 0.8 pg·ml-1). IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10 concentrations were below detectable limits. No adverse effects of the intervention were reported. A six-week resistance training program does not elicit changes in circulating TNF-? concentrations in men infected with HIV and ...
Date: May 2012
Creator: Curtis, John Harper
Partner: UNT Libraries

Hormonal Response to Free Weight and Machine Weight Resistance Exercise

Description: No study has examined the effect of exercise modality (free weight vs. machine weight) on the acute hormonal response using similar multi-joint exercises. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of resistance exercise modality on acute hormonal responses by comparing the squat and leg press which are multi-joint, and similar in action and lower-body muscle involvement. Ten resistance trained men (21-31 y, 24.7 ± 2.9 y, 179 ± 7 cm, 84.2 ± 10.5 kg) participated in the study. Sessions 1 and 2 determined the participants’ 1-RM in the squat and leg press. During acute heavy resistance exercise testing visits (AHRET), sessions 3 and 4, participants completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions with an initial intensity of 80% of their 1-RM for the squat and leg press exercises. There was a 2 minute rest period between each set. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 15 and 30 minutes after exercise via intravenous catheter during the AHRET visits and were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone. Lactate, plasma volume change, heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were also measured. Total work was calculated for external load only and for external load and the body mass used in the exercises. The 4 sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for exercise mode. Testosterone for the squat (Pre: 23.9 ± 8.7 nmol•L-1; IP: 31.4 ± 10.3 nmol•L) and leg press (Pre: 22.1 ± 9.4 nmol•L-1; IP: 26.9 ± 7.8 nmol•L) increased but more significantly after the squat. Growth hormone increased in both the squat (Pre: 0.2 ± 0.2 µg/L; IP: 9.5 ± 7.3 µg/L) and the leg press (Pre: 0.3 ± 0.5 µg/L; IP: 2.8 ± 3.2 µg/L). The increase was significantly higher after the squat compared to the leg press. Cortisol also increased after performing the squat (Pre: ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Shaner, Aaron Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Related to Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in College Students: a Social Cognitive Perspective

Description: Engaging in regular physical activity is important for maintaining and improving health. Unfortunately, most college students fail to meet the recommendations for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Psychosocial factors described within the social cognitive theory are related to the acquisition and retention of physical activity behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of gender, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support with college students meeting aerobic, muscle-strengthening and both PAGs. Participants (N = 396) completed online questionnaires assessing their physical activity behaviors, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support. Self-reported physical activity was classified as meeting / not meeting PAGs. Using gender, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support as predictors, separate logistic regressions were used to examine their relations with the three PAG classifications. Analyses revealed that being male and level of social support increased the odds of meeting muscle-strengthening PAGs, but students’ level of self-efficacy and outcome expectations increased the odds of meeting all three PAG classifications. These findings indicate that interventions designed to increase self-efficacy and outcome expectancy may be beneficial for increasing college students’ physical activity for meeting the PAGs. Promotion of muscle-strengthening activities targeted at young women is also warranted.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Farren, Gene L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between Mood State and Cognitive Strategies on Endurance Performance

Description: The present investigation examined the relationship between elated and depressed moods and dissociation, association, and positive self-talk strategies on endurance performance. Results showed a significant mood main effect with elated subjects performing longer than depressed subjects. Results also revealed a significant cognitive strategy main effect with positive self-talk and dissociation groups producing longer endurance times than association and control groups. A significant interaction between mood and cognitive strategy found that subjects in the positive self-talk and dissociation groups increased their performance time to a greater extent from the depressed to the elated condition than did subjects in the association and control groups. Results are discussed in terms of previous investigations of mood and cognitive strategies on physical performance.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Litke, Lonnie D. (Lonnie Dale)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Physiological and Psychological Effects of an Acute Stressor: Comparing Coping Strategies Among Very Physically Active and Less Active Adults

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity status of healthy adult males (N = 59) while in a coping strategy condition (association, disassociation, or control) influences psychophysiological responses to an acute painful stimulus. Measures of pain tolerance, state anxiety, body awareness, and salivary cortisol were investigated. Results indicated no significant differences between physical activity groups for pain tolerance, stress responses (i.e., self-reported state anxiety and cortisol levels), or body awareness. Though, those who indicated using a disassociation coping technique during the exit interview tolerated the acute, surface pain longer. More research is required to further understand the effects of physical activity and coping strategies on pain perception and psychophysiological responses.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Brandt, Grace A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Season Performance on Male and Female Track and Field Athletes’ Self-identity

Description: Although the “self” has generally been conceptualized as relatively stable in sport-specific research, events such as deselection, injury, and career termination have been found to negatively affect athletes’ levels of identification with the athlete role. Additionally, there has been limited research regarding competitive failure and its ability to negatively affect athletes’ levels of identification with the athlete role. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide additional evidence regarding the influence poor competitive seasons have on the malleability of athletes’ self-identity. Athletes were followed throughout the course of their season to determine whether athletes who encountered a poor competitive season reported lowered levels of athletic identity. Specifically, male and female NCAA Division I track and field athletes completed pre-indoor, post-indoor, and post-outdoor assessments of athletic identity. Contrary to previous research, the current study’s results indicated no identifiable relationship between male and female athletes’ season performance satisfaction and their level of post-indoor and post-outdoor athletic identity. Thus, the greatest predictor of athletes’ post-season level of athletic identity was their pre-season level of athletic identity, regardless of season performance. Given these results, future research should assess self-esteem as well as other potential coping strategies athletes might use in order to gain a better understanding of the effect encountering a poor competitive season may have on athletes’ self-identity.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Bradstreet, Tyler C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parental Attitudes Toward Human Sexuality Education in the Home and in the School

Description: To examine parental attitudes toward sexuality education in the home and school, sealed packets were distributed to fifth and seventh graders (N = 609) for each to deliver home to a parent. Parents were asked to express level of agreement with a series of attitude statements and to indicate the content and timing considered appropriate for sexuality instruction in the home and school. Analysis of 246 returned surveys (40% response rate) indicated that most parents trust the school to address human sexuality, though a sizeable minority of parents hold very conservative attitudes toward sexuality instruction in this setting. Results suggested that the majority of parents view school-based instruction as supplemental to instruction in the home.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Meeuwsen, Kimberly J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Developing and Establishing the Reliability and Validity of the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI)

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to develop and establish the reliability and validity of the East Asian Student Stress Inventory. Data was obtained from 235 East Asian students at the University of North Texas during the fall semester of 1992. The procedures used were a two-week interval test-retest for reliability, experts' assessment of test items for face validity, a factor analysis, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient for construct validity. Significance was set at the .05 level. The EASSI was identified as having moderately high reliability. High test anxiety, physiological symptoms, social support, financial difficulty, and culture shock were found to be constructs of the EASSI. Majority of independent variables in this study effectively identified stressors and stresses among East Asian students.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Ding, Jiansan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Manipulation of Efficacy Information to Enhance Muscular Endurance Performance

Description: The present investigation was designed to examine the effects of the positive manipulation of information on self-efficacy and subsequent performance of 180 female subjects. High, moderate, and low self-efficacy subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment condition in a 3 x 4 x 3 (preexisting self-efficacy x efficacy information source x trials) factorial design. Information from the three efficacy sources of performance accomplishments, verbal persuasion, and vicarious experience was manipulated towards success after subjects completed a muscular leg endurance task. The results supported self-efficacy theory with high self-efficacy subjects extending their legs significantly longer than moderate and low self-efficacy subjects. However, subjects did not differentially [sic] respond to the manipulation of the efficacy information. Results are discussed in terms of efficacy as a mediator of performance on an endurance task as well as the lack of differential changes in efficacy based on the source from which that information is derived.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Lerner, J. Dana (Jocelyn Dana)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effectiveness of an Exercise Intervention Program in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Among Employees in a University Setting

Description: Nine physiological measures were evaluated pre- to post-intervention on subjects participating in a university health promotion program over a seven-month period. Frequency of program attendance and choice of activity were also assessed. Of the 88 employees initially screened, most of the subjects were staff members (n=82, 93%),with a majority being female (n=68, 77%). Significant differences in physiological measures were found pre- to post-intervention between "higher" and "lower" cardiovascular risk participants, primarily due to the type of activity chosen. .The results indicate that health promotion programs at a university are an effective way to have an impact on employees in reducing their cardiovascular risk factors.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Ball, Susan J. (Susan Jean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting Peak Oxygen Uptake from Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Submaximal Cycle Ergometry

Description: The purpose of this study was to predict VO2pak using ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), and percent fat (PFAT). Subjects were males (n= 60) (PFAT, M SD = 14.4 6.1) and females (n= 67) (PFAT, M SD = 23.4 4.9) with ages ranging from 18 to 33 years. Subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer protocol and RPE, HR and Vo2 were measured at each stage until VO2 ak was achieved. Mean RPE and HR at the submaximal workload of 100 watts were, (RPE100) M= 12.7 2.6 and (HR100) M= 146.924.7 respectively. Correlations (p< .001) with VO2p. were -.75 (PFAT), -.66 (HR100), -.67 (FIPE100). The multiple correlation using PFAT, HR100, and RPE100 as predictors of VO2pak was .83 (SEE= 5.28 ml-kg BW'smin"). Each predictor contributed to the correlation (p<.01). The results indicate that PFAT combined with exercise responses of RPE and HR provide valid estimates of VO2peak with a relatively small SEE.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Fairfield, Eric S. (Eric Scott)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Comparison of Mandatory and Voluntary Compliance to Diet and Exercise Regimens Among Cardiovascular High Risk Seminary Theological Students

Description: This study evaluated a mandatory fitness assessment and counseling program designed to reduce coronary risk factors related to diet and exercise. The study was conducted at a southwestern graduate level theological institution. There were 19 mandatory and 22 voluntary participants. Each subject initially had either high blood pressure, high percentage body fat, or high total cholesterol. Significant changes were made within both groups regarding body fat percentage and diastolic blood pressure. Total cholesterol levels decreased for the voluntary group only. The mandatory group significantly improved their exercise level, yet still showed a significantly less positive attitude towards exercise. Overall, the fitness assessment and counseling was somewhat beneficial for both the mandatory and voluntary groups.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Moorhead, Pamela K. (Pamela Kay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

University Students, Knowledge of AIDS, Perceived Susceptibility to AIDS, and Their Sexual Behaviors

Description: A random sample of 365 students attending a university in northern Texas returned a mailed questionnaire measuring the students' knowledge of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), their perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and their sexual practices during the last year. The students had high knowledge levels about AIDS in general. However, 70% did not worry about getting AIDS. Collectively, there was a display of concern until it became a personal issue. The students (59%) saw themselves as less likely than most people to get AIDS. Although 70% of this sexually active group did not use condoms, they still did not perceive themselves as susceptible to AIDS.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Winnubst, K. D. (Kimberly Dawn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Development of a Curriculum Guide for a Cancer Awareness Program for Older Adult Males

Description: This thesis focused on the development of a curriculum guide for a cancer awareness program for older men. The background of the problem -- a lack of programs for older men -- and the methods used in developing the guide are detailed in Chapter One. The second chapter consists of current information on disease prevention, aging and cancer with the emphasis on age-related changes and learning needs of older adult men. Chapter Three is the completed instructor's curriculum guide, and the final chapter includes recommendations on implementing the program as part of a community wellness program. The guide could also be used in senior centers, hospital educational programs, or adapted for use in staff inservices.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Nielsen, Shelley K. (Shelley Kay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between Winning Percentage and Perceived Burnout Among Varsity Male Head High School Football Coaches in Texas

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the effects of winning percentage and specific demographic data on the perceived burnout of varsity male head high school football coaches within the public secondary schools of Texas. Data were obtained from 226 varsity head high school football coaches during the 1990-1991 school year in Texas. Instruments used were the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a personal demographic data sheet. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient were used. Significance was set at .05. A relationship was found between burnout and career winning percentage, age, years as a coach, salary, coaching preparation, and school enrollment.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Field, John Glenn
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Two Plyometric Training Techniques

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate two different plyometric training techniques for increasing vertical jumping ability. Twenty-four female high school volleyball players were matched for height and weight and distributed equally among three groups. Each subject performed a vertical jump test, Margaria power test, Wingate bicycle test, and an isokinetic leg strength test prior to and following six weeks of training. Plyometric training significantly (p<.05) improved vertical jumping ability and some indices of leg strength and power. Weighted plyometrics did not enhance performance more than plyometrics alone. These data support the view that plyometric training with or without added weights enhances vertical jumping and leg power.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Benesh, Traci A. (Traci Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Aortic Baroreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure: Effect of Fitness

Description: Aortic baroreflex (ABR) control of blood pressure was examined in 7 untrained (UT) and 8 endurance exercise trained (EET) young men. ABR control of blood pressure was determined during a steady state phenylephrine infusion to increase mean arterial pressure 10-15 mmHg, combined with positive neck pressure to counteract the increased carotid sinus transmural pressure, and low levels of lower body negative pressure to counteract the increased central venous pressure. Functioning alone, the ABR was functionally adequate to control blood pressure. However, ABR control of HR was significantly diminished in the EET subjects due solely to the decrease in the ABR sensitivity. The persistent strain from an increased stroke volume resulting from endurance exercise training could be the responsible mechanism.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Andresen, Jean M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Estrogen Replacement Therapy and its Association with Life Satisfaction of Women over Fifty

Description: This study analyzed the effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), ethnicity, marital status, education level, maternal status and financial security on the perceived life satisfaction of women over fifty. Information was collected from 125 subjects at an independent school district. The instrument was adapted from a life satisfaction scale originally developed by B. Neugarten. Eight demographic items included ERT use, age, menopause status, marital status, educational level, ethnicity and perception of financial security. Statistical analysis consisting of one way analysis of variance, Student Newman-Keuls ad hoc procedure and multiple regression indicated an independent correlation between financial security and education level to life satisfaction scores. Neither ERT nor menopause status was correlated with perceived life satisfaction score of respondents.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Papich, Sandra G. (Sandra Gene)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological Factors Related to Drug Use in College Athletes

Description: The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the psychological factors related to drug use by college athletes on seven drug categories. A questionnaire was given to male and female Division I college athletes asking them about their use of drugs. The frequency, intensity and duration of use/non-use was used to divide subjects into high and low/nonuser categories. Dependent measures included the Profile of Mood States, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and questions assessing athlete stress. A multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) was conducted in a 2 x 2 (alcohol high/low, non-user x male/female) design to distinguish significant differences on the POMS and stress questions followed by univariate ANOVA's. A separate ANOVA was run on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated that high alcohol users scored significantly higher on anger, fatigue and vigor than low/non-users. Significant differences were found between males and females on the pressure felt from coaches to perform well.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Evans, Melissa
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Leisure and Perceived Burden of Spouse Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer's Disease

Description: The problem of this study was to better understand spouse caregivers' leisure involvement, experience, and barriers and their relationships with perceived burden. Thirty-six wife and 19 husband caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders volunteered to participate in this study, either by mailed questionnaire or interview. Respondents were primarily female, white, with an average age of 72 years. The conclusions of the study were: (a) caregivers significantly reduce both their leisure involvement; (b) self-reported health, perceived social supports, income level, use of paid help, and leisure activity patterns are major factors associated with caregivers' leisure; and (c) leisure barriers are a significant contributor to caregivers' perceived burden. Recommendations were presented for caregivers, practitioners, and future study.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Tu, Su-Fen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Objectification and Sport Participation: Do the Gendered Makeup and Competitive Level of the Team Matter?

Description: The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate differences in self-objectification, self-surveillance, body shame, and flow among female athletes on all-women's and coed ultimate frisbee teams at different competitive levels, and (b) examine the objectification theory model across groups. Participants (n = 112) completed online surveys including a demographic questionnaire, trait and state versions of the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, Body Surveillance and Body Shame subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, and the Flow State Scale. No differences in self-objectification, self-surveillance, or body shame were found, although highly competitive athletes experienced more flow than lower competitive teams. Relationships were found between self-objectification, self-surveillance, and body shame, but not for flow, partially supporting the objectification theory model.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Ede, Alison
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reliability of an On-line System to Assess Physical Activity Behaviors in an Active Group of Kinesiology Undergraduate Students

Description: Engaging in muscle strengthening activities (MSA) as part of a physical activity program offers health benefits. Although the merits of physical activity are well documented, many adults fail to meet appropriate levels as recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGA). To get a more complete understanding on an individual's physical activity behaviors, the Tracking Resistance Exercise and Strength Training (TREST) internet based survey was developed. The purpose of the current study was to determine the test-retest reliability of TREST items. Additionally, the prevalence of participants meeting the 2008 PAGA was reported by gender. The survey was completed approximately two weeks apart by 224 (52% male) undergraduate kinesiology students. Analysis of the survey items presented TREST as a reliable instrument in assessing an individual's physical activity behavior with a focus on MSA. Among the convenience sample of 445 participants (56% male) that completed the survey in assessment #1, 73% met the 2008 PAGA minimum recommendations for MSA (>=2 days/week) and aerobic activity (>= 150 min MVPA). A more complete MSA and MVPA criteria was established (requiring MSA of all seven major muscle groups) and only 32% of participants met this guideline. In general, men engaged in aerobic exercise and MSA more than women. These results cannot be generalized due the age, activity level, and education of the study's participants. Future studies should investigate the validity of TREST items among a sample of varying fitness levels, races/ethnicities, ages, and educational levels.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Knell, Gregory
Partner: UNT Libraries