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Applications and advances of positron beam spectroscopy: appendix a

Description: Over 50 scientists from DOE-DP, DOE-ER, the national laboratories, academia and industry attended a workshop held on November 5-7, 1997 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory jointly sponsored by the DOE-Division of Materials Science, The Materials Research Institute at LLNL and the University of California Presidents Office. Workshop participants were charged to address two questions: Is there a need for a national center for materials analysis using positron techniques and can the capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory serve this need. To demonstrate the need for a national center the workshop participants discussed the technical advantages enabled by high positron currents and advanced measurement techniques, the role that these techniques will play in materials analysis and the demand for the data. There were general discussions lead by review talks on positron analysis techniques, and their applications to problems in semiconductors, polymers and composites, metals and engineering materials, surface analysis and advanced techniques. These were followed by focus sessions on positron analysis opportunities in these same areas. Livermore now leads the world in materials analysis capabilities by positrons due to developments in response to demands of science based stockpile stewardship. There was a detailed discussion of the LLNL capabilities and a tour of the facilities. The Livermore facilities now include the worlds highest current beam of keV positrons, a scanning pulsed positron microprobe under development capable of three dimensional maps of defect size and concentration, an MeV positron beam for defect analysis of large samples, and electron momentum spectroscopy by positrons. This document is a supplement to the written summary report. It contains a complete schedule, list of attendees and the vuegraphs for the presentations in the review and focus sessions.
Date: November 5, 1997
Creator: Howell, R. H., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop: Research and development plans for high power spallation neutron testing at BNL

Description: This report consists of vugraphs from presentations at the meeting. The papers covered the following topics: (1) APS as a proton source; (2) target status for NSNS (National Spallation Neutron Source); (3) spallation neutron source in Japan; (4) liquid LiBi flow loop; and (5) research and development plans for high power tests at the AGS.
Date: August 5, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross platform SCA component using C++ builder and KYLIX

Description: A cross-platform component for EPICS Simple Channel Access (SCA) has been developed. EPICS client programs with GUI become portable at their C++ source-code level both on Windows and Linux by using Borland C++ Builder 6 and Kylix 3 on these platforms respectively.
Date: May 5, 2003
Creator: Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chiris & McDonald, James L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on the relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator prototype

Description: The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, l-MeV, electron induction prototype injector as a collaborative effort between LBL and LLNL. The electron source will be a 3.5"-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 120-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 {pi}-mm-mr. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive-wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepper-pot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.
Date: July 5, 1998
Creator: Anderson, D E; Eylon, S; Henestroza,E; Houck, T L; S M, Lidia; Vanecek, D L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

Description: The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].
Date: December 5, 2002
Creator: al., P. Bauer et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pixel multichip module design for a high energy physics experiment

Description: At Fermilab, a pixel detector multichip module is being developed for the BTeV experiment. The module is composed of three layers. The lowest layer is formed by the readout integrated circuits (ICs). The back of the ICs is in thermal contact with the supporting structure, while the top is flip-chip bump-bonded to the pixel sensor. A low mass flex-circuit interconnect is glued on the top of this assembly, and the readout IC pads are wire-bounded to the circuit. This paper presents recent results on the development of a multichip module prototype and summarizes its performance characteristics.
Date: November 5, 2003
Creator: al., Guilherme Cardoso et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aberration correction for analytical in situ TEM - the NTEAM concept.

Description: Future aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes (TEM) will have a strong impact in materials science, since such microscopes yield information on chemical bonding and structure of interfaces, grain boundaries and lattice defects at an atomic level. Beyond this aberration correction offers new possibilities for in situ experiments performed under controlled temperature, magnetic field, strain etc. at atomic resolution. Such investigations are necessary for solving problems arising from electronic component miniaturization, for example. Significant progress can be expected by means of analytical aberration corrected TEM. These next generation microscopes will be equipped with an aberration corrected imaging system, a monochromator and aberration corrected energy filters. These novel elements have already been designed and partially realized [1,2,3].
Date: March 5, 2002
Creator: Kabius, B.; Allen, C. W. & Miller, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Dry Storage Temperature Limits for Zircaloy-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel

Description: Safe interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must be maintained for a minimum of twenty years according to the Code of Federal Regulations. The most important variable that must be regulated by dry storage licensees in order to meet current safety standards is the temperature of the SNF. The two currently accepted models to define the maximum allowable initial storage temperature for SNF are based on the diffusion controlled cavity growth (DCCG) failure mechanism proposed by Raj and Ashby. These models may not give conservative temperature limits. Some have suggested using a strain-based failure model to predict the maximum allowable temperatures, but we have shown that this is not applicable to the SNF as long as DCCG is the assumed failure mechanism. Although the two accepted models are based on the same fundamental failure theory (DCCG), the researchers who developed the models made different assumptions, including selection of some of the most critical variables in the DCCG failure equation. These inconsistencies are discussed together with recommended modifications to the failure models based on more recent data.
Date: November 5, 1999
Creator: Hayes, T.A.; Kassner, M.D. & Vecchio, K.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Snowmass 2001: Jet energy flow project

Description: Conventional cone jet algorithms arose from heuristic considerations of LO hard scattering coupled to independent showering. These algorithms implicitly assume that the final states of individual events can be mapped onto a unique set of jets that are in turn associated with a unique set of underlying hard scattering partons. Thus each final state hadron is assigned to a unique underlying parton. The Jet Energy Flow (JEF) analysis described here does not make such assumptions. The final states of individual events are instead described in terms of flow distributions of hadronic energy. Quantities of physical interest are constructed from the energy flow distribution summed over all events. The resulting analysis is less sensitive to higher order perturbative corrections and the impact of showering and hadronization than the standard cone algorithms.
Date: December 5, 2002
Creator: al., C. F. Berger et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parameters of an E+ E- collider in the VLHC tunnels

Description: The authors have discussed the option of building an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in the tunnels of the VLHC in a number of notes [1,2,3,4,5]. Continued study of this option has shown that the operating range of the machine can be extended somewhat from previous papers and this note presents the most recent progress on the luminosity and high energy operation of this machine. They have assumed that this machine would be used to justify the construction of a tunnel which would eventually house the VLHC collider, and perhaps ultimately an ep collider.
Date: December 5, 2002
Creator: al., T. Sen et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technetium Removal from Hanford and Savannah River Site Actual Tank Waste Supernates with SuperLig(R) 639 Resin

Description: SuperLig(R) 639 elutable, organic resin has been selected for technetium (as pertechnetate ion) removal from Hanford Site radioactive waste samples as part of the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) design. In support of the RPP-WTP flow sheet development, column tests have been performed at the Savannah River Technology Center with SuperLig(R) 639 resin using actual Hanford Site tank waste samples. The resin was shown to be highly effective at pertechnetate removal from these caustic, high-sodium, aqueous waste samples. Pertechnetate ion was subsequently eluted from the columns with water. An additional column test conducted on a Savannah River Site waste sample revealed exceptional performance, presumably due to the fact that lower concentrations of competing anions (primarily nitrate) were present in the sample.
Date: September 5, 2002
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strange Goings on in Quark Matter.

Description: We review recent work on how the superfluid state of three flavor quark matter is affected by non-zero quark masses and chemical potentials. The study of hadronic matter at high baryon density has recently attracted a lot of interest. At zero baryon density chiral symmetry is broken by a quark-anti-quark condensate. At high density condensation in the quark-anti-quark channel is suppressed. Instead, attractive interactions in the color anti-symmetric quark-quark channel favor the formation of diquark condensates. As a consequence, cold dense quark matter is expected to be a color superconductor. The symmetry breaking pattern depends on the density, the number of quark flavors, and their masses. A particularly symmetric phase is the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of three flavor quark matter. This phase is believed to be the true ground state of ordinary matter at very large density.
Date: June 5, 2001
Creator: Schafer, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Effects of Disorder in the 2D Hubbard Model

Description: We study the effects of disorder on long range antiferromagnetic correlations and the Mott gap in the half-filled, two dimensional, repulsive Hubbard model. We employ Hartree-Fock (HF) and Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) techniques in our study of the bond and site disordered models. Results from mean field (HF) calculations are used to develop a qualitative picture of the physics and to guide our choice for input to the QMC methods. The basic properties of two QMC methods for correlated fermions are discussed, and the results from these different approaches are presented.
Date: June 5, 2000
Creator: Enjalran, M.; Hebert, F.; Scalettar, R.; Zhang, S. & Batrouni, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A relativistic O (a{sup 2}) improved action for heavy quarks

Description: The authors extend the Fermilab formalism for heavy quarks to develop an {Omicron}(a{sup 2}) improved relativistic action. They discuss their construction of the action, including the identification of redundant operators and the calculation of the improvement coefficients.
Date: January 5, 2004
Creator: al., M. B. Oktay et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the Snowmass T4 working group on particle sources: Positron sources, anti-proton sources and secondary beams

Description: This report documents the activities of the Snowmass 2001 T4 Particle Sources Working Group. T4 was charged with examining the most challenging aspects of positron sources for linear colliders and antiproton sources for proton-antiproton colliders, and the secondary beams of interest to the physics community that will be available from the next generation of high-energy particle accelerators. The leading issues, limiting technologies, and most important R and D efforts of positron production, antiproton production, and secondary beams are discussed in this paper. A listing of T4 Presentations is included.
Date: December 5, 2002
Creator: al., N. Mokhov et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Geomechanical Behavior for the Drift Scale Test

Description: The Drift Scale Test (DST) now underway at Yucca Mountain has been simulated using a Drift Scale Distinct Element (DSDE) model. Simulated deformations show good agreement with field deformation measurements. Results indicate most fracture deformation is located above the crown of the Heated Drift. This work is part of the model validation effort for the DSDE model, which is used to assess thermal-mechanical effects on the hydrology of the rock mass surrounding a potential repository.
Date: March 5, 2001
Creator: Blair, S.C.; Carlson, S.R. & Wagoner, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean and cost-effective dry boundary lubricants for aluminum forming.

Description: Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce sliding fiction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal formability tests indicated that the boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by spraying or dipping worked quite well; improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%. These findings have increased the prospect that boric acid can be formulated and optimized as an effective boundary lubricant and used to solve the friction, galling, and severe wear problems currently encountered in cold-forming of aluminum products. Accordingly, the major goal of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness and lubrication capacity of thin boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by simple dipping or spraying processes and to describe the lubrication mechanisms under typical metal forming conditions. We will also examine the nature of chemical bonding between boric acid and aluminum surfaces and develop new ways to optimize its performance as an effective boundary lubricant.
Date: December 5, 1997
Creator: Erdemir, A. & Fenske, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties of 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel irradiated at low dose rate.

Description: To assess the effects of long-term, low-dose-rate neutron exposure, tensile, hardness, and fracture properties were measured and microstructural characterization performed on irradiated 20% cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel. Samples were prepared from reactor core components retrieved from the EBR-II reactor following final shutdown. Sample locations were chosen to cover a dose range of 1-56 dpa at temperatures from 371-390 C and dose rates from 0.8-3.3 x 10{sup -7} dpa/s. Irradiation caused hardening, with the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) reaching about 800 MPa near 20 dpa and appearing to saturate at higher doses. The yield strength (YS) follows approximately the same trend as the ultimate tensile strength. At higher dose, the difference between the UTS and YS decreases, suggesting the work-hardening capability of the material is decreasing with increasing dose. The hardness and yield strength increases occur roughly over the same range of dose. While the material retained respectable ductility at 20 dpa, the uniform and total elongation decreased to <1 and <3%, respectively, at 47 dpa. Fracture in the 30 dpa specimen is mainly ductile but with local regions of mixed-mode failure, consisting mainly of dimples and microvoids. The fracture surface of the higher-exposure 47 dpa specimen displays more brittle features. Changes in yield strength predicted from the microstructural components are roughly consistent with the measured changes in yield strength.
Date: June 5, 2002
Creator: Allen, T. R.; Tsai, H.; Cole, J. I.; Ohta, J.; Dohi, K. & Kusanagi, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neptune and Titan Observed with Keck Telescope Adaptive Optics

Description: The authors report on observations taken during engineering science validation time using the new adaptive optics system at the 10-m Keck II Telescope. They observe Neptune and Titan at near-infrared wavelengths. These objects are ideal for adaptive optics imaging because they are bright and small, yet have many diffraction-limited resolution elements across their disks. In addition Neptune and Titan have prominent physical features, some of which change markedly with time. They have observed infrared-bright storms on Neptune, and very low-albedo surface regions on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, Spatial resolution on Neptune and Titan was 0.05-0.06 and 0.04-0.05 arc sec, respectively.
Date: May 5, 2000
Creator: Max, C.E.; Macintosh, B.A.; Gibbard, S.; Gavel, D.T.; Roe, H.; De Pater, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

Description: This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.
Date: November 5, 2003
Creator: Kronfeld, Andreas S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of composite ceramic high level waste forms.

Description: Argonne National Laboratory has developed a composite ceramic waste form for the disposition of high level radioactive waste produced during electrometallurgical conditioning of spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefiner LiCl/KCl eutectic salt, containing fission products and transuranics in the chloride form, is contacted with a zeolite material which removes the fission products from the salt. After salt contact, the zeolite is mixed with a glass binder. The zeolite/glass mixture is then hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) to produce the composite ceramic waste form. The ceramic waste form provides a durable medium that is well suited to incorporate fission products and transuranics in the chloride form. Presented are preliminary results of the process qualification and characterization studies, which include chemical and physical measurements and product durability testing, of the ceramic waste form.
Date: December 5, 1997
Creator: Frank, S. M.; Bateman, K. J.; DiSanto, T.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; Noy, M. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent Developments in the Design of the NLC Positron Source

Description: Recent developments in the design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) positron source based on updated beam parameters are described. The unpolarized NLC positron source [1,2] consists of a dedicated 6.2 GeV S-band electron accelerator, a high-Z positron production target, a capture system and an L-band positron linac. The 1998 failure of the SLC target, which is currently under investigation, may lead to a variation of the target design. Progress towards a polarized positron source is also presented. A moderately polarized positron beam colliding with a highly polarized electron beam results in an effective polarization large enough to explore new physics at NLC. One of the schemes towards a polarized positron source incorporates a polarized electron source, a 50 MeV electron accelerator, a thin target for positron production and a new capture system optimized for high-energy, small angular-divergence positrons. The yield for such a process, checked using the EGS4 code, is of the order of 10{sup -3}. The EGS4 code has being enhanced to include the effect of polarization in bremsstrahlung and pair-production process.
Date: November 5, 1999
Creator: Kotseroglou, T.; Bharadwaj, V.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S,; Frisch, J.; Krejcik, P, et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation-induced segregation and the relationship to physical properties in irradiated austenitic alloys.

Description: Radiation-induced changes in composition are studied because these changes can degrade failure of materials irradiated in nuclear reactors. In this work, the effect of alloy composition on radiation-induced segregation, hardening, and void swelling is presented. Five alloys, Fe-18Cr-8Ni, Fe-16Cr-13Ni, Fe-18Cr-40Ni, Fe-16Cr-13Ni+Mo, and Fe-16Cr-13Ni+Mo+P (all compositions in wt. %), were irradiated with 3.2 MeV protons at 400 C to a dose of 0.5 displacements per atom. The change in grain boundary composition was measured using field emission gun scanning transmission electron microscopy and the hardening was measured using Vickers indentation. Void swelling is calculated from the void size distribution measured using transmission electron microscopy. After irradiation, Cr depletes and Ni enriches at grain boundaries. Increasing bulk Ni concentration causes greater Cr depletion and Ni enrichment at grain boundaries. For alloys with 16 Cr, the addition of P reduces the Cr depletion and Ni enrichment. Hardening does not directly correlate with composition, but a framework for isolating the effect of hardening and segregation on cracking is suggested. The amount of void swelling in the irradiated material is shown to correspond inversely with segregation. Those alloys with greater segregation tend to swell less.
Date: June 5, 2002
Creator: Allen, T. R.; Cole, J. I.; Was, G. S. & Kenik, E. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department