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Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

Description: The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Huffstetler, J. K.; Dailey, N. S.; Rickert, L. W. & Chilton, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean energy fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1976. [16 references]

Description: Under Facet I, 49 coal samples have been added to the Penn State/ERDA Sample Bank. Sixty-six characterized coal samples and 734 sets of analytical data were provided upon request to other agencies. Facet IV-A research on reactor development and operation has led to the construction of a cold model for the flow of gases through the combustion pot. Flow analyses indicate that even with relatively slow flows the mainstream flow is turbulent. Methanol and water densities of a series of char samples, studied under Facet IV-B, were found to be quite similar. Deposition of carbon on chars from the cracking of methane results in a reduction of char surface area and open pore volume. Siderite and calcite catalyze the cracking of methane at 900/sup 0/C. No catalytic activity is evidenced for dolomite, pyrite, illite, quartz, rutile, or kaolinite in this reaction. From a comparison of refractory and water-cooled bottom blocks, under Facet V-A, it was found that even significant changes in the furnace bottom temperature can only cause moderate changes in plane-flame furnace combustion performance.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P. L.; Lovell, H. L.; Essenhigh, R. H.; Vastola, F. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Classification of explosives. Period covered: January--March 1976. Normal process development endeavor No. 216. [Transportation hazards]

Description: Sufficient supplies were purchased to test ten explosives using the NOL Card Gap Test as described in Department of the Army Technical Bulletin TB 700-2 (Explosives Hazard Classification Procedures) dated 19 May 1967. A calibration series was fired using pressed TNT (density = 1.626 Mg/m/sup 3/). The estimated 50 percent point was 158 cards.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: West, G. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

Description: Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252/sup 0/C, although most are below 190/sup 0/C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64/sup 0/C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. It is suggested that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Hose, R. K. & Taylor, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

N-P charge exchange scattering at FERMILAB. [Differential cross sections]

Description: The neutron-proton charge exchange differential cross section has been measured in the momentum interval 60 to 300 GeV/c, with four-momentum transfers squared 0.002 to 0.8 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. Independent of incident momentum, the data are characterized by a sharp forward peak of width 0.02 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, followed by a shoulder and gentler falloff at higher momentum transfers.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Barton, H. R. Jr.; Reay, N. W. & Reibel, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on equipment availability for the ten-year period, 1966--1975

Description: This is an annual report of availability and outage statistics for electric power generating facilities operating in the United States. A list of utility organizations voluntarily participating in the EEI Equipment Availability Program in 1975 is located in Appendix F. All summary reports in this publication are for the 10-year period 1966-1975. Each reporting utility company has received reports on individual units for which data were submitted. Also, selected major equipment manufacturers receive copies of computer reports showing an analysis of the data for their equipment. Revised reporting instructions to incorporate Safety and Environmental Requirement Cause Codes were issued effective January 1, 1976. In addition, provisions were made for identifying major equipment manufactured outisde of the United States or under foreign license. Recognizing that an Annual Report contains only a limited amount of general outage data in selected categories, the Task Force has agreed to perform special analyses of the data bank if the cost of computer services is met by the requestor and if the required analysis conforms to some designated policy guidelines.
Date: December 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 5. Appendices

Description: Volume V of the five-volume report consists of appendices, which provide supplementary information, with emphasis on characteristics of geologic formations that might be used for final storage or disposal. Appendix titles are: selected glossary; conversion factors; geologic isolation, including, (a) site selection factors for repositories of wastes in geologic media, (b) rock types--geologic occurrence, (c) glossary of geohydrologic terms, and (d) 217 references; the ocean floor; and, government regulations pertaining to the management of radioactive materials. (JGB)
Date: May 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

Description: In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.
Date: March 29, 1992
Creator: Crawford, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crystallography of preferred growth in lead--tin alloys

Description: The preferred growth of the lead--tin eutectic alloy was studied by use of electron channeling techniques in a scanning electron microscope. Four distinct crystallographic modes were found to exist depending on the imposed growth velocity. The extent of the range of the stability of each mode was experimentally determined in a directional solidification apparatus and rationalized in terms of simple physical reasoning. Microstructural observations are discussed in terms of the nature of the extent of the stability of the various crystallographic relationships. Lamellar spiraling about the growth direction was found to occur in one crystallographic mode and the parameters controlling it, growth velocity and temperature gradient, were investigated. The rate of lamellar spiraling was found to increase by increasing solidification rate or temperature gradient. The study suggests that considerably more control over the microstructural and crystallographic characteristics of a eutectic structure is possible than was previously believed. 17 figures, 34 references.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Mourer, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems analysis of instrumentation for in situ examination of rock properties. Final report. [Telemetered instrumentation for monitoring buried nuclear waste]

Description: If salt beds or shale beds are used for burial of nuclear wastes, then boreholes that penetrate the beds will be sealed to prevent transport of water into the beds via the boreholes. There will be interest in monitoring the environment in local regions of the borehole for years to come. Such monitoring may be aimed at providing assurance that the integrity of the borehole plug and the integrity of borehole wall seals have not degraded. Of course, there will be interest in monitoring the burial vault geology as well, and the results of this study are relevant to this requirement also. A study of buried instrumentation in boreholes without any wires between the buried instruments and the surface of the earth was performed. Consequently, buried power supplies and through-the-earth communications systems are required. Study ground rules included the following: burial depths to range between 150 m and 1500 m; maximum temperature of 100/sup 0/C at the burial depth; and system target lifetime of 10 to 100 years. The instrumentation system is separable into four functional subsystems: (A) a basic instrument subsystem; (B) a command, control, and data processing (CCD) subsystem; (C) a communication subsystem; and (D) a power supply subsystem. The major findings of the study are listed by subsystem. (WHK)
Date: October 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photochemical dynamics of surface oriented molecules

Description: The period 8/01/91-7/31/92 is the first year of a new project titled Photochemical Dynamics of Surface Oriented Molecules'', initiated with DOE Support. The main objective of this project is to understand the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions by studying photochemical dynamics of surface-oriented molecules. In addition, the mechanisms of photon-surface interactions need to be elucidated. The strategy is to carry out experiments to measure the translational energy distribution, as a function of the angle from the surface normal, of the photoproducts by time-of-flight (TOF) technique by varying the photon wavelength, intensity, polarization, and pulse duration. By choosing adsorbates with different bonding configuration, the effects of adsorbate orientation on surface photochemical dynamics can be studied.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ho, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature phosphor thermometry: Calibration of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide between room temperature and minus 194 degrees C

Description: Remote-temperature measurements can be accomplished by inducing fluorescence in doped phosphors and measuring emission lifetimes. Some phosphors have been calibrated for high temperature measurement from room temperature to about 1200{degree}C and are proving useful where remote sensing is require. Attention is now turned to remote thermal sensing at low-temperature ranges. Because is has strong emission spectra at low temperatures, as well as relatively high temperatures, lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu) is now being calibrated at low temperatures. The temperature range of concern in this paper is from about {minus}194{degree}C to room temperature. 3 refs., 7 figs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Simmons, C. M.; Beshears, D. L. & Cates, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Packing procedure for shipment of PETN pellets. Final report, October 1975

Description: Three ''detonation tests'' and one ''burn test'' were performed on an AN can, Type AN 8024, containing PETN pellets. Test procedures were discussed with a representative of the Department of Transportation. The can contained all reactions and did not rupture in any of the tests. The packing procedure and container were deemed acceptable for the pellets tested. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: West, G. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar power array for the concentration of energy. Technical report covering Task 2. Task 2. Modifications to a specular photometer

Description: This report describes the design, fabrication, and calibration which have been completed for the modified specular photometer. The basic instrument is designed to examine the reflection or transmission of solar materials by measuring the amount of radiation which is reflected or transmitted by the material into a given acceptance aperture. (WDM)
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Robinson, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1991

Description: Various Hanford sitewide radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and Hanford contractors are described In this annual report for calendar year 1991. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological records keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program, program changes and enhancements, associated tasks, investigations and studies, and related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are discussed as applicable.
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Lyon, M.; Bihl, D. E.; Fix, J. J.; Piper, R. K.; Froelich, T. J.; Leonwich, J. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamentals of passive nondestructive assay of fissionable material: laboratory workbook

Description: This workbook is a supplement to LA-5651-M, ''Fundamentals of Passive Nondestructive Assay of Fissionable Material'' which is the text used during the Nondestructive Assay Training Session given by Group A-1 of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It contains the writeups used during the six laboratory sessions covering basic gamma-ray principles, quantitative gamma-ray measurements, uranium enrichment measurements, equipment holdup measurements, basic neutron principles, and quantitative neutron assay.
Date: February 1, 1975
Creator: Reilly, T. D.; Augustson, R. H.; Parker, J. L. Walton, R. B.; Atwell, T. L.; Umbarger, C. J. & Burns, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of ferrite and phosphorus plus sulphur in the crack sensitivity of autogenously welded type 309 stainless steel

Description: A study on autogenous welding of Type 309 thin stainless steel sheet was made after experiencing cracking difficulties on several commercial heats. A relationship exists between the sum of the phosphorus plus sulfur, the ferrite control of the weld metal, and the crack sensitivity of autogenously made welds. A new simple weld test for thin-gage sheet is utilized for studying the susceptibility to cracking. A chemistry modification is suggested to alleviate possible weld cracking when autogenously welding this grade. The principles of crack sensitivity prediction could apply to other austenitic stainless steel types where chemistry limits are such that ferrite is possible.
Date: July 1, 1976
Creator: Lambert, Jr., F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Void trapping of hydrogen in sintered iron

Description: The effect of void trapping of hydrogen in iron was studied using the gas-phase permeation technique. Iron membranes of controlled void density, varying from 92% to 98% were prepared by press and sintering of electrolytic iron powder. The presence of internal voids showed no effect on the steady state flux of hydrogen through the membrane. The effective diffusivity, obtained by the time lag method, increased with the increase of input hydrogen partial pressure. This disagreement with the prediction of the theory in literature was explained by the existence of hydrogen in both the diatomic gaseous form and as adsorbed hydrogen. This explanation was further confirmed by examining the dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration with pressure. The linear dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration in voids with external hydrogen partial pressure for samples of 96%, 94% and 92% dense were given respectively by C/sub g/ = (1.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ P + (3.2 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 14/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (2.1 +- 0.6) x 10/sup 15/ P + (1.7 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (4.5 +- 0.3) x 10/sup 15/ P + (6.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. The discrepancy between the reported values and the values predicted by theory was explained by the poisoning of some of the voids by surface oxides.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Wong, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of diffusion charging of aerosols

Description: The electrical charging of aerosol particles by unipolar gaseous ions was studied theoretically and experimentally. The primary objective of the study was to make precise determinations of the aerosol particle charge under various conditions of charging and to compare the experimental results with those predicted by theory. Experiments were performed using monodisperse oleic acid aerosols generated by a vibrating orifice generator, monodisperse NaCl and DOP (di-octyl phthalate) aerosols generated by an electrostatic classification method, and sulfuric acid aerosols generated by the photo-chemical conversion of gaseous SO/sub 2/ in the smog chamber. The experiments covered a particle size range of 0.0075 ..mu..m to 5.04 ..mu..m diameter. The corresponding range in Knudsen number (Kn = lambda/sub i//a, lambda/sub i/ = mean free path of ions, a = particle radius) was from 0.0056 to 3.86. The charging parameter, n/sub 0/t, was varied between 2.56 x 10/sup 6/ to 5.1 x 10/sup 7/ ion-s/cc, where n/sub 0/ is the concentration of ions and t is the charging time. Comparisons of the results with available aerosol charging theories indicate that there is reasonable agreement between the theory and experiment in the continuum regime (Kn << 1) where the classical Fuchs--Pluvinage equation is expected to apply. However, in the free molecular (Kn >> 1) and the transition regimes (Kn approx. or equal to 1), where the ion mean free path is no longer small in comparison with particle size, there is considerable discrepancy between the experimental data and available charging theories. A semi-empirical equation was developed which agrees well with the experimental data over the entire range of particle size and charging parameters covered in the experiments. Theoretical results are presented showing the distribution of charges on the particles as a function of particle size and the charging parameter n/sub 0/t. 70 figures, 24 tables, 112 ...
Date: March 1, 1976
Creator: Pui, D. Y. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core heatup and fission product release from an HTGR core in an LOFC accident. [AYERM code]

Description: The AYERM code is a computer program which has been developed for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety research program. It is a conjunction of the heat conduction code, AYER, and a set of special subroutines. This modified AYER code can predict the time-dependent release of volatile fission products from a reactor core during a hypothetical loss-of-forced-circulation (LOFC) accident. The computation scheme is based on the finite element method. The function of the AYER code is to compute the temperature distribution and the temperature history of a reactor during an LOFC accident. The subroutines perform two functions. One group of the subroutines provides the essential input data, such as the properties, configuration, initial and boundary conditions, etc., of the reactor core. The other group combines the computed instant local temperature with the fuel model parameters (i.e., the decay and release constants, and the irradiation history of the fuel) to perform the fission product release calculations.
Date: August 1, 1976
Creator: Cort, G. E. & Fu, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of fusion plasma technology. Final report

Description: This report presents principal findings of studies conducted at Iowa State on Applications of Fusion Plasma Technology. Two tasks were considered. The first was to identify and investigate plasma processes for near term industrial applications of already developed plasma technology. The second was to explore the potential of reprocessing the fuel for fusion test facilities in a closed-cycle system. For the first task, two applications were considered. One was alumina reduction in magnetically confined plasmas, and the other was uranium enrichment using plasma centrifuges. For the second task, in-core and ex-core plasma purification were considered. Separation techniques that are compatible with the plasma state were identified and preliminary analysis of their effectiveness were carried out. The effects of differential ionization of impurities on the separation effectiveness are considered. Possible technical difficulties in both tasks are identified and recommendations for future work are given.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Sabri, Z. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

Description: A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)
Date: June 1, 1975
Creator: Schwartz, J T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department