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Experimental Techniques, Part 2: Ionization Chambers and Counters

Description: Declassified Manhattan Project document on alpha particle detectors, absolute counters, neutron recoils detectors, reactions detectors, and fission detectors,
Date: 1947
Creator: Rossi, Bruno Benedetto & Staub, Hans Heinrich
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of Opacity Calculations

Description: "Methods for calculating the opacity of materials at high temperatures are discussed in this report. Minor improvements are outlined for the treatment of continuous absorption processes, and a small error usually made in treating the scattering process is corrected. In contrast to all previous calculations of opacity, the effect of line absorption is carefully examined, for it may well be the dominant process under certain conditions of temperature and density. Detailed methods for calculating the line absorption contribution are, therefore, developed. To illustrate the principles involved, the opacity of pure iron at a temperature of 1000 volts and normal density is worked out in detail" (p. ii).
Date: 1949
Creator: Mayer, Harris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decomposition of Water at High Temperatures and Pressures Under Reactor Irradiation

Description: Partial abstract: "The investigation of the high temperature and pressure dissociation of water under irradiation was undertaken by the Power Pile Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to determine the degree of importance of the phenomenon with respect to the design of a high temperature water-cooled power reactor. Theory and past experimentation indicate that net steady-state dissociation is determined by the rates of the dissociation and recombination reactions under the imposed conditions, the dissociation rate being essentially a function of flux and the recombination rate essentially a function of temperature" (p. 3).
Date: September 16, 1949
Creator: Fromm, L. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Balanced Ionization Chamber for Differential Measurements of Gamma Rays

Description: "The purpose of the work was to develop a method of measuring very small differences in the half lives of gamma ray emitting radioactive substances. The apparatus was then used to try to detect a difference in the half lives of Be7 metal and BeO. The results of the measurements on the two different chemical forms of beryllium will be given" (p. 1).
Date: 1947
Creator: Wiegand, Clyde
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Heat of Solution of Uranium Tetrachloride in Aqueous Perchloric Acid Solutions

Description: Abstract: "The heat of solution of UCl4 solid has been measured and found to change appreciably with changing concentration of H+ or ionic strength. The heat of hydrolysis of U+4 to form UOH+3 is probably of the order of +11 kcal per mole" (p. 1).
Date: August 19, 1947
Creator: Fontana, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of Small Quantities of Uranium in Thorium

Description: Abstract: "Estimation of the intensity of the uranyl fluorescence furnishes a method for the determination of quantities of uranium as low as one-half microgram of uranium in one-half illilitor of glassy phosphoric acid. The test has been used to detect directly three parts of uranium in one million parts of thorium" (p. 1).
Date: 1946
Creator: Weissman, S. I. & Duffield, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on a Magnetic Drive Design for the Fercleve Coporation

Description: This report discusses the development of a design for a "permanent magnet drive to couple a motor shaft with a pump impeller through a thick metallic diaphragm of small diameter. [...] The following report presents the procedures and results of the magnetic drive development up to date of cancellation and includes the general features of the design which would have been recommended if the contract had not been cancelled" (p. 1).
Date: 1946?
Creator: Williams, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model Study of Wave and Surge Action, Naval Operating Base, Terminal Island, San Pedro, California

Description: The study reported herein was conducted in 1944 at the Waterways Experiment Station for the Bureau of Yards and Docks, U. S. Navy Department. Its purpose was to determine the best of several plans proposed for protecting the piers and dry docks at the Naval Operating Base, Terminal Island, San Pedro, California, from the effects of wave and surge action.
Date: September 1947
Creator: Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Design and Control of Asphalt Paving Mixtures: Volume 3

Description: "This appendix presents a description of the loading equipment, the tracking procedure, and the results of tests and observations made during and after the traffic tests on the asphalt stability test section. Analyses of the test results are also included" (p. 1).
Date: May 1948
Creator: Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Design and Control of Asphalt Paving Mixtures: Volume 1

Description: "This report presents the results of laboratory and field tests conducted by the Corps of Engineers to develop a method for the design and construction control of asphalt paving mixtures. The investigation consisted of: (a) the selection of a test apparatus and the performance of laboratory studies to develop techniques and procedures; (b) the construction of a test section and the performance of traffic tests with 15,000 and 37,000-lb single and 60,000-lb dual wheel loads to obtain design criteria; and (c) additional laboratory work to adjust the test procedures to the design criteria" (p. 1).
Date: May 1948
Creator: Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nomograms for Obtaining the Compound Composition of Hydrated Limes from the Oxide Analysis

Description: Report with two nomograms presented for rapidly obtaining the compound composition of hydrated limes from the oxide analysis. The general nomogram can be applied to any commercial hydrated lime and gives values accurate to within 0.3 percent while the special nomogram is applicable only to regularly hydrated and highly hydrated dolomitic limes and is accurate to within 0.1 percent.
Date: December 30, 1949
Creator: Levin, Ernest M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charts of Compressibility Factors and Charts Showing Quantities Delivered by Commercial Cylinders for Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen

Description: Two charts are given for each of the gases hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. The first gives directly the number of standard cubic feet of the gas which a cylinder will deliver. The second chart gives values of the compressibility factor and of the density.
Date: November 17, 1948
Creator: Hoge, Harold J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Lower Coal Beds in Georges Creek and North Part of Upper Potomac Basins, Allegany and Garrett Counties, Maryland: Reserves, Petrographic and Chemical Characteristics of Coals, and Stratigraphy of Area

Description: Report presenting the results of an investigation into various charactaristics that could increase the output lower, thinner coal beds, to replace the upper coal beds which are nearing exhaustion.
Date: 1949
Creator: Toenges, Albert L.; Turnbull, Louis A.; Williams, Lloyd & Smith, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of Torbernite

Description: Production of black oxide from torbernite was studied on a laboratory scale from the standpoint of uranium extraction, reagent requirements, and removal of impurities. A small portion of the material was examined for its mineral constituents, using optical properties, X-ray diffraction patterns, and chemical analysis for identification. About 50% of the material was quartz; 30% green crystals of a copper-uranium phosphate; 10% of a black mineral, which was not identified, but which appeared to be an oxide mixture of nickel, cobalt, copper, and molybdenum; and small amounts of gibbsite, laterite and feldspar. There were no lower oxides of uranium in the sample.
Date: January 21, 1946
Creator: Brimm, E. O., Dr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium Peroxide

Description: It was desired to investigate the precipitation of UO{sub 4} in acid solution, in order to determine the suitability of this reaction for use in the purification of uranium. A series of tests was performed to establish the conditions for precipitation of UO{sub 4}. It was found that uranium could be completely precipitated from pure uranyl sulfate solution at a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, with only silght excess of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The presence of sodium sulfate interferred with complete precipitation. It was established that vanadium was preferentially oxidized, when present.
Date: April 14, 1947
Creator: Brimm, E. O., Dr. & Nohr, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Site B Foundry (Final Report on Part I of P.A. No. 151-ML-54-2, F.S. 41)

Description: The Site B Foundry is equipped for the melting and casting of tuballoy and its alloys. Castings weighing up to 750 pounds and as long as 40 inches can be made. Melting can be carried out in the vacuum, in inert gases or under fluxes. Heating is by high frequency induction. A description of the generally foundry layout, the furnace construction and operation, and of the auxiliary equipment is given in this report. The casting technique used in the Site B Foundry is designed to minimize piping and cold shuts in the billets. The top of the mold is kept hot and freezing of the billet takes place from the bottom. This hot topping minimizes piping. Controlled pouring into warm molds minimized cold shuts.
Date: February 12, 1945
Creator: Lauletta, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precipitation of Sodium Diuranate from Pitchblende Liquors

Description: In the treatment of carnotite concentrates, sodium diuranate was prepared by acidifying tricarbonate liquors to eliminate carbon dioxide, and then precipitating the sodium salt by the addition of caustic. Direct precipitation of uranium by the addition of caustic to tricarbonate liquors was used when pitchblende ores were processed, because this procedure was more effective in giving a product with a low molybdenum content. Tests of this method in the laboratory and Pilot Plant indicated that low uranium losses (0.2 to 0.3%) would be encountered with typical liquors if 1.7 to 2.0 lbs of caustic were added for every pound of uranosic oxide in solution. Since losses as high as 3% were incurred in plant operations, further work was undertaken, in an effort to reduce the uranium concentration in the waste liquors.
Date: February 4, 1947
Creator: Brimm, E. O., Dr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Precipitation of Uranium Peroxide in the Presence of Fluorides

Description: The large-scale recovery of uranium from materials which also contained great quantities of fluorides did not give a product which had a low enough fluoride content to be treated satisfactorily by the other extraction process. The objective of the investigations carried out in this laboratory was a method of reducing the amount of fluoride which accompanied the uranium. The material from which the uranium was recovered in the industrial process was a slag containing (in addition to uranium) magnesium fluoride, calcium and dolomitic lines, crucible dross, and other waste products from the reaction of magnesium metal and uranium hexafluoride. Most of the fluoride was removed from this mixture by heating the roasted and ground slag with sulfuric acid. The residue was mixed with water and much of the caclium sulfate and fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and hydrated ferric oxide and alumina was precipitated by reducing the acidity. After filtering off the precipitate, ammonium sulfate was added to the solution and uranium peroxide (UO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) was precipitated by addition of hydrogen peroxide. The pH of the solution was maintained between 3.0 and 3.5 during the precipitation by addition of sodium hydroxide. The uranium peroxide, even after washing, contained between 2 and 3% fluoride. The percentage of fluoride could be reduced to 0.5% by precipitating the peroxide from a more acidic solution but this required the use of much larger amounts of hydrogen peroxide.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: King, Edward J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation and use of Ammonium Diuranate in the Ether Extraction Process

Description: In the ether extraction process, as originally developed, purified uranium dioxide was obtained by evaporation and calcination of the uranyl nitrate solution, followed by calcination of the resultant UO{sub 3}. It was suggested that an alternate procedure might be developed, involving the precipitation of uranium from the nitrate solution as ammonium diuranate. This material could then be calcined to uranosic acid, or reduced directly to the dioxide. It had already been established that ammonium diuranate could be precipitated completely from uranyl nitrate solutions. Experiments were carried out to determine whether a basic nitrate, analogous to a known sulfate salt, would be formed in the process. Both direct reduction of the diuranate to UO{sub 2} and calcination to uranosic acid were investigated to determine the physical characteristics and residual nitrogen of the resultant brown oxide.
Date: February 4, 1947
Creator: Brimm, E. O., Dr. & Mohr, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of Uranium Metal

Description: Experiments were carried out for the purpose of increasing production, efficiency, and purity of uranium metal. The electrolytic method as described by Driggs and Lilliendahl for the preparation of uranium metal was followed with but little deviation. The yield of metal at the very best was only 50%. The metal powder produced, at times, was very pyrophoric. Methods were found whereby the metal, at least in part, can be made from the oxides with an average yield of about 90%. The small amounts of sludge and slag accumulated in this modified process can readily be re-used in the electrolysis pot and, therefore, an overall yield of 96% can be obtained. Information accumulated from these experiments has been compiled in such a manner as to be readily available for factory use, for patent purposes and for future publication.
Date: February 17, 1943
Creator: Nagy, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department