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The Size and Role of Government: Economic Issues

Description: This report discusses some of the arguments surrounding the proper size of government that are economic in nature, including the questions of what role the state plays in economic activity and how the economy is affected by government intervention.
Date: March 22, 2004
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of the Tax Burden Across Individuals: An Overview

Description: This report discusses in the first section different philosophies about how the tax burden should be distributed, and what those philosophies imply for the shape of the tax system. In particular, it addresses the question of the justifications for a progressive tax system (one where the share of income collected as a tax rises as income rises). This section is presented for the interested reader, but is not a necessary preliminary to examining the analysis in the second section, which presents estimates of the distribution of the federal and total U.S. tax burden. The third section of the report discusses the measures that can be used to characterize the distributional effects of tax changes.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Shvedov, Maxim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barriers to Corporate Fraud: How They Work, Why They Fail

Description: The report focuses on the internal controls on American corporations (including corporate governance, business ethics, managerial structure and compensation, internal counsel, and whistleblowers), as well as external controls (government regulation, external auditors and accountants, and the judicial process). A recurring theme is the limited efficacy of many safeguards and watchdogs in cases of "control fraud," where fraud is directed or abetted by top management, and where unethical or abusive practices may become the organizational norm. Another broad question raised by the report is whether the post-Enron scandals were a one-time event, made possible by the stock market bubble of the 1990s and several other unique historical developments which together constituted a "perfect storm," or whether fraud is a cyclical phenomenon associated with the end of long bull markets.
Date: December 27, 2004
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Report of the University of North Texas System Administration: For the year ended August 31, 2004

Description: Financial report for the University of North Texas System Administration contains information about revenues and expenditures for the organization during the 2003-2004 fiscal year. It includes general statements, schedules of accounts broken down by category, and other supplementary notes.
Date: November 2004
Creator: University of North Texas System. Administration.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Financial Report of the University of North Texas Health Science Center: For the year ended August 31, 2004

Description: Financial report for the University of North Texas Health Science Center contains information about revenues and expenditures for the organization during the 2003-2004 fiscal year. It includes general statements, schedules of accounts broken down by category, and other supplementary notes.
Date: November 2004
Creator: University of North Texas. Health Science Center at Fort Worth.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Financial Report of the University of North Texas: For the year ended August 31, 2004

Description: Financial report for the University of North Texas in Denton, Texas contains information about revenues and expenditures for the organization during the 2003-2004 fiscal year. It includes general statements, schedules of accounts broken down by category, and other supplementary notes.
Date: 2004
Creator: University of North Texas
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Development & Implementation of the Best Means of Correcting Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity & Temperature Measuremwnts

Description: The first of two main goals of this project has been to develop and implement a correction procedure that maximizes the accuracy of relative humidity (RH) measurements from ARM (Vaisala) radiosondes, and to evaluate the correction algorithm using a dataset of simultaneous measurements from Vaisala radiosones and the reference-quality NOAA/CMDL cryogenic hygrometer. The second main goal has been to determine how comparison of radiosonde RH measurements to reference-quality RH measurements obtained routinely in the ventilated ''mailbox'' at the SGP launch site can be used to characterize and improve the accuracy of ARM radiosonde measurements. This project is important to a broad variety of ARM research areas, including initializing numerical models and evaluating model results, improving the accuracy of radiative transfer calculations and parameterizations, evaluating water vapor retrievals from ground-based or satellite instruments, and developing water vapor and cloud parameterizations. Tobin et al. (2003) showed that in order to achieve a target accuracy of 1 W/m2 in the downwelling and outgoing longwave flux, the water vapor profile must be known with an absolute accuracy of 2% in the total-column integrated water vapor, and 10% in the upper troposphere (UT).
Date: July 26, 2004
Creator: Miloshevich, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF ALL-SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE AND AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN PARTICLE-LADEN COMBUSTION EXHAUST STREAMS

Description: An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2 described in this progress report, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in ...
Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: Caton, Jerald A.; Annamalai, Kalyan & Lucht, Robert P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report examines Turkmenistan's halting economic and political reforms under the authoritarian leadership of President Saparmurad Niyazov. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance, including support for grassroots democratization and advocacy for human rights, and provides basic facts and biographical information.
Date: May 13, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: The Cost-of-Living Adjustment in January 2005

Description: This report discusses how the cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for Social Security benefits are determined. The 2.7% COLA payable in January 2005 was triggered by the rise in the CPI-W (Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers) from the third quarter of 2003 to the third quarter of 2004. This COLA triggers identical percentage increases in Supplemental Security Income (SSI), veterans' pensions, and railroad retirement benefits, and causes other changes in the Social Security program.
Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Sidor, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2004

Description: This report describes and discusses changes to the list of recipients of the Medal since the release of the committee print, Medal of Honor Recipients: 1863-1978, which lists recipients and provides the full text of the citations describing the actions that resulted in the awarding of the Medal.
Date: June 21, 2004
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Management Laws: A Compendium

Description: This report is a companion to CRS Report RL32388, General Management Laws: Major Themes and Management Policy Options. In combination, these reports have three main objectives: (1) to identify and describe the major management laws under which the executive branch of the federal government is required to operate, including their rationale, design, and scope; (2) to assist Members of Congress and their staff in oversight of executive branch management; and (3) to help Congress when considering potential changes to the management laws themselves, as well as other legislation, including authorization statutes and appropriations.
Date: May 19, 2004
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kyrgyzstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report examines faltering reforms and other challenges to Kyrgyzstan's independence that have raised U.S. concerns. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance for democratization and other programs, including asic facts and biographical information.
Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2004

Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: The Windfall Benefit Provision

Description: This report discusses the windfall elimination provision, which reduces the Social Security benefits of workers who also have pension benefits from employment not covered by Social Security. Its purpose is to remove an advantage these workers would otherwise receive because of Social Security's benefit formula that favors workers with smaller amounts of Social Security-covered career earnings. Opponents contend that the provision is basically inaccurate and often unfair. In both the 107th and 108th Congresses, five bills have been introduced that would modify or repeal the provision.
Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Haltzel, Laura
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2004

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 220 women Members of Congress.
Date: July 1, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Rescission Authority: Efforts to Modify the 1974 Framework

Description: This report examines presidential rescission authority and repeated attempts made in Congress to amend the ICA or provide the President with expanded rescission or overt item veto authority.
Date: December 23, 2004
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Description: This report discusses open ocean aquaculture, which is defined as the rearing of marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high-energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence, is one possible option for meeting increasing consumer demand for marine products and offering new and alternative employment opportunities.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Borgatti, Rachel & Buck, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

Description: The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.
Date: December 31, 2004
Creator: Chory, Joanne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

Description: This report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S. policy toward Moldova.
Date: December 17, 2004
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues

Description: This report discusses the Uniformed Services Former Spouses’ Protection Act (USFSPA), which treats military personnel former spouses eligibility to receive certain military benefits or privileges.
Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Burrelli, David F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department