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Practices and Methods of Preventing and Treating Crude-Oil Emulsions

Description: From Introduction: "This report describes practical methods of preventing the formation of emulsions in oil-producing operations, modern practices and methods of economically dehydrating crude-oil emulsions, and recent advances in emulsion-treating technique."
Date: 1939
Creator: Shea, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the Twenty-Eighth National Conference on Weights and Measures, 1938

Description: Report of the annual conference on weights and measures, hosted by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards in Washington D.C. It includes conference proceedings, a list of attendees, information about committees and officers, and other reports or commentaries discussed at the meetings.
Date: 1939
Creator: United States. National Bureau of Standards.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static Electricity in Nature and Industry

Description: From Introduction: "In this bulletin "static electricity" is used in its commonly accepted meaning to include the various manifestations that result from the coming together or neutralization of positive and negative charges with have been separated by friction between unlike substances or otherwise. Although the scope of the this report is rather broad, it deals primarily with static electricity as a hazard. Casual and experimental observations recorded herein are thus given for a background and for the purpose of suggesting hazards not yet recognized."
Date: 1939
Creator: Guest, Paul G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activation of hydrocarbons and the octane number

Description: This report presents an examination of the history of research on engine knocking and the various types of fuels used in the investigations of this phenomenon. According to this report, the spontaneous ignition of hydrocarbons doped with oxygen follows the logarithmic law within a certain temperature range, but not above 920 degrees K. Having extended the scope of investigations to prove hydrocarbons, the curves of the mixtures burned by air should then be established by progressive replacement of pure iso-octane with heptane. Pentane was also examined in this report.
Date: October 1939
Creator: Peschard, Marcel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of effect of yaw on lateral-stability characteristics I : four N.A.C.A. 23012 wings of various plan forms with and without dihedral

Description: Four N.A.C.A. 23012 wings were tested at several angles of yaw in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. All the wings have rounded tips and, in plan form, one is rectangular and the others are tapered 3:1 with various amounts of sweep. Each wing was tested with two amounts of dihedral and with partial-span split flaps. The coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment are given for all the models at zero yaw. The coefficients of rolling moment, yawing moment, and side force are given for the rectangular wing at all values of yaw tested. The rate of change in the coefficients with angle of yaw is given in convenient form for stability calculations.
Date: April 1, 1939
Creator: Bamber, M J & House, R O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of N.A.C.A. nose-slot cowlings on the BFC-1 airplane

Description: The results of flight tests of four nose-slot cowling designs with several variations in each design are presented. The tests were made in the process of developing the nose-slot cowling. The results demonstrate that a nose-slot cowling may be successfully applied to an airplane and that it utilizes the increased slipstream velocity of low-speed operation to produce increased cooling pressure across the engine. A sample design calculation using results from wind-tunnel, flight, and ground tests is given in an appendix to illustrate the design procedure.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Stickle, George W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative performance of engines using a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection

Description: The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.
Date: February 1, 1939
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Clark, J Denny
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of an N.A.C.A. 23012 airfoil with two arrangements of a wide-chord slotted flap

Description: An investigation has been made in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord N.A.C.A. 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of a 40-percent-chord slotted flap to determine the section aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil as affected by slot shape, flap location, and flap deflection. The flap positions for maximum lift, the polar for arrangements considered favorable for take-off and climb, and the complete section aerodynamic characteristics for selected optimum arrangements were determined. A discussion is given of the relative merits of the various arrangements. A comparison is made of slotted flaps of different chords on the N.A.C.A. 23012 airfoil. The best 40-percent-chord slotted flap is only slightly superior to the 25-percent-chord slotted flap from considerations of maximum lift coefficient and low drag for take-off and initial climb.
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Harris, Thomas A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of an N.A.C.A. 23012 Airfoil with a slotted deflector flap

Description: Section aerodynamic characteristics of a large-chord N.A.C.A. 23012 airfoil with a slotted deflector flap were obtained in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The characteristics of an N.A.C.A. slotted flap and of a simple split flap are included for comparison. The slotted deflector flap was found to have a somewhat lower maximum lift coefficient and somewhat higher drag at high lift coefficients than the N.A.C.A. slotted flap. The high drag of the open slot with the deflector flap neutral indicates that the slot should be closed for this condition.
Date: April 1, 1939
Creator: House, R O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic tests of a family of models of seaplane floats with varying angles of dead rise - N.A.C.A. Models 57-A, 57-B, and 57-C

Description: Three models of V-bottom floats for twin-float seaplanes (N.A.C.A. models 57-A, 57-B, and 57-C) having angles of dead rise of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and thirty degrees, respectively, were tested in the N.A.C.A. tank and in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. Within the range investigated, the effect of angle of dead rise on water resistance was found to be negligible at speeds up to and including the hump speed, and water resistance was found to increase with angle of dead rise at planing speeds. The height of the spray at the hump speed decreased with increase in angle of dead rise and the aerodynamic drag increased with dead rise. Lengthening the forebody of model 57-B decreased the water resistance and the spray at speeds below the hump speed. Spray strips provided an effective means for the control of spray with the straight V sections used in the series but considerably increased the aerodynamic drag. Charts for the determination of the water resistance and the static properties of the model with 25 degrees dead rise and for the aerodynamic drag of all the models are included for use in design.
Date: July 1, 1939
Creator: Parkinson, John B.; Olson, Roland E. & House, Rufus O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

Description: Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Moore, Charles S & Foster, Hampton H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The frequency of torsional vibration of a tapered beam

Description: A solution for the equation of torsional vibration of tapered beams has been found in terms of Bessel functions for beams satisfying the following conditions: (a) the cross sections along the span are similar in shape; and (b) the torsional stiffness of a section can be expressed as a power of a linear function of distance along the span. The method of applying the analysis to actual cases has been described. Charts are given from which numerical values can be immediately obtained for most cases of practical importance. The theoretical values of the frequency ratio have been experimentally checked on five beams having different amounts of taper.
Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Coleman, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoelastic analysis of three-dimensional stress systems using scattered light

Description: A method has been developed for making photoelastic analyses of three-dimensional stress systems by utilizing the polarization phenomena associated with the scattering of light. By this method, the maximum shear and the directions of the three principal stresses at any point within a model can be determined, and the two principal stresses at a free-bounding surface can be separately evaluated. Polarized light is projected into the model through a slit so that it illuminates a plane section. The light is continuously analyzed along its path by scattering and the state of stress in the illuminated section is obtained. By means of a series of such sections, the entire stress field may be explored. The method was used to analyze the stress system of a simple beam in bending. The results were found to be in good agreement with those expected from elementary theory.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Weller, R & Bussey, J K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some notes on the numerical solution of shear-lag and mathematically related problems

Description: The analysis of box beams with shear deformation of the flanges can be reduced to the solution of a differential equation. The same equation is met in other problems of stress analysis. No analytical solutions of this equation can be given for practical cases, and numerical methods of evaluation must be used. Available methods are briefly discussed. Two numerical examples show the application of the step-by-step method of integration to shear-lag problems.
Date: May 1, 1939
Creator: Kuhn, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of ground effect on wings with flaps

Description: An investigation was conducted in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the effect of ground proximity on the aerodynamic characteristics of wings equipped with high-lift devices. A rectangular and a tapered wing were tested without flaps, with a split flap, and with a slotted flap. The ground was represented by a flat plate, completely spanning the tunnel and extending a considerable distance ahead and back of the model. The position of the plate was varied from one-half to three chord lengths below the wing. The results are presented in the form of curves of absolute coefficients, showing the effect of the ground on each wing arrangement. The effect of the ground on lift, drag, and pitching moment is discussed. An appendix gives equations for calculating tunnel-wall corrections to be applied to ground-effect tests conducted in rectangular tunnels when a plate is used to represent the ground. The tests indicated that the ground effect on wings with flaps is a marked decrease in drag, a decrease in diving moment, and a substantial reduction in maximum lift.
Date: May 1, 1939
Creator: Recant, Isidore G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-distribution measurements on a tapered wing with a full-span split flap in curved flight

Description: Pressure-distribution tests were made on the 32-foot whirling arm of the Daniel Guggenheim Airship Institute of a tapered wing to determine the rolling and yawing moments due to an angular velocity in yaw. The model was tested at 0 degree and 5 degrees pitch, -1 degree and 5 degree yaw, and with a full-span flap deflected 60 degrees. The results are given in the form of span load distributions and in calculated moment coefficients. The rolling-moment coefficients are in fairly close agreement with those derived by means of a simple approximate theory even for high deflection of the full-span flap.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Troller, TH & Rokaus, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem Air Propellers

Description: Tests of 2-blade, adjustable-pitch, counter rotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency, were made at Stanford University. The characteristics, for 15 degrees, 25 degrees, 35 degrees, and 45 degrees pitch settings at 0.75 R of the forward propeller and for 8-1/2 percent, 15 percent, and 30 percent diameter spacings, were compared with those of 2-blade and 4-blade propellers of the same blade form. The tests showed that the efficiency of the tandem propellers was from 0.5 percent to 4 percent greater than that of a 4-blade propeller and, at the high blade-angle settings, not appreciably inferior to that of a 2-blade propeller. It was found that the rear tandem propeller should be set at a blade angle slightly less than that of the forward propeller to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency. Under this condition the total power absorbed by the tandem propellers was from 3 percent to 9 percent more than that absorbed by the 4-blade propeller and about twice that absorbed by a 2-blade propeller.
Date: February 1, 1939
Creator: Lesley, E P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department