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Standards Yearbook 1932

Description: Outlines of the activities and accomplishments of the national and international standardization agencies.
Date: 1932
Creator: United States. National Bureau of Standards.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paint for Priming Plaster Surfaces

Description: Results of commercial and experimental paints tested on plaster, concrete, and other porous surfaces.
Date: August 31, 1932
Creator: United States. Bureau of Standards.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid-Oxygen Explosives

Description: From Introduction: "The purpose of this bulletin is to examine the advantages and disadvantages of L. O. X., both in the light of experimental investigations by the Bureau of Mines and the results in actual blasting, and to discuss the probable future fields of usefulness for this novel type of explosive."
Date: 1932
Creator: Perrott, G. St. J. & Tolch, N. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paraffin and Congealing-Oil Problems

Description: From Scope of Report: "This report is in two parts-the major or first part is a discussion of the results obtained from field studies of the factors responsible for the deposition of paraffin and the congealing of oil and of practical methods of combating these problems. The second part of the report deals with the analyses of crude waxes or paraffin obtained from different representatives crude oils."
Date: 1932
Creator: Reistle, C. E., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gold Mining and Milling in the United States and Canada: Current Practices and Costs

Description: Introduction Object and Scope of Paper: "This paper attempts to assemble and discuss briefly in one volume a number of subjects relating to the mining of gold, particularly from lode deposits, in the United States and Canada."
Date: 1932
Creator: Jackson, Charles F. & Knaebel, John B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinker Formation as Related to the Fusibility of Coal Ash

Description: From Introduction Arrangement of Report: "The results of this investigation are presented in two main divisions. The first part covers the chemical and physical tests on average samples of the coals used-chemical analysis, float-and-sink tests to determine distribution of the ash, determination of the forms of sulphur, chemical analyses of the ash, and ash-fusabilibity determinations. The second part covers the clinkering studies and the comparisons of the results with the ash-fusibilty and other tests."
Date: 1932
Creator: Nicholls, P. & Selvig, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Earthquakes, 1931

Description: Report discussing earthquake activity in the United States during 1931. The report is broken down by regions and has sections for specific earthquakes.
Date: 1932
Creator: Neumann, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Earthquakes, 1932

Description: Report discussing earthquake activity in the United States during 1932. The report is broken down by regions and has sections for specific earthquakes.
Date: 1932
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Crystal Cavities of the New Jersey Zeolite Region

Description: From abstract: The crystal cavities present in the mineral complex of the New Jersey traprock region have long excited the interest of mineralogists. In 1914 Fenner made the first detailed and comprehensive study of these cavities and suggested that babingtonite was the original mineral. Soon after this anhydrite was found occupying parts of some of the cavities at one of the quarries. At this time, too, Wherry concluded that glauberite was the original mineral of some of the cavities because of his studies of similar crystal cavities in Triassic shale at different places.
Date: 1932
Creator: Schaller, Waldemar T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum Refinery Statistics: 1930

Description: From Summary: "The year 1930 marked a turning point in record-breaking performances for refining industry. From the time of the first refinery statistics of the Bureau of Mines in 1916 through 1929 the utilization of crude at refineries and the production of the principal product (motor fuel) has increased steadily. In 1930, however, the depressed conditions had a noticeable effect on motor-fuel consumption, which only increased 5 per cent over that in 1929, compared with an average annual increase for the preceding decade of 16 per cent.
Date: 1932
Creator: Hopkins, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mining Petroleum by Underground Methods: A study of Methods used in France and Germany and Possible Application to Depleted Oil Fields under American Conditions

Description: From Introduction: "That the percentages of extraction of petroleum from the ground may and undoubtedly will be greatly increased in the future by underground mining methods where natural conditions will permit seems logical. The limitations imposed by depth, temperature, and flow of water under high pressure through the sands will be discussed later."
Date: 1932
Creator: Rice, George S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of visually determining the air flow around airplanes

Description: This report describes methods used by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to study visually the air flow around airplanes. The use of streamers, oil and exhaust gas streaks, lampblack and kerosene, powdered materials, and kerosene smoke is briefly described. The generation and distribution of smoke from candles and from titanium tetrachloride are described in greater detail because they appear most advantageous for general application. Examples are included showing results of the various methods.
Date: July 1, 1932
Creator: Gough, Melvin N & Johnson, Ernest
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of propellers and nacelles on the landing speeds of tractor monoplanes

Description: This paper reports wind-tunnel tests giving the lift coefficients of large-scale wing-nacelle combinations both with and without the propeller. The tests were made to show the effect of nacelles, and idling and stopped propellers on the landing speeds of tractor monoplanes. Four types of nacelles with various cowlings were used in numerous positions with respect to both a Clark Y and a thick airfoil. The effect of both the idling and stopped propeller on lift, and consequently on landing speed, was negligible. A nacelle with exposed engine cylinders when placed directly in front of an airfoil caused a slight reduction in lift, consequently an increase in landing speed, over the condition with the wing alone. With this exception no appreciable effect on landing speed was indicated for any of the other combinations.
Date: May 1, 1932
Creator: Windler, Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative performance of a Powerplus vane-type supercharger and an N.A.C.A. Roots-type supercharger

Description: This report presents the results of tests of a Power plus supercharger and a comparison of its performance with the performance previously obtained with an N.A.C.A. Roots-type supercharger. The Powerplus supercharger is a positive displacement blower of the vane type having mechanically operated vanes, the movement of which is controlled by slots and eccentrics. The supercharger was tested at a range of pressure differences from 0 to 15 inches of mercury and at speeds from 500 to 2,500 r.p.m. The pressure difference across the supercharger was obtained by throttling the intake of a depression tank which was interposed in the air duct between the supercharger and the Durley orifice box used for measuring the air. The results of these tests show that at low pressure differences and at all speeds the power required by the Powerplus supercharger to compress a definite quantity of air per second is considerably higher than that required by the Roots. At pressure differences from 10 to 14 inches of mercury and at speeds over 2,000 r.p.m. the power requirements of the two superchargers are practically the same. At a pressure difference of 15 inches of mercury or greater and at a speed of 2,500 r.p.m. or greater the performance of the Powerplus supercharger is slightly better than that of the Roots. Because the Powerplus supercharger cannot be operated at a speed greater than 3,000 r.p.m. as compared with 7,000 r.p.m. for the Roots, its capacity is approximately one-half that of the Roots for the same bulk. The Powerplus supercharger is more complicated and less reliable than the Roots supercharger.
Date: July 1, 1932
Creator: Schey, Oscar W. & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compression-ignition engine tests of several fuels

Description: The tests reported in this paper were made to devise simple engine tests which would rate fuels as to their comparative value and their suitability for the operating conditions of the individual engine on which the tests are made. Three commercial fuels were used in two test engines having combustion chambers with and without effective air flow. Strictly comparative performance tests gave almost identical results for the three fuels. Analysis of indicator cards allowed a differentiation between fuels on a basis of rates of combustion. The same comparative ratings were obtained by determining the consistent operating range of injection advance angle for the three fuels. The difference in fuels is more pronounced in a quiescent combustion chamber than in one with high-velocity air flow. A fuel is considered suitable for the operating conditions of an engine with a quiescent combustion chamber if it permits the injection of the fuel to be advanced beyond the optimum without exceeding allowable knock or allowable maximum cylinder pressures.
Date: May 1, 1932
Creator: Spanogle, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Clearance Distribution on the Performance of a Compression-Ignition Engine with a Precombustion Chamber

Description: The clearance distribution in a precombustion chamber cylinder head was varied so that for a constant compression ratio of 13.5 the spherical auxiliary chambers contained 20, 35, 50, and 70 per cent of the total clearance volume. Each chamber was connected to the cylinder by a single circular passage, flared at both ends, and of a cross-sectional area proportional to the chamber volume, thereby giving the same calculated air-flow velocity through each passage. Results of engine-performance tests are presented with variations of power, fuel consumption, explosion pressure, rate of pressure rise, ignition lag, heat loss to the cooling water, and motoring characteristics. For good performance the minimum auxiliary chamber volume, with the cylinder head design used, was 35 per cent of the total clearance volume; for larger volumes the performance improves but slightly. With the auxiliary chamber that contained 35 percent of the clearance volume there were obtained the lowest explosion pressures, medium rates of pressure rise, and slightly less than the maximum power. For all clearance distributions an increase in engine speed decreased the ignition lag in seconds and increased the rate of pressure rise.
Date: November 1, 1932
Creator: Moore, C. S. & Collins, J. H. Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of several factors on ignition lag in a compression-ignition engine

Description: This investigation was made to determine the influence of fuel quality, injection advance angle, injection valve-opening pressure, inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed on the time lag of auto-ignition of a Diesel fuel oil in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine as obtained from an analysis of indicator diagrams. Three cam-operated fuel-injection pumps, two pumps cams, and an automatic injection valve with two different nozzles were used. Ignition lag was considered to be the interval between the start of injection of the fuel as determined with a Stroborama and the start of effective combustion as determined from the indicator diagram, the latter being the point where 4.0 x 10(exp-6) pound of fuel had been effectively burned. For this particular engine and fuel it was found that: (1) for a constant start and the same rate of fuel injection up the point of cut-off, a variation in fuel quantity from 1.2 x 10(exp-4) to 4.1 x 10(exp-4) pound per cycle has no appreciable effect on the ignition lag; (2) injection advance angle increases or decreases the lag according to whether density, temperature, or turbulence has the controlling influence; (3) increase in valve-opening pressure slightly increases the lag; and (4) increase of inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed reduces the lag.
Date: November 1, 1932
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Voss, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat dissipation from a finned cylinder at different fin-plane/air-stream angles

Description: This report gives the results of an experimental determination of the temperature distribution in and the heat dissipation from a cylindrical finned surface for various fin-plane/air-stream angles. A steel cylinder 4.5 inches in diameter having slightly tapered fins of 0.30-inch pitch and 0.6 -inch width was equipped with an electrical heating unit furnishing 13 to 248 B.T.U. per hour per square inch of inside wall area. Air at speeds form 30 to 150 miles per hour was directed at seven different angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees with respect to the fin planes. The tests show the best angle for cooling at all air speeds to be about 45 degrees. With the same temperature for the two conditions and with an air speed of 76 miles per hour, the heat input to the cylinder can be increased 50 percent at 45 degrees fin-plane/air-stream angle over that at 0 degrees.
Date: August 1, 1932
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Biermann, Arnold E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments on the distribution of fuel in fuel sprays

Description: The distribution of the fuel in sprays for compression-ignition engines was investigated by taking high-speed spark photographs of fuel sprays produced under a wide variety of conditions, and also by injecting them against pieces of Plasticine. A photographic study was made of sprays injected into evacuated chambers, into the atmosphere, into compressed air, and into transparent liquids. Pairs of identical sprays were injected counter to each other and their behavior analyzed. Small high-velocity air jets were directed normally to the axes of fuel sprays, with the result that the envelope of spray which usually obscures the core was blown aside, leaving the core exposed on one side.
Date: March 1, 1932
Creator: Lee, Dana W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of connecting-passage diameter on the performance of a compression-ignition engine with a precombustion chamber

Description: Results of motoring tests are presented showing the effect of passage diameter on chamber and cylinder compression pressures, maximum pressure differences, and f.m.e.p. over a speed range from 300 to 1,750 r.p.m. Results of engine performance tests are presented which show the effect of passage diameter on m.e.p., explosion pressures, specific fuel consumption, and rates of pressure rise for a range of engine speeds from 500 to 1,500 r.p.m. The cylinder compression pressure, the maximum pressure difference, and the f.m.e.p. decreased rapidly as the passage diameter increased to 29/64 inch, whereas further increase in passage diameter effected only a slight change. The most suitable passage diameter for good engine performance and operating characteristics was 29/64 inch. Passage diameter became less critical with a decrease in engine speed. Therefore, the design should be based on maximum operating speed. Optimum performance and satisfactory combustion control could not be obtained by means of any single diameter of the connecting passage.
Date: November 1, 1932
Creator: Moore, C S & Collins, J H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department