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Annual report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (6th).administrative report including Technical Reports nos. 83 to 110

Description: Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the President, Congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, expenditures, House of Representatives bill 14061, a copy of the bill introduced to the House of Representatives to regulate air navigation, and a compilation of technical reports produced.
Date: 1921
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flotation Tests of Idaho Ores

Description: From Introduction: "This paper covers part of the investigations carried on by the United States Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the Idaho Bureau of Mines, the University of Idaho, and certain mining companies of the Coeur d' Alene region. Although the results of the tests included in this report are not to be considered final, they indicate possibilities and may suggest others leading to a solution of the problem of separating lead and zinc sulphides by differential flotation in the treatment of certain ores."
Date: 1921
Creator: Wright, Clarence A.; Parmelle, James G. & Norton, James T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum Laws of All America

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines covering petroleum laws of the U.S. and surrounding oil producing countries. As stated in the preface, "this bulletin includes the petroleum laws of (1) United States; (2) the several oil-producing States; (3) Canada; (4) Mexico; (5) the Republics of Central and South America" (p. iv).
Date: March 1921
Creator: Thompson, Joseph Wesley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Recovery of Unburned Fuel from Boiler Furnace Refuse

Description: Report on recovering unburned fuel from boiler furnace refuse, based on processes used in Europe and tests in the United States.
Date: September 1921
Creator: Fraser, Thomas & Yancey, H. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of Explosives in the United States: with Especial Reference to the Administration of the Explosives Act of October 6, 1917, by the Bureau of Mines

Description: From Origin of Federal Explosives Act, October 6, 1917: " A competent force from the Bureau of Mines was then assigned to study the laws and ordinances of countries, States, and municipalities in which lawas and ordinances regulating explosives have been enacted, and especially to ascertain how these laws had been modified by the necessities of the existing state of war, and, also, wherein the proposed law might conflict with or overlap the jurisdiction of existing laws. This incomplete enumeration of the peace-time uses of explosives shows that the quantity consumed is large. A more definite conception is given by the following statistics of production, to which is added statistics for exportation that disclose something of the effect of war on the explosives industry."
Date: 1921
Creator: Munroe, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

Description: The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.
Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The determination of the effective resistance of a spindle supporting a model airfoil

Description: An attempt was made to determine the effect of spindle interference on the lift of the airfoil by measuring moments about the axis parallel to the direction of air flow. The values obtained are of the same degree as the experimental error, and for the present this effect will be neglected. The results obtained using a U.S.A. 15 wing (plotted here) show that the correction is nearly constant from 0 degrees to 10 degrees incidence and that at greater angles its value becomes erratic. At such angles, however, the wing drag is so high that the spindle correction and its attendant errors become relatively small and unimportant.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Davidson, W E & Bacon, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Description: The difficulties experienced in properly holding thin tipped or tapered airfoils while testing on an N.P.L. type aerodynamic balance even at low air speeds, and the impossibility of holding even solid metal models at the high speeds attainable at the National Advisory Committee's wind tunnel, necessitated the design of a balance which would hold model airfoils of any thickness and at speeds up to 150 m.p.h. In addition to mechanical strength and rigidity, it was highly desirable that the balance readings should require a minimum amount of correction and mathematical manipulation in order to obtain the lift and drag coefficients and the center of pressure. The balance described herein is similar to one in use at the University of Gottingen, the main difference lying in the addition of a device for reading the center of pressure directly, without the necessity of any correction whatsoever. Details of the design and operation of the device are given.
Date: October 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The optical wing aligning device of the Langley Field tunnel

Description: Described here is a convenient and accurate method of aligning the wing chord with the airflow. The device was developed to permit rapid and accurate alignment of airfoils and models with the airstream passing through the tunnel. It consists of three main parts: a projector, a reflector, and a target. The arrangement, which is shown in a figure, has proven satisfactory in operation. It is far better than the old method of sighting across a long batten, as the operator of a balance may see the target and correctly judge the accuracy of his alignment. Whereas the old method required two operators and several minutes time to align to within 1/10 degree, this method enables one operator to align a wing to within 1/100 of a degree in a few seconds. This method also has the advantage of being able to measure the angle of the wing while the tunnel is running. Thus, the true angle of incidence is shown.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Bacon, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the reversal of air flow upon the discharge coefficient of Durley Orifices

Description: Experiments were conducted to obtain information on the relationship between the coefficients for flow in two directions through thin plate orifices at low velocities. The results indicate that the ratio of the orifice discharge coefficient from standard orifice C(sub s)(sup 1) to the discharge coefficient from the reverse flow C(sub s) is always less than unity with increasing ratio of box area to orifice area. Even for areas as low as twenty, the ratios of the coefficients are not much less than unity. It is probable, however, that when the ratio of box area is less than twenty, the ratio of discharge coefficients would be greatly reduced. Specific results are given for the case of an apparatus for the laboratory testing of superchargers.
Date: February 1, 1921
Creator: Ware, Marsden
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground influence on airfoils

Description: The question of ground influence on airplanes has recently attracted some attention in view of the claims made by certain designers that the landing speed of their airplanes is much decreased by an increase in lift coefficient due to the proximity of the ground in landing. The results of wind tunnel tests indicate that ground effect is not entirely beneficial. It decreases the landing speed and cushions the landing shock somewhat. However, it does so at the expense of an increased length of preliminary skimming over the ground. By decreasing the drag and increasing the lift, it lengthens the distance necessary for the airplane to travel before losing enough speed to land. On the other hand, its influence is helpful in taking off, especially in the case of flying boats with their low-lying wings. In the conventional tractor airplane, the height of the wings above the ground is determined largely by propeller clearance. However, a small low-speed airplane like the Pischoff and large low-speed commercial aircraft with engines between wings can utilize ground influence to good advantage.
Date: December 1, 1921
Creator: Raymond, Arthur E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On a new type of wind tunnel

Description: Discussed here is a new type of wind tunnel, its advantages, the difficulties attendant upon its use, and the special methods required for its operation. The main difference between the new type of wind tunnel and the ones now in operation is the use of a different fluid. The idea is to diminish the effect of viscosity If air is compressed, it becomes a fluid with new properties - a fluid that is best suited for reliable and exact tests on models. When air is compressed, its density increases, but its viscosity does not. It is argued that the increase of pressure greatly increases the range and value of wind tunnel tests. Reynolds number, deductions from the Reynolds law, the causes of errors that result in differences between tests on models and actual flights, and the dimensions of a compressed air wind tunnel are covered.
Date: May 1, 1921
Creator: Munk, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a vane driven-gear pump

Description: Given here are the results of a test conducted in a wind tunnel on the performance of a vane-driven gear pump used to pump gasoline upward into a small tank located within the upper wing from which it flows by gravity to the engine carburetor. Information is given on the efficiency of the pump, the head resistance of the vanes, the performance and characteristics of the unit with and without housing about the vanes, the pump performance when motor driven, and resistance and power characteristics.
Date: September 1, 1921
Creator: Heald, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new method of testing in wind tunnels

Description: Now, in existing wind tunnels, using a horsepower of 100 to 300, the models are generally made to a 1/10 scale and the speed is appreciably lower than the speeds currently attained by airplanes. The Reynolds number realized is thus 15 to 25 times smaller than that reached by airplanes in free flight, while the ratio of speed to the velocity of sound is between a third and three quarters of the true ratio. The necessary increases in either the diameter of the wind tunnel or the velocity of the airstream are too costly. However, the author shows that it is possible to have wind tunnels in which the Reynolds number will be greater than that now obtained by airplanes, and in which the ratio of the velocity to the velocity of sound will also be greater than that realized in practice, by employing a gas other than air, at a pressure and temperature different from those of the surrounding atmosphere. The gas is carbonic acid, a gas having a low coefficient of viscosity, high density, and a low ratio of specific heat. The positive results of using carbonic acid in wind tunnel tests are given.
Date: August 1, 1921
Creator: Margoulis, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airplane superchargers

Description: Discussed here are the principles and operation of aircraft engine superchargers used to maintain and increase engine power as aircraft encounter decreases in the density of air as altitude rises. Details are given on the design and operation of the centrifugal compressors. A method is given for calculating the amount of power needed to drive a compressor. The effects of the use of a compressor on fuel system operation and design are discussed. Several specific superchargers that were in operation are described.
Date: May 1, 1921
Creator: Noack, W G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airplane balance

Description: The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.
Date: June 1921
Creator: Huguet, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The calculated performance of airplanes equipped with supercharging engines

Description: In part one of this report are presented the theoretical performance curves of an airplane engine equipped with a supercharging compressor. In predicting the gross power of a supercharging engine, the writer uses temperature and pressure correction factors based on experiments made at the Bureau of Standards (NACA report nos. 45 and 46). Means for estimating the temperature rise in the compressor are outlined. Part two of this report presents an estimation of the performance curves of an airplane fitted with a supercharging engine. A supercharging installation suitable for commercial use is described, and it is shown that with the use of the compressor a great saving in fuel and a considerable increase in carrying capacity can be effected simultaneously. In an appendix the writer derives a theoretical formula for the correction of the thrust coefficient of an airscrew to offset the added resistance of the airplane due to the slip-stream effect.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Kemble, E C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The law relating to air currents

Description: Discussed here are the aerodynamics of a subdivided wing section. The emphasis is upon the increase of lift with more acute angles of attack. Also discussed are wind tunnel tests of the relations among wind resistance, lift, angle of attack, and velocity.
Date: March 1, 1921
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Moisture resistant finishes for airplane woods

Description: This report describes briefly a series of experiments made at the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, to determine the comparative moisture resistance of linseed oil, impregnation treatments, condensation varnishes, oil varnishes, enamels, cellulose varnishes, rubber, electroplated and sprayed metal coatings, and metal-leaf coatings when applied to wood. All coatings except rubber and electroplated metal coatings, which were not developed sufficiently to make them practical, admitted moisture in varying degrees. The most effective and most practical coating was found to be that of aluminum leaf.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Dunlap, M E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data on the design of plywood for aircraft

Description: This report makes available data which will aid the designer in determining the plywood that is best adapted to various aircraft parts. It gives the results of investigations made by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service at Madison, Wisconsin, for the Army and Navy Departments, and is one of a series of reports on the use of wood in aircraft prepared by the Forest Products Laboratory for publication by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The object of the study was to determine, through comprehensive tests, the mechanical and physical properties of plywood and how these properties vary with density, number, thickness, arrangement of the plies and direction of grain of the plies.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Elmendorf, Armin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department