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Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis

Description: Abstract: Tables of important data for use in the analytical chemistry laboratory are provided. These tables contain information for use in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and wet chemical techniques. Tables relating to safe practice in the analytical laboratory are also included.
Date: April 1986
Creator: Bruno, Thomas J. & Svoronos, Paris D. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated Measurement of Frequency Response of Frequency-Modulated Generators Using the Bessel Null Method

Description: From abstract: This paper describes a Bessel null technique to measure the frequency response of a frequency-modulated rf carrier and a program to automate frequency response measurements of signal generators with output frequencies from 0.450 to 2000 MHz. The measurements obtained using this technique are more precise than those obtained by a highly trained technician using a manual system.
Date: March 1986
Creator: Major, J. R.; Livingston, E. M. & Adair, Robert T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Aperture Analysis of the Dual TEM Cell and an Investigation of Test Object Scattering in a Single TEM Cell

Description: Introduction: Small aperture theory is used to investigate the dual TEM cell. Analyzing coupling through an empty versus a loaded aperture leads to a model of dual TEM cell shielding effectiveness measurements. Small obstacle scattering yields results for both the field perturbation and the change in a cell's transmission line characteristics due to the presence of a test object in a TEM cell. In each case, theoretical values are compared to experimental data.
Date: 1984
Creator: Wilson, Perry F. & Ma, Mark T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Statistical Characterization of Electroexplosive Devices Relevant to Electromagnetic Compatibility Assessment

Description: Abstract: Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are electrically fired explosive initiators used in a wide variety of applications. The nature of most of these applications requires that the devices function with near certainty when required and remain inactive otherwise. Recent concern with pulsed electromagnetic interference (EMI) and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) made apparent the lack of methodology for assessing EED vulnerability. A new and rigorous approach for characterizing EED firing levels is developed in the context of statistical linear models and is demonstrated in this paper. We combine statistical theory and methodology with thermodynamic modeling to determine the probability that an EED, of a particular type, fires when excited by a pulse of a given width and amplitude. The results can be applied to any type of EED for which the hot-wire explosive binder does not melt below the firing temperature. Included are methods.for assessing model validity and for obtaining probability plots, called "Firing Likelihood Plots". A method of measuring the thermal time constant of an EED is given. This parameter is necessary to evaluate the effect of a train of pulses. These statistical methods are both more general and more efficient than previous methods for EED assessment. The results provide information which is crucial for evaluating the effects of currents induced by impulsive electromagnetic fields of short duration relative to the EEDs thermal time constant.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Friday, Dennis S. & Adams, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Techniques for Measuring the Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Materials

Description: Abstract: Shielding effectiveness relates to a material's ability to reduce the transmission of propagating fields in order to electromagnetically isolate one region from another. Because a complex material's shielding capability is difficult to predict, it often must be measured. A number of measurement approaches are studied including the use of a shielded room, coaxial transmission line holders, time domain signals, the dual TEM cell, and an apertured TEM cell in a reverberation chamber. In each case, we consider the system's frequency range, test sample requirements, test field type, dynamic range, time required, analytical background, and present data taken on a common set of materials.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Wilson, Perry F. & Ma, Mark T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A System for Measuring Energy and Peak Power of Low-Level 1.064 [mu]m Laser Pulses

Description: From introduction: For the first time, transfer standards have been developed for measuring 1.064 Pm laser pulses of duration about 10-100 ns, peak irradiance of about 10-8-10-4 W/cm2, and fluences of about 10-16-10-11 J/cm2 . These energy and power measurement devices use PIN and APD silicon detectors, respectively, and can be used as stable transfer standards with total uncertainties (random errors computed at the 95 percent confidence level) of 10 to 15 percent. The system for calibrating these transfer standards is also described and consists of a cw Nd:YAG laser beam acousto-optically modulated to provide low-level laser pulses of known peak power and energy. A detailed evaluation of systematic and random errors is also shown.
Date: October 1982
Creator: Sanders, A. A. & Rasmussen, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tables of Industrial Gas Container Contents and Density for Oxygen, Argon, Nitrogen, Helium, and Hydrogen

Description: Abstract: Custody transfer tables are presented for oxygen, argon, nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen. The tables are based on standard reference data previously compiled by the National Bureau of Standards. Two sets of tables are provided for each fluid. Tables in engineering units cover the range -40 to 130*F with pressures from 100 to 10,000 prig. Tables in SI units (density versus pressure and temperature) cover the range 200 to 370 K with pressures from 0.5 to 70 MPa. The tables in engineering units are designed to provide a means of determining the volume of gas at standard conditions contained in a tank given the volume of the tank and the pressure and temperature of the gas within the tank. The publication also includes four examples of use of the tables in calculating tank quantities.
Date: June 1985
Creator: Younglove, Ben A. & Olien, Neil A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Commercial Densimeters for LNG Service

Description: Abstract: Densimeters for liquefied natural gas (LNG) from four manufacturers were tested in liquid methane and an LNG-like mixture of methane, propane, and nitrogen in the density reference system (DRS). The calibration and performance of one type tested for the first time are reported. The stability of the calibrations and performances of three densimeters of a type previously tested have been examined and are also reported here.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Siegwarth, J. D. & LaBrecque, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Theory of Mutual Impedances and Multiple Reflections in an N-Element Array Environment

Description: Abstract: A general theoretical approach is formulated to describe the complex electromagnetic environment of an N-element array. The theory reveals the element-to-element interactions and multiple reflections within the array. From the formulation, it is found that the interaction between an excited element and an open-circuited element can be viewed as the sum of terms describing all possible signal paths within the array environment which start from the radiating element and terminate on the element under observation. Within all paths except the most direct one, multiple reflections between subgroups of elements take place. The resulting solution is highly structured and recursive and is discussed in detail in the text. Illustrative examples are provided to facilitate understanding of these ideas.
Date: February 1985
Creator: Muth, Lorant A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of Near-Field Phased Arrays for Electromagnetic Susceptibility Testing

Description: From introduction: The feasibility of using a near-field array for electromagnetic susceptibility testing is studied. The basic objective is to control the element weightings such that a plane wave is generated within the test volume. The basic theory is developed for arbitrary array geometries, and numerical results are obtained for finite planar arrays. A general near-field array synthesis technique is developed, and the technique minimizes the mean square error in the test volume while constraining the array excitations. The constraint prevents large excitations and is useful in minimizing the fields outside the test volume. The basic idea looks promising, but some practical considerations, such as bandwidth and angular scanning limitations, require further theoretical and experimental investigation.
Date: February 1984
Creator: Hill, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermophysical Properties of Isobutane from 114 to 700 K at Pressures to 70 MPa

Description: Abstract: Using a modified version of the nonanalytic equation of state, thermophysical properties of isobutane are derived from physical properties data and are tabulated at integral temperatures over the entire range of fluid states from 114 to 700 K along isobars at pressures to 70 MPa. Results include dielectric constants, densities, enthalpies, entropies, equation of state, internal energies, isobars, isochores, isotherms, Joule-Thomson inversion, heats of vaporization, melting line, orthobaric densities, specific heats, sound velocities, vapor pressures, and virial coefficients. In addition to the equation of state, equations are given for vapor pressures, orthobaric vapor and liquid densities, ideal gas properties, second virial coefficients, dielectric constants, heats of vaporization, melting pressures, and orthobaric liquid specific heats, enthalpies, and entropies. Several new sets of data have been used in this correlation; comparisons between experimental and calculated values are given.
Date: January 1982
Creator: Goodwin, Robert D. & Haynes, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transparent Metrology of Signal to Noise Ratios of Noisy Band-Limited Digital Signals

Description: From abstract: I propose the use of a template method for quantitative, correct, and transparent measurement of signal power to additive noise power ratios (SNR) of digital signals and systems under full operating conditions. Outer guard chips of digital templates hold intersymbol interference fixed on inner target chips in realizations of the respective template patterns in traffic. The proposed template method needs to be developed and proven as a potentially valuable metrology capability; it can be especially important for real time online performance assessment and monitoring of digital communication systems.
Date: June 1985
Creator: Halford, Donald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase Equilibria: an Informal Symposium

Description: From introduction: The accurate prediction of phase equilibria plays an important. role in the chemical process industries. A grief overview of final phase equilibria predictive techniques is presented with special emphasis on methods in current use in industry. Areas were better fundamental understanding will lead to improved models are discussed whenever possible.
Date: January 1983
Creator: Eaton, B. E.; Ely, James F.; Hanley, H. J. M.; McCarty, Robert D. & Rainwater, James C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Picosecond Time Difference Measurements Utilizing CAMAC-Based ANSI/IEEE-488 Data Acquisition Hardware : Operating Manual IE3, Version 1.0

Description: Abstract: Automated time-difference measurements at the picosecond level have been achieved. The system described combines the best properties of three common methods: the single heterodyne measurement technique, the frequency divider, and the dual-mixer time-difference measurement system. This particular system combines two instrumentation standards, ANSI/IFEE-583 and ANSI/IEEE-488 with new, modular dual-mixer time-difference measurement hardware. The modular, standardized hardware together with the new measurement techniques permit the data acquisition modules to be contained in a standard CAMAC crate. This system, along with an external controller, is capable of measuring eiqht clocks, at the present time, and is expandable to twenty-four clocks with modified software and additional measurement modules. The system noise performance is described by a (rT = 3 x 10^-12 t^-1 for time difference measurements.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Glaze, D. J. & Stein, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible Estimation Methodologies for Electromagnetic Field Distributions in Complex Environments

Description: Abstract: The problem of measuring and characterizing complicated multiple-source, multiple-frequency electromagnetic environments is becoming more important and more difficult as electrical devices proliferate. This paper outlines three general approaches to the problem which are currently under investigation at the National Bureau of Standards. The three approaches are: 1) a statistical treatment of the spatial distribution of electromagnetic field intensities, 2) a numerical computation using a finite-difference (or lattice) form of the electromagnetic action functional, and 3) use of a directional probe to scan a volume. All three methods are still in the development stage, but each appears promising.
Date: March 1985
Creator: Kanda, Motohisa; Randa, J. & Nahman, N. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Radio-Frequency Power Delivery System: Procedures for Error Analysis and Self-Calibration

Description: Abstract: An expression is developed for net power delivered to a load in terms of the indicated forward and reflected power and the system S-parameters and reflection coefficients. The dual directional coupler is treated as nonideal with power reflections assumed between all ports. The system itself is used to evaluate the major S-parameter terms in net power computation, and uncertainty in the computed power is derived from origins in the power meter readings and incompletely known S-parameters.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Kanda, Motohisa & Orr, R. David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reference Flat Pulse Generator

Description: Introduction: A reference step-like pulse generator is described which has been developed at NBS. This generator can be used for accurately characterizing the step response of various kinds of trap ient recording equipment (oscilloscopes, waveform recorders, transient digitizers, etc.). Basic design principles are given as well as complete circuit diagrams and descriptions. An analysis of the output stage of the generator is presented together with the circuit models for developing a time-domain computer simulation program using extended- SCEPTRE. Preliminary specifications indicate that the NBS Reference Flat Pulse Generator provides a negative-going reference transition duration (90 to 10 percent) of 600 ps, *20 percent with baseline perturbations of less than *2 percent for less than 5 ns.
Date: October 1983
Creator: Andrews, J. R.; Bell, B. A. & Baldwin, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Review of Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Description: Forward: The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from a brief investigation of supercritical fluid extraction principles and applications. This study was one portion of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, contract nuriber DE-AI01076PR06010, in response to a preliminary proposal submitted by the authors. This report sometimes uses company trade naries to identify processes and patent holders. This usage implies no endorsement by HBS. Note also that some figures reproduced from other sources do not conform with NBS policy concerning SI units.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Ely, James F. & Baker, Jolene K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielded Balanced and Coaxial Transmission Lines: Parametric Measurements and Instrumentation Relevant to Signal Waveform Transmission in Digital Service

Description: Abstract: A method is presented for determining the impulse and step responses of a shielded cable using time domain terminal measurements and a physically based mathematical model for the transmission line properties of the cable. The method requires a computer controlled time domain measurement system and was implemented using the NBS Automatic Pulse Measurement System (APMS). Data are also developed for the frequency domain complex propagation function (attenuation and its related minimum-phase shift). The method is applied to 12 shielded paired-conductor (balanced) cables and 5 coaxial cables. Time domain responses are presented for three nominal cable lengths, 60 m (200 ft), 150 m (500 ft), and 300 m (1000 ft). The time domain responses are applied to the estimation of bit error rate increases due to the insertion of the cables into a digital signaling system employing a balanced polar NRZ waveform. Also discussed is the application of the time domain responses to time domain reflectometry techniques for cable acceptance tests and field-site testing of installed cables.
Date: June 1981
Creator: Gans, William L. & Nahman, N. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site Attenuation

Description: Abstract: Site attenuation is a measure of performance of an open test site used at frequencies below about 1 GHz for antenna calibration and equipment emission and susceptibility testing. These sites typically consist of a large, obstruction-free ground plane and the hemisphere above it. Site attenuation of an ideal site is calculated and compared to data measured using the 30 m by 60 m NBS ground screen.
Date: November 1985
Creator: FitzGerrell, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VOR Calibration Services

Description: from Introduction: The National Bureau of Standards has designed, constructed, and evaluated a standard for the support of very-high-frequency omnidirectional range (VOR) air navigation aids. The standard consists of two instruments: (1) a digital waveform signal generator for the composite VOR audio waveform, and (2) a standard phasemeter based on time series analysis of this waveform. Experimental results, a statistical analysis of them, and the principal software listings are included.
Date: April 1985
Creator: Larsen, Neil T.; Vecchia, Dominic F. & Sugar, George R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WR 10 Millimeter Wave Microcalorimeter

Description: Abstract: A microcalorimeter has been built in WR 10 waveguide, 75-110 GHz, to serve as a power standard at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Included here is an evaluation of the errors in using the microcalorimeter for the measurement of effective efficiency of bolometer mounts. The error analysis shows a systematic uncertainty of +/- .83 percent and a random uncertainty of .37 percent.
Date: June 1981
Creator: Weidman, Manly P. & Hudson, Paul A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department