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MODELING THE TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON LOCAL AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY USING A VARIABLE-GRID-RESOLUTION AIR QUALITY MODEL

Description: This second annual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April 2004 through 16 April 2005. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also completed. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. Thus, the project is on schedule as planned. During the upcoming reporting period, we expect to perform the first MAQSIP-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.
Date: May 13, 2005
Creator: Alapaty, Kiran
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

Description: During the past six months we have adapted our 3-D elastic, anisotropic finite difference code by implementing the rotated staggered grid (RSG) method to more accurately represent large contrasts of elastic moduli between the fractures and surrounding formation, and applying the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition to minimize boundary reflections. Two approaches for estimating fracture spacing from scattered seismic energy were developed. The first relates notches in the amplitude spectra of the scattered wavefield to the dominant fracture spacing that caused the scattering. The second uses conventional FK filtering to isolate the backscattered signals and then recovers an estimate of the fracture spacing from the dominant wavelength of those signals. Both methods were tested on synthetic data and then applied to the Emilio field data. The spectral notch method estimated the Emilio fracture spacing to be about 30 to 40 m, while the FK method found fracture spacing of about 48 to 53 m. We continue to work on two field data sets from fractured carbonate reservoirs provided by our industry sponsors--the offshore Emilio Field data (provided by ENIAGIP), and an onshore reservoir from the Middle East (provided by Shell). Calibration data in the form of well logs and previous fracture studies are available for both data sets. In previous reports we showed the spatial distribution fractures in the Emilio Field based on our calculated scattering index values. To improve these results we performed a map migration of all the scattering indices. The results of this migration process show a very strong correlation between the spatial distribution and orientation of our estimated fracture distribution and the fault system in the field. We observe that the scattering index clusters tend to congregate around the fault zones, particularly near multiple faults and at fault tips. We have also processed a ...
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Burns, Daniel R. & Toksoz, M. Nafi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

Description: Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.
Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Nuttall, Brandon C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE CRITICAL EQUIPMENT HEALTH MONITORING

Description: The objective of this research program is to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. The program will extend the temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures will be investigated and tailored for use with the sensor. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates in the first year of the program, and additional substrates were evaluated. In the second year of the program, additional substrate research was performed with the goal of improving the performance of using SiC substrates. While greatly improved bandwidth was achieved, sensor survival at elevated temperature remains problematic. The elevated temperature coupling work continued with significant experimentation. Molten glasses were found to work within a limited temperature range, but metal foils applied with heat and pressure were found to have superior performance overall. The final year of the program will be dedicated to making further advances in AlN/ substrate behavior, and the design and implementation of a sensor demonstration experiment at very high temperature in a simulated industrial application.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Sebastian, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

Description: The Pb-Pb center of mass energy at the LHC will exceed that of Au-Au collisions at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. The interest of the Heavy Ion (HI) Physics at LHC is discussed in more detail in the LHC-USA white paper and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Heavy Ion proposal. A few highlights are presented in this document. Heavy ion collisions at LHC energies will explore regions of energy and particle density significantly beyond those reachable at RHIC. The energy density of the thermalized matter created at the LHC is estimated to be 20 times higher than at RHIC, implying an initial temperature, which is greater than at RHIC by more than a factor of two. The higher density of produced partons also allows a faster thermalization. As a consequence, the ratio of the quark-gluon plasma lifetime to the thermalization time increases by a factor of 10 over RHIC. Thus the hot, dense systems created in HI collisions at the LHC spend most of the time in a purely partonic state. The longer lifetime of the quark-gluon plasma state widens significantly the time window available to probe it experimentally. RHIC experiments have reported evidence for jet production in HI collisions and for suppression of high p{sub T} particle production. Those results open a new field of exploration of hot and dense nuclear matter. Even though RHIC has already broken ground, the production rates for jets with p{sub T} > 30 GeV are several orders of magnitude larger at the LHC than at RHIC, allowing for systematic studies with high statistics in a clean kinematic region. High p{sub T} quark and gluon jets can be used to study the hot hadronic ...
Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Yepes, Dr. Pablo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote Automatic Material On-Line Sensor

Description: Low cost NMR sensor for measuring moisture content of forest products. The Department of Energy (DOE) Industries of the Future (IOF) program seeks development and implementation of technologies that make industry more efficient--in particular, more energy-efficient. Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM), a wholly-owned subsidiary of GE Security, received an award under the program to investigate roles for low-cost Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology in furtherance of these goals. Most NMR systems are designed for high-resolution spectroscopy applications. These systems use intense magnetic fields produced by superconducting magnets that drive price and operating cost to levels beyond industry tolerance. At low magnetic fields, achievable at low cost, one loses the ability to obtain spectroscopic information. However, measuring the time constants associated with the NMR signal, called NMR relaxometry, gives indications of chemical and physical states of interest to process control and optimization. It was the purpose of this effort to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using such low-field, low-cost NMR to monitor parameters enabling greater process efficiencies. The primary target industry identified in the Cooperative Development Agreement was the wood industry, where the moisture content of wood is a key process parameter from the time the cut tree enters a mill until the time it is delivered as pieces of lumber. Extracting the moisture is energy consuming, and improvements in drying efficiency stand to reduce costs and emissions substantially. QM designed and developed a new, low-cost NMR instrument suitable for inspecting lumber up to 3 inches by 12 inches in cross section, and other materials of similar size. Low cost is achieved via an inexpensive, permanent magnet and low-cost NMR spectrometer electronics. Laboratory testing demonstrated that the NMR system is capable of accurate ({+-} 0.5%) measurements of the moisture content of wood for moisture ranging from 2% to over 140% ...
Date: December 20, 2005
Creator: Magnuson, Erik
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Rules Affecting Committees

Description: This report identifies and summarizes the provisions of the House of Representatives' standing rules and certain other directives that affect committee powers, authority, activities, and operations. It is organized under seven headings: (1) general, (2) establishment and assignments, (3) hearings, markups, and other meetings, (4) reporting, (5) oversight and investigations, (6) funding, staff, and travel, and (7) other duties.
Date: March 21, 2005
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Description: This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places. Some Members of Congress have given historic preservation programs close scrutiny and have recommended that historic preservation activities be supported increasingly by the private sector.
Date: January 5, 2005
Creator: Boren, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Utility Regulatory Reform: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: This report discusses regulation issues affecting electricity today. Comprehensive electricity legislation may involve several components: Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) reform, PURPA's requirement that utilities purchase power from qualifying facilities (QFs), and reliability.
Date: April 21, 2005
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendment

Description: This report gives a brief history of the flag protection issue, from the enactment of the Flag Protection Act in 1968 through current consideration of a constitutional amendment. A second part briefly summarizes the two decisions of the United States Supreme Court -- Texas v. Johnson and United States v. Eichman -- that struck down the state and federal flag protection statutes as applied in the context punishing expressive conduct.
Date: January 3, 2005
Creator: Luckey, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suspension of Rules in the House: Measure Sponsorship by Party

Description: This report provides a brief analysis and tables that show the breakdown of motions to suspend the rules in the House of Representatives by party of the sponsor (100th-108th Congresses).
Date: January 6, 2005
Creator: Carr, Thomas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: This report discuses U.S. policy toward Cuba, such as support measures for the Cuban people, including private humanitarian donations and U.S.-sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How to Find Information in a Library and on the Internet

Description: This report includes background directories, current information, reference books, and websites for government, politics, legislation, and other sources. It lists a number of Internet search engines, which can be used at many public libraries and also suggests guides on how to search, including one for kids.
Date: January 24, 2005
Creator: Platt, Suzy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report discusses the federal-state unemployment compensation (UC) system, which pays benefits to covered workers who become involuntarily unemployed for economic reasons and meet state-established eligibility rules.
Date: January 27, 2005
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations

Description: This report summarizes the extent of the disaster and relief effort and includes descriptions of the U.S. and international assistance efforts. It also examines protection mechanisms for children and separated orphans. A section is devoted to the situation in each of the affected countries followed by an analysis of selected issues for Congress.
Date: March 21, 2005
Creator: Margesson, Rhoda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 229 women Members of Congress.
Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Syria: Political Conditions and Relations with the United States After the Iraq War

Description: This report focuses on Syria's internal politics and the impact of hostilities in Iraq on Syria's stability and U.S.-Syrian relations. It outlines the development of the regime currently headed by President Bashar al-Asad and its support base; describes potential challenges to the regime; examines the effect of the Iraq war on Syrian domestic politics and U.S.-Syrian relations; and reviews U.S. policy options toward Syria.
Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: Prados, Alfred B. & Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insurance Regulation: History, Background, and Recent Congressional Oversight

Description: This report provides the historical background for examining the arguments in this debate. It shows that state regulation of insurance is largely a historical artifact, that Congress has become increasingly involved in both regulating insurance and overseeing states' regulation of insurance, and that the National Association of Insurance Commissioners has assumed a national role.
Date: February 11, 2005
Creator: Webel, Baird & Cobb, Carolyn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

Description: Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM ...
Date: December 19, 2005
Creator: Stang, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Well ER-6-2 Testing, Yucca Flat FY 2004 Testing Program, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

Description: This report documents the analysis of data collected for Well ER-6-2 during fiscal year (FY) 2004 Yucca Flat well development and testing program (herein referred to as the ''testing program''). Participants in Well ER-6-2 field development and hydraulic testing activities were: Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), Bechtel Nevada (BN), Desert Research Institute (DRI), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas-Harry Reid Center (UNLV-HRC). The analyses of data collected from the Well ER-6-2 testing program were performed by the SNJV.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Ruskauff, Greg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerated Testing of the CSNF Waste Form: Applicability to Yucca Mountain

Description: Spent fuel tests in support of Yucca Mountain have been performed for many years. Most of these tests have been either single-pass flowthrough (SPFT) or unsaturated drip tests that have been used to elucidate waste form degradation rates. In general, the tests have been considered accelerated tests per the definition found in ASTM Standard C1174 in that either the temperature or flow rate has been increased in order to increase the rate of alteration. However, as the design and models for the proposed repository have solidified, it is clear that much of what was originally considered an accelerated test is, in reality, either a service condition test or a test that determines bounding conditions that grossly overestimate radionuclide degradation and release rates under repository relevant conditions. This presentation will examine the factors that need to be considered for future waste form, including waste package internals, degradation tests.
Date: January 11, 2005
Creator: Hanson, B.; Buck, E. & Brady, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

Description: A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final ...
Date: January 9, 2005
Creator: Kalinich, D.A.; Lee, K.P. & McNeish, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department