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Further description of the petrology of the Topopah Spring member of the paintbrush tuff in drill holes UE25A-1 and USW-G1 and of the lithic-rich tuff in USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: The Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Lithic-rich tuff and two Tertiary volcanic units that occur in cores from drill holes UE25a-1 and USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Recently they have been suggested as possibly suitable for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive waste. Earlier petrologic characterization of these units is augmented here. The Topopah Spring Member (approximately 350 m thick) has two compound cooling units. The upper, thinner unit is densely welded to vitrophyric. The lower unit ranges from nonwelded to vitrophyric, and its nonwelded base is extensively zeolitized to clinoptilolite and mordenite. Heulandite occurs as fracture fill in the overlying vitrophyric part, but zeolites are absent above that vitrophyre. Here primary devitrification plus vapor-phase crystallization dominate the mineralogy. Vapor-phase effects are especially prominent between the two vitrophyres in both cores and include numerous large lithophysal cavities throughout most of this moderately to densely welded tuff. The Lithic-rich tuff extends from 1203 to 1506 m in the USW-G1 drill core. It is nonwelded to partly welded but is well indurated due to pervasive intergrowths of authigenic minerals. These phases are analcime, albite, alkali feldspar, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The transition from analcime to secondary albite corresponds to Iijima`s zeolite Zone IV boundary, and this boundary appears in USW-G1 at 1326 m. However, analcime remains as a prominent phase through most of the Lithic-rich tuff. Further work is necessary to assess the suitability of either of these horizons for a waste repository. In the Topopah Spring Member, both mechanical and hydrologic properties of thick lithophysal zone must be studied, as well as the complete sequence of fracture fill. For both units, zeolite and clay mineral stabilities need to be investigated.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Carroll, P.I.; Caporuscio, F.A. & Bish, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser fusion monthly, February 1981

Description: This report is divided into the following sections: (1) facility reports (Argus and Shiva); (2) Nova project; and (3) fusion experiments. In the Fusion Experiments section of this report, the author describes the results of a series of experiments on Shiva which further the understanding of the production and transport of suprathermal electrons. He found that of the suprathermal electrons which strike a laser irradiated disk target or which interact with the rear surface of a half Cairn hohlraum target, a significant fraction of these electrons orbit the target and strike the rear of the disk. These results have significant implications in the interpretation and modeling of the laser irradiated target experiments.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Ahlstrom, H.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical and thermomechanical calculations related to the storage of spent nuclear-fuel assemblies in granite

Description: A generic test of the geologic storage of spent-fuel assemblies from an operating nuclear reactor is being made by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site. The spent-fuel assemblies were emplaced at a depth of 420 m (1370 ft) below the surface in a typical granite and will be retrieved at a later time. The early time, close-in thermal history of this type of repository is being simulated with spent-fuel and electrically heated canisters in a central drift, with auxiliary heaters in two parallel side drifts. Prior to emplacement of the spent-fuel canisters, preliminary calculations were made using a pair of existing finite-element codes. Calculational modeling of a spent-fuel repository requires a code with a multiple capability. The effects of both the mining operation and the thermal load on the existing stress fields and the resultant displacements of the rock around the repository must be calculated. The thermal loading for each point in the rock is affected by heat tranfer through conduction, radiation, and normal convection, as well as by ventilation of the drifts. Both the ADINA stress code and the compatible ADINAT heat-flow code were used to perform the calculations because they satisfied the requirements of this project. ADINAT was adapted to calculate radiative and convective heat transfer across the drifts and to model the effects of ventilation in the drifts, while the existing isotropic elastic model was used with the ADINA code. The results of the calculation are intended to provide a base with which to compare temperature, stress, and displacement data taken during the planned 5-y duration of the test. In this way, it will be possible to determine how the existing jointing in the rock influences the results as compared with a homogeneous, isotropic rock mass. Later, new models ...
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Butkovich, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on radiation-induced thermoluminescence in Climax Stock quartz monzonite

Description: An examination has been made of the feasibility of using thermoluminescence (TL) for the self-dosimetry of the rock surrounding a canister of nuclear waste. The rock investigated was quartz monzonite from the Climax Stock, a granite intrusive at the Nevada Test Site. Samples of the rock were irradiated by {sup 60}Co to doses of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 9} rads, then ground to a fine powder and read for TL response at a heating rate of 1{sup 0}C per second. Effects of total dose, thermal history after irradiation, grinding to a powder after irradiation, mineral composition, and powder grain size were investigated. All were found to be important, but with care, the use of TL in this manner appears promising.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Carlson, R.; Page, L.; Koons, L. & Sundbeck, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ geomechanics: Climax granite, Nevada Test Site

Description: The in situ modulus of the Climax granite in the Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) area of the Nevada Test Site was estimated using six different approaches. Our best estimate of field modulus as E/sub f/ = 26 GPa was obtained from a comparison of the various approaches. A best estimate of laboratory modulus acquired by comparing three different sources was E/sub l/ = 70 GPa. Therefore, the modulus reduction factor for the Climax granite appears to be E/sub f//E/sub l/ = 0.37. In turn, our estimate of in situ rock-mass deformability was used to back-calculate in situ values for the normal stiffness of the granite joints. Our analysis of former stress measurements by the US Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the horizontal stresses in the vicinity of SFT-C vary greatly with azimuth. An unexplained feature of the stresses at SFT-C is the fact that the vertical stress appears to be only 65 to 75% of the calculated lithostatic burden. From the three-dimensional stress ellipsoid at mid-length in the tunnels, assuming a plane strain condition, we were able to estimate an in situ Poisson`s ratio of the rock mass as {nu} = 0.246. Two other techniques were applied in an attempt to measure the stresses around the SFT-C heater and canister drifts: the undercoring method and the borehole jack fracturing approach. The former technique appears to have given reasonable estimates of tangential stresses in the roof of the heater drifts; the latter appears to give low results for stresses in the pillars. Specific recommendations are made for future tests to further characterize the mechanical properties of the Climax granite and the in situ stresses at SFT-C.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Heuze, F.E.; Patrick, W.C.; De la Cruz, R.V. & Voss, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation: More Energy from Less Fuel

Description: This report discusses magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, which is a method for converting heat directly into electrical energy without the use of a rotating electrical power generator.
Date: October 7, 1981
Creator: Crane, Langdon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MX Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program

Description: This report discusses the MX Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM),which is designed to be the most lethal strategic ballistic missile in the world. The missile was developed by the U.S. Air Force to augment the capabilities of the presently deployed ICBM force, which together with Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs) and manned strategic bomber aircraft form the triad of U.S. strategic nuclear offensive forces.
Date: December 14, 1981
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal properties of rock salt and quartz monzonite to 573{sup 0}K and 50-MPa confining pressure

Description: Measurements of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal linear expansion have been made on two rock types, a rock salt and a quartz monzonite, at temperatures from 300 to 573{sup 0}K and confining pressures from 10 to 50 MPa. The samples were taken from deep rock formations under consideration as possible sites for a nuclear waste repository - the rock salt from a domal salt formation at Avery Island, Louisiana, and the quartz monzonite from the Climax Stock, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The testing temperature and pressures are meant to bracket conditions expected in the repository. In both rock types, the thermal properties show a strong dependence upon temperature and a weak or non-dependence upon confining pressure. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity both decrease with increasing temperature in approximately linear fashion for samples which have not been previously heated. At 50 MPa in both rocks this decrease closely matches the measured or expected intrinsic (crack-free) behavior of the material. Preliminary indications from the quartz monzonite suggest that conductivity and diffusivity at low pressure and temperature may decrease as a result of heat treatment above 400{sup 0}K.
Date: March 18, 1981
Creator: Durham, W.B. & Abey, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

Description: This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Heuze, F. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation Report No. 2: identification, evaluation, and remedial actions related to transducer failures at the spent fuel test-climax

Description: The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the feasibility of safe and reliable short-term storage and retrieval of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors. In support of operational and technical goals of the test, about 850 channels of instrumentation have been installed at the SFT-C. Failure of several near-field instruments began less than six months after emplacement of 11 canisters of spent fuel and activation of six thermally similar simulators. The failed units were linear potentiometers (used to make displacement measurements) and vibrating wire stressmeters (used to make change-in-stress measurements). This report discusses the observed problems and remedial actions taken to date.
Date: November 30, 1981
Creator: Patrick, W.C.; Carlson, R.C. & Rector, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excavation and drilling at a spent-fuel test facility in granitic rock

Description: Funding for a project to test the feasibility of safe and reliable storage and retrieval of spent fuel from a commercial nuclear reactor was approved by the Department of Energy on June 2, 1978. By May 28, 1980, 11 spent-fuel assemblies had been emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Design and construction of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax, including fuel emplacement, had taken less than two years, at a total cost of $18.4 million. Construction activities were preceded by geologic exploration using four cored holes and existing underground workings. The sinking of a 0.76-m-diam shaft to the 420-m level initiated construction at the site. Effective rates of sinking varied from 0.16 m/h with a rotary tricone drill to 0.5 m/h with a hammer drill. Underground excavation included a central canister-storage drift 4.6 x 6.1 x 64 m long, two parallel 3.4 x 3.4-m heater drifts, and a tail drift. About 6700 m{sup 3} were excavated at an average rate of 2 m{sup 3}/h, and 178 cored holes, with diameters from 38 to 152 mm, were drilled. A total length of nearly 1100 m was drilled at rates ranging from 0.4 m/h to 1 m/h, depending on hole size and drilling equipment. Eighteen 610-mm-diam canister emplacement holes were hammer-drilled at an average rate of 1.4 m/h. The use of the critical path method, integrated contractors, and close cooperation between project participants facilitated completion of the project on schedule.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Patrick, W.C. & Mayr, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal calculations for the design, construction, operation, and evaluation of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada Test Site

Description: The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with six electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978 LLNL secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This report documents a series of thermal calculations that were performed in support of the SFT-C. Early calculations employed analytical solutions to address such design and construction issues as drift layout and emplacement hole spacings. Operational aspects of the test required more detailed numerical solutions dealing with ventilation and guard-heater power levels. The final set of calculations presented here provides temperature histories throughout the test facility for evaluation of the response of the SFT-C and for comparison of calculations with acquired data. This final set of calculations employs the as-built test geometry and best-available material properties.
Date: September 30, 1981
Creator: Montan, D.N. & Patrick, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some field observations on OSI aerial photography scales

Description: The US, UK and USSR are attempting to negotiate a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in Geneva. One of the verification procedures presently proposed provides for the possibility of conducting an On-Site Inspection (OSI) if a violation is suspected. According to the terms of the draft treaty, the OSI team would be provided with either (1) stereoscopic aerial photographs with a scale of 1:2,500, or equivalent topographic maps (US version) or (2) a large scale aerial photograph (USSR version). In order to gain a better understanding of the aerial photograph issue, EG and G was asked to take stereoscopic aerial photographs of two areas at the NTS at four different scales, 1:2,500, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:25,000. The purpose of this paper is to present some field observations on the use for OSI type purposes of these different scale photos.
Date: March 16, 1981
Creator: Geil, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture mapping at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

Description: Mapping of geologic discontinuities has been done in several phases at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Mapping was carried out in the tail drift, access drift, canister drift, heater drifts, instrumentation alcove, and receiving room. The fractures mapped as intersecting a horizontal datum in the canister and heater drifts are shown on one figure. Fracture sketch maps have been compiled as additional figures. Geologic mapping efforts were scheduled around and significantly impacted by the excavation and construction schedules. Several people were involved in the mapping, and over 2500 geologic discontinuities were mapped, including joints, shears, and faults. Some variance between individuals` mapping efforts was noticed, and the effects of various magnetic influences upon a compass were examined. The examination of compass errors improved the credibility of the data. The compass analysis work is explained in Appendix A. Analysis of the fracture data will be presented in a future report.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Wilder, D.G. & Yow, J.L. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy

Description: The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Bish, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.
Date: November 1981
Creator: Waters, A. C. & Carroll, P. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption-desorption studies on tuff III. A continuation of studies with samples from Jackass Flats and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: This report is the third in a series of reports describing studies of sorption and migration of radionuclides in tuff. The investigations were extended to lithologies of tuff not previously studied. Continuing experiments with uranium, plutonium, and americium are described. The dependence of sorption on the concentration of the sorbing element and on the solution-to-solid ratio was investigated for a number of nuclides and two lithologies. A circulating system was designed for measuring sorption ratios. Values obtained from this system, batch measurements, and column elutions are compared. Progress on measuring and controlling Eh is described.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Wolfsberg, K.; Aguilar, R.D. & Bayhurst, B.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deterioration and Repair of Concrete in the Lower Monumental Navigation Lock Wall

Description: "This report discusses surface deterioration and repairs of concrete in the Lower Monumental Lock on the Snake River in Washington. It includes discussion of laboratory studies, testing, construction, and field evaluation of the original concrete and of the various cementitious coatings used for repairs" (p. i).
Date: June 1981
Creator: Schrader, Ernest K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

15 Mile Road/Edison Corridor Sewer Tunnel Failure Study, Detroit Area, Michigan

Description: Partial abstract: "The study consisted of field and laboratory investigations, construction evaluation, and geotechnical and structural analyses to determine the cause(s) of distress and failure of a 2600-ft section of 12-ft 9-in. diameter concrete-lined sanitary sewer tunnel in the Detroit, Mich., area. [...] The report includes summaries of all pertinent construction records, results of all pertinent past and current field and laboratory tests on construction and geotechnical materials, and detailed geotechnical and structural analyses based on observed conditions and measured parameters."
Date: January 1981
Creator: Albert, Dick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of alternate extractants to tributyl phosphate. Phase I

Description: Preliminary evaluations have indicated that tri(n-hexyl) phosphate (THP) and tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) have some significant advantages over tri(n-butyl) phosphate (TBP) for fuel reprocessing although they also have some disadvantages. The longer alkyl chains in these new extractants decrease their aqueous phase solubility and increase the organic phase solubility of their metal complexes and the metal complexes of their degradation products. Both THP and TEHP extract uranium and plutonium more strongly than TBP; thorium extraction is in the order THP > TBP > TEHP. Tritium extraction is highest with TBP because of slightly higher water extraction. In extractions of thorium, a third liquid phase was formed using TBP at a solvent loading of about 40 g/L of thorium and above. Third-phase formation did not occur with THP or TEHP. The dialkyl phosphoric acid degradation products of THP and TEHP showed a markedly lower tendency to precipitate with thorium than did dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). Chemical stability studies showed TEHP to have much greater stability to acid hydrolysis than TBP and THP, which were about equivalent. No differences were detected in the radiation stability of the three extractants. The phase separation properties of THP and TEHP are inferior to those of TBP in both the nitric acid and sodium carbonate (solvent wash) systems. Phase separation was improved appreciably by using a lower extractant concentration than 1.09 M (equivalent to 30 vol % TBP). Difficulties were encountered with TEHP, however, owing to rapid degradation of its phase separation properties with time of contact with HNO{sub 3}; this problem requires additional study.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Arnold, W.D. & Crouse, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department