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Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

Description: The passage of the reauthorization of the North Korean Human Rights Act in October 2008 reasserted congressional interest in influencing the Bush Administration's policy toward North Korea. In addition to reauthorizing funding at original levels, the bill expresses congressional criticism of the implementation of the original 2004 law and adjusts some of the provisions relating to the Special Envoy on Human Rights in North Korea and the U.S. resettlement of North Korean refugees. Some outside analysts have pointed to the challenges of highlighting North Korea's human rights violations in the midst of the ongoing nuclear negotiations, as well as the difficulty in effectively reaching North Korean refugees as outlined in the law. Further, the law may complicate coordination on North Korea with China and South Korea.
Date: October 22, 2008
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush presidency and into the Obama Administration, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
Date: June 17, 2011
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible U.S. Policy Approaches to North Korea

Description: This report describes President Trump's current policy toward North Korea and possible options for future U.S. policy. Options include diplomatic engagement, international and U.S. sanction increases, military strikes, destabilization of the North Korean government through intelligence activities and popular resentment, enhanced military cooperation with allies, and additional funding for preventing arms trading and related trade with North Korea.
Date: September 4, 2017
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Manyin, Mark E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush and Obama presidencies, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
Date: September 13, 2013
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Rinehart, Ian E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: North Korea has presented one of the most vexing and persistent problems in U.S. foreign policy in the post-Cold War period. The United States has never had formal diplomatic relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the official name for North Korea), although contact at a lower level has ebbed and flowed over the years. Negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program have occupied the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts anticipated a collapse of the isolated authoritarian regime. North Korea has been the recipient of over $1 billion in U.S. aid (though none since 2009) and the target of dozens of U.S. sanctions. This report covers the overall U.S.-North Korea relationship, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy.
Date: December 5, 2014
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Rinehart, Ian E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush and Obama presidencies, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
Date: January 15, 2014
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Rinehart, Ian E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush presidency and into the Obama Administration, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
Date: April 5, 2013
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Rinehart, Ian E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush presidency and into the Obama Administration, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
Date: June 29, 2012
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Rinehart, Ian E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report provides background information on the nuclear negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. It also provides information on other concerns that the U.S. has with North Korea, and discusses U.S. engagement activities with North Korea.
Date: May 26, 2010
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Taylor, Mi Ae
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: Although the primary focus of U.S. policy toward North Korea is the nuclear weapons program, there are a host of other issues, which this report explores through an overview of the U.S.-North Korea relationship, including an emphasis on the diplomacy of the Six-Party Talks. Please refer to the list at the end of this report for the full list of CRS reports focusing on other North Korean issues.
Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Taylor, Mi Ae
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report discusses the relationship between the United States and North Korea. The report focuses on North Korea's nuclear weapons program, their military and illicit activities, and international and U.S. sanctions against them.
Date: July 27, 2018
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma; Manyin, Mark E.; Nikitin, Mary Beth D.; Campbell, Caitlin Elizabeth & Mackey, Wil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Description: This report covers the overall U.S.-North Korea relationship, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy. Negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program have occupied the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts anticipated a collapse of the isolated authoritarian regime. North Korea has been the recipient of over $1 billion in U.S. aid (though none since 2009) and the target of dozens of U.S. sanctions.
Date: July 21, 2015
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma; Rinehart, Ian E.; Nikitin, Mary Beth & Park, Sungtae
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korean Cyber Capabilities: In Brief

Description: This report discusses how as North Korea has accelerated its missile and nuclear programs in spite of international sanctions, Congress and the Trump Administration have elevated North Korea to a top U.S. foreign policy priority. Legislation such as the North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016 (P.L. 114-122) and international sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council have focused on North Korea's WMD and ballistic missile programs and human rights abuses. North Korea's cyberattacks have the potential not only to disrupt international commerce, but to direct resources to its clandestine weapons and delivery system programs, potentially enhancing its ability to evade international sanctions. This report will provide a brief summary of what unclassified open-source reporting has revealed about the secretive program, introduce four case studies in which North Korean operators are suspected of having perpetrated malicious operations, and provide an overview of the international finance messaging service that these hackers may be exploiting.
Date: August 3, 2017
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma; Rosen, Liana W.; Rollins, John W. & Theohary, Catherine A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Peace Treaty with North Korea?

Description: This report discusses the recent comments and upcoming summits between North Korea, South Korea, and the United States regarding denuclearization and negotiating a formal peace treaty to officially end the Korean War. A brief overview of past attempts to negotiate a peace treaty between the parties in the Korean War is provided and current priorities for a peace treaty are provided.
Date: April 19, 2018
Creator: Chanlett-Avery; Lawrence, Susan V.; Manyin, Mark E. & Nikitin, Mary Beth D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Biology and Population Status of Marine Turtles in the North Pacific Ocean

Description: From objectives and scope of work: The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of the biology and population status of sea turtles potentially subject to entanglement in North Pacific high-seas driftnet fisheries. The report will assist National Marine Fisheries Service efforts to assess the impacts of the driftnet fisheries on threatened and endangered sea turtle populations.
Date: September 1993
Creator: Eckert, Karen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview

Description: A 1996 amendment to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) enables American victims of international terrorist acts supported by certain States designated by the State Department as supporters of terrorism - Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and previously Iraq and Libya - to bring suit in U.S. courts to seek monetary damages. This report, which will be updated, provides an overview of these issues and relevant legislation (H.R. 5167).
Date: August 7, 2008
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview

Description: A 1996 amendment to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) enables American victims of international terrorist acts supported by certain States designated by the State Department as supporters of terrorism - Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and previously Iraq and Libya - to bring suit in U.S. courts to seek monetary damages. This report, which will be updated, provides an overview of these issues and relevant legislation (H.R. 5167).
Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

Description: This report updates recent information concerning, specifically, North Korea’s long-range ballistic missile program. On July 4-5, 2006, North Korea test-launched seven ballistic missiles, including a new Taepo Dong 2 that failed soon after launch. Apparently successful shorter-range missile tests included some combination of SCUDs and No Dongs. More recently, North Korea conducted an underground nuclear test and said it would deploy nuclear weapons on their ballistic missiles, although there is no evidence they are doing so.
Date: October 18, 2006
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

Description: This report briefly reviews North Korea's ballistic missile program. In summer 2007, North Korea tested modern, short-range missiles. In February 2009, South Korea reported the DPRK had deployed a new intermediate-range missile.
Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea's Nuclear and Ballistic Missile Programs

Description: This report discusses the rapid advancements North Korea has made in its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs since 2012. Despite the absence of any missile launch activity or nuclear tests in 2018 to date, previous tests and official North Korean statements suggest that North Korea is striving to build a credible regional nuclear warfighting capability that might evade regional ballistic missile defenses. Such an approach likely reinforces their deterrent and coercive diplomacy strategy--lending more credibility as it demonstrates capability--but it also raises serious questions about crisis stability and escalation control. Congress may further examine these advances' possible effects on U.S. policy.
Date: August 2, 2018
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A. & Nikitin, Mary Beth D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department