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Competitive economics of nuclear power

Description: Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.
Date: March 2, 1981
Creator: Hellman, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of a 10MW regenerative isobutane geothermal power plant. Technical report No. 18

Description: At present, there are basically three different systems for converting energy in geothermal fluid into power: vapor-flashing system, total flow system, and binary system. A comparison of the power production processes was made on the basis of work output in Kwh per 1000 pounds of geothermal fluid for self flowing wells with wellhead pressure of 100 psia and for wells with downhole pumps. For simplicity, the assumptions were made that the enthalpy of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir is approximately equal to that at the wellhead, that the thermodynamic properties of geothermal fluid may be approximated by those of water, and that the pressure effects on the properties of fluid are negligible. The results showed that the performance of the two-stage vapor-flashing system is not appreciably improved by using a downhole pump. The total flow system is simple, but its success depends mainly on the development of a reliable machine with sufficiently high thermal efficiency. The regenerative isobutane system is impractical, if the geothermal fluid temperature is below 380/sup 0/F. But, when the brine temperatures range from 485 to 600/sup 0/F, the regenerative isobutane system with downhole pump exhibits superior performance as compared to two-stage vapor-flashing system, basic isobutane system, or total flow system.
Date: October 15, 1976
Creator: Gupta, A.K. & Chou, J.C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF

Description: The results of a conceptual design for an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF are presented. Optical designs, amplifier scaling with a KrF kinetics code and limitations imposed by pulsed power technology are described.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Lowenthal, D.D.; Ewing, J.J.; Center, R.E.; Mumola, P. & Olson, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parity violation and the masslessness of the neutrino

Description: It is proposed that the weak interaction be obtained by gauging the strong interaction chiral flavor group. The neutrinos are then four-component spinors. Pairs of right-handed neutrinos are allowed to condense into the vacuum. This produces maximal parity violation in both the quark and lepton sectors of the weak interaction, keeps the neutrinos massless, and also leads to the conventional Weinberg mixing pattern. The approach also in principle provides a way of calculating the Cabibbo angle. 11 references.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Mannheim, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle beam pellet fusion. Final report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1979

Description: A model was developed for the propagation of a focussed ion beam through the gas that may exist in the target chamber of a reactor. The model contains the effects of beam ion stripping, background plasma generation by the beam ions, and electron avalanching in the electric fields produced by the ion pulse. Charge and partial current neutralization, together with stability conditions and the effects of preionization have been investigated, with most recent emphasis being on the role of filamentation instabilities.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Tidman, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

Description: In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Cooper, W. S.; Elischer, V. P.; Goldberg, D. A.; Hopkins, D. B.; Jacobson, V. L.; Lou, K. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium and vanadium

Description: Lattice dilation studies and direct pressure experiments gave comparable values for the partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium and vanadium. Small isotope effects in the partial molar volume of hydrogen were measured in both metals by the differential isotope method. Hydrogen had a larger partial molar volume than deuterium in niobium, but the reverse was true in vanadium. The isotope effect measured in niobium can be represented as being due to the larger amplitude of vibration of the hydrogen atom than the deuterium atom in the metal lattice. Since hydrogen has a larger mean displacement from the equilibrium position than does deuterium, the average force hydrogen exerts on the metal atoms is greater than the force deuterium exerts. The isotope effect in vanadium is likely a result of anharmonic effects in the lattice and local vibrational modes.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Herro, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parametric sensitivity study for solar-assisted heat-pump systems. Final report

Description: A sensitivity study is performed of the engineering and economic parameters affecting life-cycle costs for solar-assisted heat pump systems. The change in energy usage resulting from each engineering parameter varied has been developed from computer simulations, and is compared with results from a stand-alone heat pump system. Three geographical locations are considered: Washington, DC, Fort Worth, TX, and Madison, WI. Results indicate that most engineering changes to the systems studied do not provide significant energy savings. The most promising parameters to vary are the solar collector parameters tau ..cap alpha.. and U/sub L/ the heat pump capactiy at design point, and the minimum utilizable evaporator temperature. Costs associated with each change are estimated, and life-cycle costs computed for both engineering parameters and economic variations in interest rate, discount rate, tax credits, fuel unit costs and fuel inflation rates. Results indicate that none of the feasible engineering changes for the system configuration studied will make these systems economically competitive with the stand-alone heat pump without a considerable tax credit.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: White, N.M. & Morehouse, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of nuclear data of importance for LMFBR applications prior to the evaluation of ENDF/B-VI

Description: The evaluation of nuclear data of importance to the LMFBR program has shifted to a Nuclear Data Evaluation Task Force. It is anticipated that the results of these evaluations will be incorporated in ENDF/B-VI. However, several cross sections for reactor applications are included in a simultaneous evaluation of the standard cross sections for ENDF/B-VI organized by the Standard Subcommittee of CSEWG. Cross sections included in this simultaneous evaluation are those of /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..), /sup 6/Li(n,n), /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 0/), /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 1/), /sup 10/B(n,n), /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..), /sup 235/U(n,f), /sup 238/U(n,..gamma..), /sup 238/U(n,f), and /sup 239/Pu(n,f). The change of the evaluation methodology for ENDF/B-VI will result in a much improved definition of the data, their uncertainties and cross correlations. Trends which can be seen in new data and which are caused by the change of the evaluation procedure are toward, lower /sup 239/Pu(n,f), /sup 235/U(n,..gamma..), modestly lower /sup 235/U(n,f), and higher /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..) data. The data base for /sup 238/U(n,..gamma..) below 30 keV remains poorly defined and a resolution of the C/E discrepancy of C/sup 28//F/sup 49/ cannot be expected from the infinite dilute capture cross section of /sup 238/U. Anti nu of /sup 252/Cf remains unchanged and therefore also the nu(E) of the fissile isotopes, except at thermal energy.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Poenitz, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the AGS polarized H/sup -/ source

Description: Development of a polarized H/sup -/ source for the AGS polarized proton project, initially begun at Argonne National Laboratory in 1979, has been continuing at Brookhaven National Laboratory since early 1982. A description of the source is given and the status of the project is reviewed.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Kponou, A.; Schueler, K.P. & Hughes, V.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status and prospects of advanced fissile fuel breeders

Description: Fusion--fission hybrid systems, fast breeder systems, and accelerator breeder systems were compared on a common basis using a simple economic model. Electricity prices based on system capital costs only were computed, and were plotted as functions of five key breeder system parameters. Nominally, hybrid system electricity costs were about twenty-five percent lower than fast breeder system electricity costs, and fast breeder system electricity costs were about forty percent lower than accelerator breeder system electricity costs. In addition, hybrid system electricity costs were very insensitive to key parameter variations on the average, fast breeder system electricity costs were moderately sensitive to key parameter variations on the average, and accelerator breeder system electricity costs were the most sensitive to key parameter variations on the average.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Kostoff, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of core-debris coolability experiments with real and simulant materials at Argonne National Laboratory. [LMFBR]

Description: The two major areas of interest in the debris-bed coolability experiments at ANL are: (1) development of a data base against which existing debris bed coolability models can be compared and to provide insight into the development of future models and (2) investigation of the possible mechanisms which prevent channel formation in a debris bed with real material experiments. The mechanism under consideration are: (a) subcooling of overlying sodium, (b) UO/sub 2+x/ reduction by sodium, (c) failure of the sodium to wet the fuel and (d) concrete reaction products. Sandia has proposed that subcooling of the overlying sodium is sufficient to prevent channel formation and was the cause of the observed reduction in coolability with increasing subcooling. The results of experiments on each of the mechanisms are to be presented.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Pedersen, D.R.; Sowa, E.; Gabor, J.D.; Jones, S.; Baker, L. Jr. & Epstein, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical methods for nuclear material management

Description: This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.
Date: December 1, 1988
Creator: W.M., Bowen & Bennett, C.A. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project(Phase III): effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Thirteenth quarterly report, October--December 1978

Description: The objective of the program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes and any impurity--process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. Gettering experiments with phosphorus oxychloride gas phase treatments at 950/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/C, and 1150/sup 0/C have been completed for two Ti-doped ingots (3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and 2.1 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ Ti doping levels, respectively), two molybdenum doped ingots (8 x 10/sup 11/ and 4.2 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ Mo) and one iron-doped ingot (3 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ Fe). First generation Co and W-doped ingots were grown and processed to solar cells. Miniature solar cells and diodes were used to map the characteristics of wafers from a 3 inch diameter ingot doped with Mn or Ti. A model has been developed to describe the behavior of solar cells bearing non-uniform distributions of impurities or defects.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Blais, P.D.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Rai-Choudhury, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Similarity solutions for convection of groundwater adjacent to horizontal impermeable surfaces with axisymmetric temperature distribution. Technical report No. 14

Description: The axisymmetric buoyancy-induced groundwater flow adjacent to horizontal impermeable surfaces with wall temperature being a power function of radius is discussed in this paper. With the boundary layer simplifications, the governing non-linear partial differential equations can be transformed into a coupled pair of non-linear ordinary differential equations with two-point boundary conditions that can be integrated numerically by established techniques. Simple algebraic expressions for boundary layer thickness and heat transfer rate are obtained. Applications to free convective flow in a liquid-dominated geothermal system at high Rayleigh number are discussed.
Date: April 30, 1976
Creator: Cheng, P. & Chau, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simple, inexpensive dipole spectrometer for ISABELLE

Description: A proposal to use the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory (SREL) 5-m cyclotron magnet as the basis of a large, simple dipole spectrometer at an ISABELLE colliding-beam intersection is discussed. The magnet and its disassembly, shipment, and reassembly are described. The use of the magnet is some possible experiments is sketched. In general, the spectrometer would be basic to the single-arm spectrometer extensions required for measurements of inclusive hadron spectra as well as multiarm spectrometers designed to record more complicated correlations. 3 figures. (RWR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Siegel, R.T.; Leipuner, L.B.; Larsen, R.C.; Adair, R.K. & Kasha, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

Description: This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr. & Ross, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Signal Amplification Technique (SAT): an approach for improving resolution and reducing image noise in computed tomography

Description: Spatial resolution improvements in computed tomography (CT) have been limited by the large and unique error propagation properties of this technique. The desire to provide maximum image resolution has resulted in the use of reconstruction filter functions designed to produce tomographic images with resolution as close as possible to the intrinsic detector resolution. Thus, many CT systems produce images with excessive noise with the system resolution determined by the detector resolution rather than the reconstruction algorithm. CT is a rigorous mathematical technique which applies an increasing amplification to increasing spatial frequencies in the measured data. This mathematical approach to spatial frequency amplification cannot distinguish between signal and noise and therefore both are amplified equally. We report here a method in which tomographic resolution is improved by using very small detectors to selectively amplify the signal and not noise. Thus, this approach is referred to as the signal amplification technique (SAT). SAT can provide dramatic improvements in image resolution without increases in statistical noise or dose because increases in the cutoff frequency of the reconstruction algorithm are not required to improve image resolution. Alternatively, in cases where image counts are low, such as in rapid dynamic or receptor studies, statistical noise can be reduced by lowering the cutoff frequency while still maintaining the best possible image resolution. A possible system design for a positron CT system with SAT is described.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Plummer, D. & Carson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplified definition system: magnetic products fabrication

Description: The Simplified Definition System, a product definition approach that differentiates between design and production agency manufacturing requirements, has been used in producing 50 types of magnetic products. This system was formed as a result of cooperative work and proposed modifications by engineers from Bendix Kansas City and Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA) to reduce product costs. The system places responsibility for production-related requirements with a production agency, a procedure that has realized both direct and indirect cost savings. This report is a documentation of the system's description and projected savings on magnetic products.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Morris, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplified inelastic analysis procedure to evaluate a butt-welded elbow end

Description: In a thin-walled piping network, the end of an elbow welded to a straignt pipe constitutes one of the highly stressed cross-sections that require structural evaluation. Explicit rules are not provided in the ASME Code for structural evaluation of the elbow ovalization and fabrication effects at the welded end. This paper presents a conservative semi-analytical procedure that can be used with simplified inelastic analysis to evaluate the elbow cross section welded to the straight pipe. The concept of carry-over factors is used to obtain ovalization stresses or strains at the elbow end. The stresses introduced by material and geometric nonuniformities in the fabrication process are then added to the ovalization stresses to complete structural evluation of the girth butt-welded elbow joint.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Dhalla, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulated high-level waste-basalt interaction experiments. First interim progress report

Description: Reconnaissance experiments have shown that waste/basalt interactions are of real importance in understanding all aspects of total containment of radionuclides in a basalt repository. It has been shown that the reprocessed waste forms, calcine and glass, are relatively more reactive than the more crystalline waste forms, spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) and supercalcine. These experiments have established the direction of future research. The remainder of the program will be concerned with longer-duration and more-detailed experiments whose emphasis will be on understanding the mechanisms of reaction. Long-duration and in-depth experiments are being initiated to establish kinetic relationships and get a better feel as to whether or not we are approaching equilibrium in our shorter-duration reconnaissance experiments. In some cases, especially at higher temperatures, it appears that we are approaching a steady-state wherein products are no longer changing. This, however, might be a metastable state. Experiments with cesium compounds thought to be present in SURF (Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/), a simple cesium source (CsOH), labradorite, and ground water have shown that pollucite forms and, as a result, fixes 86 to 99% of the cesium (depending upon the amount of basalt present.
Date: March 24, 1978
Creator: McCarthy, G.J.; Scheetz, B.E.; Komarneni, S.; Barnes, M.; Smith, C.A.; Lewis, J.F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulated high-level waste-basalt interaction experiments. Annual progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

Description: Reconnaissance experiments suggested that the observed reactivity of calcine and glass as 300/sup 0/C would be anticipated at lower temperatures but only after longer times of hydrothermal treatment. Long-duration experiments at 100/sup 0/ and 300/sup 0/C were initiated to determine the time dependence of the alterations at lower temperatures. The reconnaissance experiments also suggested that equilibrium conditions were not yet achieved in these closed system experiments. Glass was observed to alter readily with the formation of acmite-augite pyroxene; a uranyl silicate, weeksite; and a rare-earth slicate-phosphate hydroxyapatite. Nearly all of the B, ca. 70% of the Mo and ca. 50% of the Na in the original glass were dissolved. A simulated reduced SURF (spent unreprocessed fuel) was utilized in hydrothermal experiments. Analyses of the solutions confirmed that soluble fission products phases were leached from the UO/sub 2/ matrix and all of the alkali metals were leached from the SURF. In the presence of basalt, however, the released alkalis react with aluminosilicates and are removed from solution. Individual phases believed to be present in SURF have been hydrothermally treated, with the reference basalts and with major primary and secondary minerals. Cs(OH), Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ and Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ were used as potential cesium phases. In some cases as much as 99.9% of the cesium can be removed from solution by interacting with the rocks and minerals to form pollucite. The interaction of strontium zirconate under hydrothermal conditions with the above rock and basalt minerals indicates that in all cases 99.9% of the available strontium is retained in the strontium zirconate or as alteration products. 11 figures, 8 tables.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Scheetz, B.E.; Smith, D.K.; Barnes, M.W.; Komarneni, S.; Stull, L.M. & Smith, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simple procedure for determining implications of design changes on fast reactor fuel cycle cost and breeding performance

Description: Recently, analytical sensitivity methods has been applied to obtain fuel cycle cost implications of data uncertainties. To perform exposure dependent sensitivity analysis without repeating expensive spectrum calculations, simple correlations of the spectrum averaged cross sections (SAXS) were constructed. The correlation coefficients were obtained by fitting the SAXS calculated by direct methods over a wide range of LMFBR core designs. In this paper the procedure has been extended to study sensitivity of fuel cycle cost and breeding ratio to design variation. The method involves using the correlations to construct both the SAXS and the sensitivity coefficients. Composition dependent correlations have been found to be accurate for the core while both composition and position have to be included in analysing the blanket.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Badruzzaman, A. & Becker, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulating supersymmetry at the SSC

Description: Careful study of supersymmetric signatures at the SSC is required in order to distinguish them from Standard Model physics backgrounds. To this end, we have created an efficient, accurate computer program which simulates supersymmetric particle production and decay (or other new particles). We have incorporated the full matrix elements, keeping track of the polarizations of all intermediate states. (At this time hadronization of final-state partons is ignored). Using Monte Carlo techniques this program can generate any desired final-state distribution or individual events for Lego plots. Examples of the results of our study of supersymmetry at SSC are provided.
Date: August 1, 1984
Creator: Barnett, R.M. & Haber, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department