Search Results

The State of the Hudson 2009

Description: This report describes the environmental quality of the Hudson River and its watershed, including issues such as pollution, population growth, and biodiversity. The report also describes the habitats of estuaries, watersheds, and rivers in general.
Date: 2009
Creator: New York (State). Hudson River Estuary Program.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Water Quality: Federal Role in Addressing and Contributing to Nonpoint Source Pollution

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the impacts of nonpoint source water pollution and the potential costs of dealing with the problem, focusing on: (1) funding levels for federal programs that primarily address nonpoint source pollution; (2) the way Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assesses the overall potential costs of reducing nonpoint pollution nationwide and alternative methods for doing so; and (3) nonpoint source pollution from federal facilities, lands, and activities that federal agencies manage or authorize, or for which they issue permits or licenses."
Date: February 26, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality: Inconsistent State Approaches Complicate Nation's Efforts to Identify Its Most Polluted Waters

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) believes that more than 20,000 bodies of water throughout the country are too polluted to meet water quality standards. States use different approaches to identify impaired waters. This variation has led not only to inconsistencies in the listing of impaired waters but also to difficulties in identifying the total number of impaired waters nationwide and the total number of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) needed to bring such waters up to standards. Under the Clean Water Act and its regulations, EPA has given the states some flexibility to develop listing approaches that are tailored to their circumstances. However, some of the approaches have no appropriate scientific basis. States apply a range of quality assurance procedures to ensure the quality of data used to make impairment decisions. Although states have long used quality assurance procedures for the data they collect directly, they have become increasingly vigilant about applying such procedures to data from other sources. Because of inconsistencies in states' approaches to identifying impaired waters, the information in EPA's database of impaired waters is of questionable reliability. The number of impaired waters cannot be compared from one state to the next, and EPA cannot reliably tally the number of TMDLs that must be completed nationwide. EPA's database also distorts the size of some of the states' impaired waters when they are mapped on EPA's website."
Date: January 11, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change

Description: The effects of global climate change from greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are diverse and potentially very large, and probably constitute the most serious long-term environmental issue currently facing the world. This paper is prepared as task 1 of the project 'Modelling support for Future Actions - Benefits and Cost of Climate Change Policies and Measures', ENV.C.2/2004/0088, led by K.U.Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The paper provides a rapid review and analysis of the impacts and economic costs from climate change. The objective is to provide estimates of the benefits of climate change policy, i.e. from avoided impacts, for support to the Commission in considering the benefits and costs of mitigation efforts, and to support DG Environment in its report to the Spring Council 2005 and in future international negotiations on climate change.
Date: September 2005
Creator: Watkiss, Paul; Downing, Tom; Handley, Claire & Butterfield, Ruth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Water Quality: Problems in the New River and Imperial County, California

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined a number of issues concerning water quality problems in the New River and Imperial County in southern California, focusing on the: (1) types and the sources of pollutants entering the New River; (2) agencies and the organizations responsible for monitoring and regulating pollution in the New River; (3) risks to human health and the environment from water pollution in Imperial County; (4) health advisories and the precautions in place to protect the public from pollution in the New River; and (5) actions being taken to reduce the flow of pollutants into the Salton Sea."
Date: August 5, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of physical and chemical processes in reservoirs: Two case studies.

Description: Managing water quality aspects requires the use of integrative tools that allow a holistic approach to this problem. Water quality models coupled to hydrodynamic models are these tools. This study presents the application of the water quality model WASP coupled to the hydrodynamic model DYNHYD for two distinct reservoirs: Lake Texoma and Tocoma Reservoir. Modeling the former included simulations of water velocities, water level, and four chemical and physical compounds: chlorides, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS); and validation of the results by comparing with observed values during March - May, 1997. The latter is still under project status and the simulation was performed in a prospective way. The analysis included simulations of water velocities under current and for expected conditions, DO and BOD. Both models, DYNHYD and WASP, fitted pretty well to observed conditions for Lake Texoma and for where Tocoma Reservoir has been planned. Considering management and decision support purposes, the role of boundary and loading conditions also was tested. For Lake Texoma, controlling boundary conditions for chlorides is a determinant factor for water quality of the system. However, DO and TSS in the reservoir are governed by additional process besides the condition of the boundary. Estimated loadings for this system did not provided significant effects, even though the allocation of a load for chlorides resulted in significant changes in the trend for expected chloride concentrations at the Washita River Arm of Lake Texoma. For Tocoma Reservoir, the expected concentration of DO all over the reservoir is going to driven by boundary conditions, as well as by the management of autochthonous BOD loadings provided by vegetation decomposition. These two factors will be determinant for the resulting water quality of the future reservoir.
Date: December 2005
Creator: García Iturbe, Selma L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Water Quality: Better Data and Evaluation of Urban Runoff Programs Needed to Assess Effectiveness

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers the contaminants in storm water runoff as a significant threat to water quality across the nation. Prompted by Congress, EPA has responded with various initiatives, including the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Storm Water Program, which requires more than 1,000 local governments to undertake storm water management programs. Those municipalities in Phase I of the program have been trying to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff for several years, and it is time to begin evaluating their efforts. EPA however, has not established measurable goals for this program, nor has it attempted to evaluate the program's effectiveness in reducing storm water pollution or to determine its cost. EPA attributes its inaction to inconsistent data reporting from municipalities, insufficient staff resources, and other competing priorities within the Office of Wastewater Management. Although municipalities report monitoring and cost data to EPA or state regulatory agencies annually, these agencies have not reviewed this information to determine whether it can be useful in determining the program's overall effectiveness or cost. GAO found that the reported cost information will be difficult to analyze unless EPA and its state partners set guidelines to elicit more standardized reporting. Better data on costs and program effectiveness are needed--especially in light of the Phase II program that will involve thousands more municipalities in 2003. EPA's planned research grant to the University of Alabama and its pilot project to analyze data from annual reports and develop baseline indicators is a step in the right direction and could point the way for a more comprehensive approach."
Date: June 29, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality: Key EPA and State Decisions Limited by Inconsistent and Incomplete Data

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Water Quality Inventory, focusing on whether: (1) the information in EPA's National Water Quality Inventory is reliable and representative of water quality conditions nationwide; and (2) available data are sufficient to allow state officials to make key decisions about activities required by the Clean Water Act, such as identifying waters that do not meet water quality standards and developing strategies to address those waters."
Date: March 15, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality: Improved EPA Guidance and Support Can Help States Develop Standards That Better Target Cleanup Efforts

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Water quality standards are composed of designated uses and criteria. These standards are critical in making accurate, scientifically based determinations about which of the nation's waters are in need of cleanup. To assess EPA and states' actions to improve standards, the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment asked GAO to determine the extent to which (1) states are changing designated uses when necessary and EPA is assisting the states toward that end and (2) EPA is updating its criteria documents and assisting states in establishing criteria that can be compared with reasonably obtainable monitoring data."
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality: Program Enhancements Would Better Ensure Adequacy of Boat Pumpout Facilities in No-Discharge Zones

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Clean Water Act regulations generally prohibit boats from discharging untreated sewage but allow the discharge of treated sewage using certified marine sanitation devices. The act allows states to designate "no-discharge zones"--areas in which vessels are prohibited from discharging any sewage--if the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finds that adequate facilities exist in such zones for the removal and treatment of sewage from vessels. In some cases, such as for drinking water intake zones, EPA makes the designation. As requested, this report assesses (1) EPA's process for determining the adequacy of facilities to remove and treat sewage in proposed no-discharge zones; (2) the extent to which EPA and the states ensure that adequate facilities remain available after designation; (3) the extent to which the Coast Guard and the states enforce discharge prohibitions; and (4) various effects of no-discharge zones, as identified by EPA, states, and localities."
Date: May 24, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by select physicochemical and biological water quality parameters in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma and Texas.

Description: From August 1996 through September 1997 eleven fixed stations were sampled monthly in January, March , April , July, August, September, and November and fortnightly in May and June for the purposes of establishing baseline conditions present in Lake Texoma as related to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers chloride control activities in the upper Wichita River, Texas. Five reservoir zones were identified a priori using historical chloride concentration data and include the Red River Zone (RRZ), Red River Transition Zone (RRTZ), Main Lake Body (MLB), Washita River Transition Zone (WRTZ), and Washita River Zone (WRZ) in order of decreasing chloride concentration. The existence of the WRTZ is not supported here, however the Big Mineral Arm in the RRTZ was observed to be highly independent of the mixing patterns observed in the RRTZ and was treated post priori separately from the RRTZ. Spatial and temporal comparisons between reservoir zones were performed on seventeen (17) physicochemical parameters from each of the eleven sampling stations and phytoplankton count data from one sampling station within each reservoir zone and physicochemical parameters were observed to exhibit a fixed spatial gradient. Strong density gradients throughout the reservoir were observed to occur in conjunction with vertical stratification of the water column. Stratification stability at individual stations was attributable to both thermal and salinity density gradients throughout the period of stratification with the degree to which stratification is thermally or chemically induced influenced by inter-annual variability in hydraulic residence time. Hypolimnetic oxygen depletion rates were also observed to be affected by changes in hydraulic residence time with a long-term trend of decreasing relative areal hypolimnetic oxygen rates detected between the 1970s and 1990s. The algal assemblage present in Lake Texoma is dominated by the Cyanophyta, which comprises 82.1 % of the assemblage total standing crop with one species, ...
Date: August 2004
Creator: Clyde, Gerard A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions

Description: This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP), Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions. This is part of a series of 21 SAPs produced by the CCSP aimed at providing current assessments of climate change science to inform public debate, policy, and operational decisions. This SAP focuses on the use of climate observations, data, forecasts, and other projections in decision support.
Date: August 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Partner: UNT Libraries

Water Quality: Identification and Remediation of Polluted Waters Impeded by Data Gaps

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the adequacy of the data that the Environmental Protection Agency and the states have for making critical water quality decisions required by the Clean Water Act, focusing on: (1) the adequacy of the data for identifying waters for states' 303(d) lists; (2) the adequacy of data for developing total maximum daily loads (TMDL) for those waters; and (3) key factors that affect the states' abilities to develop TMDLs."
Date: February 10, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality: Identification and Remediation of Polluted Waters Impeded by Data Gaps

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the data that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states have for making critical water quality decisions required by the Clean Water Act, focusing on: (1) the adequacy of the data for identifying waters for states' 303(d) lists; (2) the adequacy of data for developing total maximum daily loads (TMDL) for those waters; and (3) key factors that affect the states' abilities to develop TMDLs."
Date: March 23, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Description: The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. "Clean Water Act" became the Act's common name with amendments in 1977. Under the CWA, EPA has implemented pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. We have also set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. The CWA made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained. EPA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls discharges. Point sources are discrete conveyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters.
Date: November 27, 2002
Creator: United States. Congress. House
Partner: UNT Libraries

Public Health Service Act

Description: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S. This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources. The Act authorizes EPA to establish minimum standards to protect tap water and requires all owners or operators of public water systems to comply with these primary (health-related) standards. The 1996 amendments to SDWA require that EPA consider a detailed risk and cost assessment, and best available peer-reviewed science, when developing these standards. State governments, which can be approved to implement these rules for EPA, also encourage attainment of secondary standards (nuisance-related). Under the Act, EPA also establishes minimum standards for state programs to protect underground sources of drinking water from endangerment by underground injection of fluids.
Date: 1974
Creator: United States. Congress
Partner: UNT Libraries

Clearing the Waters: A focus on water quality solutions

Description: This report discusses global water issues and offers a variety of proposals for countering the degradation of freshwater ecosystems for the benefit of public health and the environment.
Date: March 2010
Creator: Palanaippan, Meena; Gleick, Peter H.; Allen, Lucy; Cohen, Michael J.; Christian-Smith, Juliet; Smith, Courtney et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Draft Report of the 28th Session of the IPCC

Description: The focus of this meeting was on the Future of the IPCC, including key aspects of the future IPCC work programme and the future structure of the IPCC Bureau and the TFB. The Panel was also invited to consider of the outcome of the Scoping Meeting for a possible Special Report on renewable energy and a proposal for the use of the Funds from the Nobel Peace Prize. The Chair informed the Panel about action taken by the 37th Session of the IPCC Bureau (Budapest, 7-8 April 2008) concerning the finalization of the Technical Paper on Climate Change and Water.
Date: April 2008
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Partner: UNT Libraries

UGEC Viewpoints, No. 2, September 2009

Description: Urbanization is a global phenomenon that has transformed and continues to alter landscapes and the ways in which societies function and develop. For this issue of UGEC Viewpoints, the editors collected case-studies presented at the Open Meeting that span across regions and themes: from Australia and the United States, as well as the less developed nations in Africa, megacities of Asia such as Dhaka, Bangladesh and Delhi, India, vulnerable coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula, and the largest rainforest in the world, the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, more than half of the world's population lives in cities; the United Nations projects that by 2030 the world will advance to the 60% urbanization threshold. Rapid urbanization effects will not only be present within the immediate locations (cities and their metropolitan areas), but will be experienced regionally and globally. The UGEC project seeks to better understand these implications and the complex dynamic systems of urban areas that affect and are affected by global environmental change (e.g., climate change, natural disasters, loss of biodiversity, freshwater ecosystem decline, desertification, and land degradation). Several commonalities are readily identifiable in the authors' research, some of which include an attention to the roles of the governance structures within cities; the functioning of ecosystem services, water, food, and sanitation service provision; as well as the role of research in assisting the successful development of sustainable urban plans and policies.
Date: September 2009
Creator: Urbanization and Global Environmental Change Project
Partner: UNT Libraries

Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972

Description: The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA), also referred to as the Ocean Dumping Act, generally prohibits transportation of material from the United States for the purpose of ocean dumping; transportation of material from anywhere for the purpose of ocean dumping by U.S. agencies or U.S.-flagged vessels; dumping of material transported from outside the United States into the U.S. territorial sea. A permit is required to deviate from these prohibitions. Under MPRSA, the standard fro permit issuance is whether the dumping will "unreasonably degrade or endanger" human health, welfare, or the marine environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged with developing ocean dumping criteria to be used in evaluating permit applications.
Date: unknown
Creator: United States. Congress
Partner: UNT Libraries

Towards Sustainable Global Health

Description: Global health has in recent years drawn increasing scientific, political and popular attention not only due to global epidemics themselves,but also because of the social activities and environmental conditions that shape health threats and influence those who are affected. The study dealswith the issue of 'Sustainable Global Health'which has evolved from the realization that there will be no alleviation of poverty without success in control of serious public health threats, no economic prosperity and sustainability without a healthy workforce, and no social stability and peace as long as people have to suffer from insufficient health services, from malnutrition, from HIV/AIDS pandemics, or from lack of safe water. The study addresses a broad range of issues related to human health at regional and global levels. It includes the theme of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) as a tool for the private sector to exercise responsibility and interest in using the workplaces as a route and as means for education, and for a wide participation of every citizen in securing his or her individual health and well-being. Highlighted throughout the study are integrated approaches towards sustainable health.These approaches shed light on both the importance of multilevel health governance and the understanding of human health as an issue of human security in responding to health threats. Furthermore,the study emphasizes the links between the phenomena of global environmental change, which often further increases pressure on health systems, and the crucial role urban areas play in this realm.
Date: 2008
Creator: Exner, Martin; Klein, Günter; Rechkemmer, Andreas & Schmidt, Falk
Partner: UNT Libraries

Water Quality: EPA Faces Challenges in Addressing Damage Caused by Airborne Pollutants

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and mercury contributes to the impairment of the nation's waters, but the full extent is not known. For example, states provide EPA with data on the extent to which their waterbodies do not meet water quality standards, and some states have reported that some of their waterbodies are polluted because of atmospheric deposition. However, the states have not assessed all of their waterbodies and are not required to report on the sources of pollution. Similarly, federal studies show that atmospheric deposition of NOx, SO2, and mercury is polluting waterbodies but have data for only some waters. The main sources of NOx and SO2 are cars and other forms of transportation and coal-burning power plants. Power plants are also the largest U.S. source of mercury emissions, but international sources also contribute to the mercury deposited in U.S. waters."
Date: January 24, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department