Search Results

Improving the Definition of Exercise Maintenance: Evaluation of Concepts Related to Adherence

Description: Physical activity has been demonstrated in the literature as an effective way to reduce the risk for development of chronic disease. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change has been developed as a means to predict and facilitate movement into healthier lifestyle behaviors. The model is centered on "stages of change", which describe a continuum of readiness to engage in a health behavior change. Stages contain temporal, qualitative, and quantitative characteristics. This was a six-month study that evaluated the effectiveness of stage-matched (theorized to be pertaining only to the maintenance stage of change) vs. generic (theorized to be pertaining to anyone, regardless of stage) newsletters in assisting subjects to attain the Maintenance stage of change. It also sought to identify further qualitative characteristics that can differentiate between the Action and Maintenance stages of change. Results indicated that monthly stage-matched newsletters were no more effective in helping subjects reaching Maintenance than were the generic newsletters. Exerciser self-schema was related to stages of change, but those relationships differed from baseline to six-month follow-up, indicating development of exerciser self-schema during the study period. Implications of this are discussed. Other concepts discussed included "structure" of change process, in that three new scores were developed and correlated with self-efficacy as well as intercorrelated. Motivation was also evaluated and compared across levels of success at adhering to exercise during a three-month period. Limitations of the study and implications are discussed.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Wilcox, Susan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Influence of Physically Active Leisure Participation on Obesity in Youth with Spina Bifida

Description: Childhood obesity and resulting secondary complications in youth with disabilities are occurring in epidemic proportions, due in part to a trend of physical inactivity. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of overweight, the leisure time activity patterns, and the association between frequency of physically active leisure participation and body mass index for age, in a sample of 50 youth with spina bifida, ages 4.5 to 17.9 years. Results indicate that 52% of the sample are classified as at risk of overweight or overweight; 36% were male and 16% were female. The top five leisure time activities and team sport participation are identified. Subjects who did not use a wheelchair for ambulation participated significantly more in physically active leisure than subjects who used a wheelchair. Future research and rationale for physically active leisure as an intervention for youth with spina bifida are discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: McCabe, Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Limiting Disability Post-Brain Injury Through a Physical Activity Centered Education Program

Description: Brain injury (i.e., traumatic brain injury, stroke) is a considerable public health issue due to complicated outcomes of the injury, increasing incidence, and high costs linked with medical treatment. Rehabilitation centers are challenged to help individuals manage the resultant associated conditions and prevent secondary and chronic conditions. Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, PA is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in the services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and implement a physical activity centered education (PACE) program within an outpatient rehabilitation program. PACE consisted of an 8-week (16 session) program which aimed to (1) increase PA self-efficacy, (2) increase intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increase amount of PA completed regularly, and (4) promote positive rehabilitation outcomes. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that participation in PACE would result in (1) increased PA self-efficacy, (2) forward progression in intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increased amount of PA completed, and (4) improved rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, participation). The PACE program resulted in an average increase of 16.1% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.41), an increase from three of nine participants at pre-test to six of nine participants at post-test reporting to be in a stage of change in which they are most likely to be successful in regular PA participation (i.e., action or maintenance), and a comparable improvement in MPAI-4 scores (rehabilitation outcomes) after discharge to a rehabilitation program without a PA education component. In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, intention to change PA behaviors, and short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Irwin, Kelley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relation Between the FITNESSGRAM® Ftness Assessment and Self-Reported Physical Activity Questions

Description: The FITNESSGRAM® is regularly used to assess physical fitness (PF) of adolescents. In addition to the PF assessment, the FITNESSGRAM also includes self-report physical activity (PA) items. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the self-report aerobic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility PA behavior items indicated adolescents’ cardiorespiratory, muscular strength, and flexibility fitness and their body composition. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between the amount of PA and PF status. Adolescents not meeting the recommended PA amount had significantly higher odds of not achieving a healthy fitness status. Meeting the recommended PA amount was associated with achieving healthy PF status. Thus, adolescents’ amounts of aerobic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility PA were an indication of their corresponding health-related PF standard.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Tucker, Jacob
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reliability and Validity of the FITNESSGRAM® Physical Activity Items

Description: Large-scale assessments of children and youth physical activity (PA) behaviors are regularly conducted in school settings. In addition to assessing actual fitness, the FITNESSGRAM® assesses self-reported PA behaviors for aerobic, strengthening, and flexibility activity within the past 7 days. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the three PA items. Participants included 1010 students in grades three through twelve and were either tested under a teacher – teacher condition, an expert - expert condition, a teacher – expert condition, or a trained teacher – expert condition. Comparisons of the responses to the PA items indicated adequate reliability for teachers, but the reliability improved with training. Likewise, the validities for teachers are moderate to fair; however, they improved when teachers received additional training.
Date: August 2011
Creator: San Miguel, Kaleigh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological benefits of sport participation and physical activity for adolescent females.

Description: Recent research has suggested that the effects of sport on well-being are mediated by psychological characteristics such as physical self-concept, instrumentality and positive body images; in addition, sport was found to be related to these psychological benefits for high school girls. However, physical self-concept played a central role by mediating the sport -body image and sport instrumentality relationships. Positive body image and instrumentality, in turn, predicted greater psychological well-being. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate earlier studies, and to examine these relationships with non-sport physical activity. Sport and physical activity were expected to contribute to higher physical self-concept, which in turn, would contribute positively to instrumentality and body image. Further, instrumentality and body image would be positively related to psychological well-being. Participants were 355 9th (n = 170) and 10th (n = 193) graders and they completed measures of involvement in sport/physical activities, physical self-concept, instrumentality, body satisfaction, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, depression, and demographics. Structural equation modeling was utilized to analyze the data. Overall, for both sport and physical activity, the models fit the data well (sport model: NNFI=.95, CFI=.96, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09, physical activity model: NNFI=.96, CFI=.97, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09). Specifically, sport participation was positively related to physical self-concept (R2 = .47); physical self-concept related to body image (R2 = .30) and instrumentality (R2 = .23); Physical activity was positively related to physical self-concept (R2 = .61); physical self-concept related to body image (R2 = .30) and instrumentality (R2 = .26). For both models, positive body image and higher levels of instrumentality contributed to greater psychological well-being (R2 = 66). These results highlight the importance of developing physical competence for high school girls through sport participation and physical activity.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Boyer, Elizabeth M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Meal Size and Type, and Level of Physical Activity on Perceived Masculinity, Femininity, Likability and Attractiveness

Description: Previous research indicates that women are judged on the amount of food eaten and that both men and women are judged on the type of food eaten. This study is an attempt to determine whether meal size or type predominantly accounts for these findings on the variables of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, thinness, fitness, and likability. Physical activity was also included to determine its effect on these variable. Subjects used were 313 undergraduate students. Results indicate that meal type is more influential than meal size and that physical activity significantly influences judgements of others. The results are discussed in terms of future research and relatedness to socio-cultural theories of eating disorders.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Hill, Christie D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Students' and Teachers' Perspective of Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity

Description: Purposes for engaging in physical activities were examined from the perspective of university students enrolled in physical activity classes and kinesiology faculty. Data was collected from 473 students and 20 faculty members. Both groups completed the Personal Purposes and Meanings in Movement Inventory (PPMMI). Independent t-tests were conducted for each of the twenty-two purpose statements to determine differences between faculty and students in the rating of purposes. Students attending individual sport activity classes rated self-knowledge, transcendence, object projection/reception, awareness, competition, neuromuscular efficiency, movement appreciation, and muscular strength significantly lower (p<.01) than the faculty. Students attending team sport activities rated self-knowledge, transcendence, participation, object projection/reception, teamwork, awareness, competition, leadership, and expression significantly (pc.01) lower than the faculty. Students attending fitness activity classes rated self-knowledge, competition, leadership, transcendence, participation, teamwork, circulo-respiratory efficiency, and personal integration significantly (p<.01) lower than faculty.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Thomason, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Perceived Support From Parental and Peer Relationships on Students' Health-related Beliefs and Behaviors

Description: College is an important time for young adults, but most college students fail to meet the daily recommendations for physical activity. Social support is associated with positive health practices, but limited research is available on the role of perceived support from specific relationships, (e.g., peers and parents). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of perceived support from parental and peer relationships on health-related beliefs and behaviors. Participants (N = 333) completed the Quality of Relationships Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Satisfaction With Life scale, and a short version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. While highly active students did not necessarily have more socially support relationships, females self-reported more conflict with both parents and more depth and support with a special person in their life than males, and parental and peer relationships appeared to be a greater influence on females' perceptions of satisfaction and self-worth.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Barton, Mitch
Partner: UNT Libraries

Soul Line Dancing Among African American Women in the Church: an Expectancy-value Model Approach

Description: Guided by the expectancy value model of achievement choice, this study examined the relationships among expectancy value constructs (expectancy related beliefs and subjective task values), effort and intention for future participation in a culturally specific dance, soul line, among African American adult women in the church setting. Participants were 100 African American women who were members of the women’s ministries from four predominantly African American churches in the Dallas/Ft. Worth metropolitan area. Participants completed a 20-minute soul line session and responded to survey questions, validated in previous research, assessing their expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values, effort, intention for future participation and physical activity. This was the first study to use the expectancy value model as a guide to determine motivations attached to physical activities among African American adult women. Usefulness, a component of subjective task values, emerged as a predictor of intention for future participation. Eighty-one percent of the women did not meet physical activity guidelines for aerobic activity. Of those inactive women 60% indicated an interest in doing soul line dancing often at their church after one short exposure to the activity as indicated by the strongest possible response to both intention questions. A slightly smaller percent of the active women provided with a strong positive response for future intention. These findings suggest that soul line dancing is a practical avenue to increase physical activity among African American women in the church. Future research should test this theoretical model on a wider variety of individuals who are sedentary to physically active, measure actual participation, and directly measure BMI and physical activity.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Rose, Melanie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Implementing a Physical Activity Centered Education Program for Individuals with Brain Injury

Description: Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, education-based PA curriculum is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and deliver a physical activity centered education (PACE) program that supplemented the existing rehabilitation program for brain injury. PACE consists of an 8-week (16 session) program aimed to (1) increase self-efficacy for being physically active of PACE program participants, (2) increase PA stage of change in PACE program participants or the maintenance of adequate level of PA, and (3) improve the rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, participation, adjustment) of PACE program participants. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that participation in PACE will result in (1A) increased self-efficacy for PA, (1B) greater self-efficacy for PA than the standard of care group, (2A) increased readiness to be physically active, (2B) greater readiness to change their PA behavior than the standard of care group, (3A) improved rehabilitation outcomes, and (3B) greater rehabilitation outcomes than the standard of care group. the PACE program resulted in: (1) an average increase of 19.36% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.37), (2) 15 of the 22 PACE participants (68.18%) reported readiness to engage in regular PA , and (3) an increase in rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, and participation)In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, readiness for regular PA behavior, and improved short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Woolsey, Anne-Lorraine T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Increased physical activity, physician recommendation, and senior center participation

Description: This article employs the Andersen Behavioral Model to explore increased physical activity and participation in three types of senior center activities: physical fitness, dance/aerobic classes, and chair exercises.
Date: November 25, 2013
Creator: Swan, James H.; Turner, K. Whisnant (Keith Whisnant); Shashidhara, Shilpa & Sanders, David
Partner: UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service

Longitudinal trajectories of physical activity in women using latent class growth analysis: The WIN Study

Description: This article discusses a study to examine the longitudinal trajectories in objectively measured physical activity (PA), to identify unknown (i.e., latent) subgroups with distinct trajectories, and to examine the correlates of latent subgroups among community dwelling women.
Date: April 21, 2015
Creator: Kim, Youngdeok; Kang, Minsoo; Tacón, Anna M. & Morrow, James R.
Partner: UNT College of Education