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Use of geographic information systems for assessing ground water pollution potential by pesticides in central Thailand

Description: This study employed geographic information systems (GIS) technology to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater to pesticide pollution. The study area included three provinces (namely, Kanchana Buri, Ratcha Buri, and Suphan Buri) located in the western part of central Thailand. Factors used for this purpose were soil texture, percent slope, primary land use, well depth, and monthly variance of rainfall. These factors were reclassified to a common scale showing potential to cause groundwater contamination by pesticides. This scale ranged from 5 to 1 which means high to low pollution potential. Also, each factor was assigned a weight indicating its influence on the movement of pesticides to groundwater. Well depth, the most important factor in this study, had the highest weight of 0.60 while each of the remaining factors had an equal weight of 0.10. These factors were superimposed by a method called “arithmetic overlay” to yield a composite vulnerability map of the study area. Maps showing relative vulnerability of groundwater to contamination by pesticides were produced. Each of them represented the degree of susceptibility of groundwater to be polluted by the following pesticides: 2,4-D, atrazine, carbofuran, dicofol, endosulfan, dieldrin & aldrin, endrin, heptachlor & heptachlor epoxide, total BHC, and total DDT. These maps were compared to groundwater quality data derived from actual observations. However, only the vulnerability maps of atrazine, endosulfan, total BHC, and heptachlor & heptachlor epoxide showed the best approximation to actual data. It was found that about 7 to 8%, 83 to 88% and 4.9 to 8.7% of the study area were highly, moderately, and lowly susceptible to pesticide pollution in groundwater, respectively. In this study a vulnerability model was developed, which is expressed as follow: V = 0.60CW + 0.10CS + 0.10CR + 0.10CL + 0.10CSL. Its function is to calculate a vulnerability score for a certain ...
Date: August 2002
Creator: Thapinta, Anat
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on issues related to the safety of children who may be exposed to pesticides in agricultural settings, focusing on: (1) what federal requirements govern the safe use of pesticides, particularly as they relate to protecting children in agricultural settings; (2) what information is available on the acute and chronic effects of agricultural pesticide exposure, particularly on children; and (3) what the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has done to ensure that its Worker Protection Standard considers the needs of children and is being adequately implemented and enforced."
Date: March 14, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pesticides: EPA Should Take Steps to Improve Its Oversight of Conditional Registrations

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The total number of conditional registrations granted is unclear, as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports that its data are inaccurate for several reasons. First, the database used to track conditional registrations does not allow officials to change a pesticide's registration status from conditional to unconditional once the registrant has satisfied all requirements, thereby overstating the number of conditional registrations. Second, EPA staff have misused the term "conditional registration," incorrectly classifying pesticide registrations as conditional when, for example, they require a label change, which is not a basis in statute for a conditional registration. According to EPA documents and officials, weaknesses in guidance and training, management oversight, and data management contributed to these misclassification problems. For example, according to EPA documents, there was limited, organized management oversight to ensure that regulatory actions were not misclassified as conditional registrations. As of July 2013, EPA officials told GAO that the agency has taken or is planning to take several actions to more accurately account for conditional registrations, including beginning to design a new automated data system to more accurately track conditional registrations."
Date: August 8, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beneath the bottom line: agricultural approaches to reduce agrichemical contamination of groundwater

Description: This report descriptively reviews findings from recent sample surveys of farmer attitudes about agricultural chemicals and groundwater quality; their practices and motivations related to chemical management; and their responses to public policy alternatives addressing this issue.
Date: March 1989
Creator: Paddgit, Steven & Wintsch, Susan J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pesticides: Use, Effects, and Alternatives to Pesticides in Schools

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the use of pesticides in schools, focusing on: (1) what federal requirements govern the use of pesticides in schools; (2) what information exists on the use of pesticides in schools; (3) what data exist on the incidences of short- and long-term illnesses linked to the exposure to pesticides in schools, and to the extent data are available, what does this data show; and (4) what actions are the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states taking, where appropriate, to reduce the use of pesticides in schools, and what are the results of their efforts."
Date: November 29, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of the Pyrethroid Insecticide Cyfluthrin on Aquatic Invertibrate Populations in Outdoor Experimental Tanks

Description: The chemical fate and biological impacts of cyfluthrin in aquatic ecosystems were investigated using microcosms (1.9 m^3 concrete tanks) during 1989. Results were compared to a concurrent pesticide registration study using mesocosms (634.7 m^3 earthen ponds). Ten spray drift and five soil runoff simulations were conducted. Pesticide loadings were scaled by system volume, with the same experimental design in ponds and microcosms. Aqueous cyfluthrin concentrations and sediment residue values were generally higher in microcosms, while aqueous half-life was shorter in the smaller systems.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Johnson, Philip C. (Philip Charles)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Carbon bisulphid as an insecticide.

Description: A guide to the use of carbon disulfide ("bisulfid of carbon") as an insecticide against the cigarette beetle, as well as other insect pests and borers. The information is largely based on experiments conducted in 1901 by the Division of Entomology, at a large tobacco establishment in Washington, D.C.
Date: 1905
Creator: United States. Dept. of Agriculture.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diseases and insects of garden vegetables.

Description: Describes a wide variety of insect pests and diseases of vegetables, their characteristics, and the steps farmers can take to prevent, control, and treat these threats.
Date: 1940
Creator: Gilbert, William W. (William Williams), b. 1880.; Popenoe, C. H. (Charles Holcomb), 1884-1933. & Caffrey, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The chinch bug and how to fight it.

Description: Describes the damages caused by the chinch bug to grain and grass crops, and several methods for its control.
Date: June 1926
Creator: Flint, W. P. (Wesley Pillsbury), 1882-1943. & Larrimer, W. H. (Walter Harrison), 1889-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Profile of the Youth Self-Report Among South Texas Adolescents and the Potential Relationship to Pesticide Exposure

Description: The potential for human exposure to pesticides exists particularly for agricultural workers (i.e. migrant workers) and individuals within close proximity to pesticide-sprayed crops (i.e. those living on or near agricultural farms). Children, through biology and behavior, may be more susceptible and vulnerable to exposure to pesticides than adults. The purpose of this study was to examine young populations particularly at-risk for occupational or accidental exposure to pesticides and determine associated behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms. A total of 444 students from two South Texas school districts completed questionnaires assessing level of risk of exposure to pesticides and were categorized into at-risk and low risk categories. Physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms were obtained using the Youth Self-Report. Children who were at-risk demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) in the areas of anxious/depressed, attention problems, social problems, somatic complaints, thought problems, withdrawal, internalizing behaviors, and total problem behaviors than children who were at lower risk of pesticide exposure. Odds ratios were obtained and suggested that children in the at-risk category were more five times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Attention Problems subscale, and three times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Internalizing behavior composite. These findings suggest that children who may be at higher risk for pesticide exposure may also be at higher risk for physical, behavioral, and emotional problems compared to children who are at lower risk. This information is intended to benefit schools and health care professionals who work with rural or migrant populations involved in the agricultural trade. Future research will be needed to assess through biomarkers the degree of measurable pesticide exposure in comparison to parent reports, teacher reports, school achievement, neuropsychological testing, and medical records.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Hagar, Kristy S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies of methyl bromide in greenhouse and vault fumigation.

Description: Describes the results of scientific research regarding the effectiveness of methyl bromide as an insecticide in greenhouse and vault fumigation.
Date: September 1943
Creator: Richardson, Henry H. (Henry Howe), 1906-; Johnson, A. C. (Alpha Cornelius), b. 1889.; Bulger, Jacob Work, 1887-; Casanges, A. H. & Johnson, George V. (George Victor), 1910-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Federal Register: Pesticides; Certification of Pesticide Applicators]

Description: Section of the Federal Register related to rules and regulations established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as of January 2017. This text addresses the final rule for 40 CFR parts 171: Pesticides; Certification of Pesticide Applicators.
Date: January 4, 2017
Creator: United States. Office of the Federal Register.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Water Source, Suspended Solids, and Acclimation on Biotransformation of 2 /4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid in Aquatic Systems

Description: In recent years there has been a great deal of scientific interest in processes that affect the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. one main reason for this increased interest is due to greater environmental concern over accidental or purposeful release of these chemicals into the environment by man. A major environmental concern is the increased use of pesticides over the last few years. In the thirty years prior to 1978 the use of pesticides has increased by a factor of forty (Ridgeway et al., 1978). Recently the use of herbicides has been increasing, but that of insecticides has stabilized (Willis, 1983). Detectable amounts of organic pesticides can be found in many areas of the biosphere. For toxic organic chemicals to be used safely, researchers must have a clear understanding of the fate and persistence of these chemicals when they are released into the environment. This understanding will also allow the development of new products that, when properly used, will not produce adverse effects to man or the environment (Weber, 1972). According to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) any new or expanded-use chemical that might be released into the environment must be tested for environmental hazard.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Moses, Christopher K. (Christopher Karam)
Partner: UNT Libraries

[News Clip: Fire ants five]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6:00 P. M.
Date: January 25, 1982
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections