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The Effect of Auditor Knowledge on Information Processing during Analytical Review

Description: Auditors form judgments by integrating the evidence they gather with information stored in memory (knowledge). As they acquire experience, auditors have the opportunity to learn how different patterns of evidence are associated with particular audit problems. Research in experimental psychology has demonstrated that individuals with task-specific experience can match the cues they encounter with patterns they have learned, and form judgments without consciously analyzing the individual cues. Accounting researchers have suggested that auditors develop judgment templates through task-specific experience, and that these knowledge structures automatically provide decisions in familiar situations. I examined whether auditor knowledge leads to reliance on judgment templates. To test this thesis, I synthesized a theoretical framework and developed research hypotheses that predict relationships between task-specific experience (my surrogate for knowledge) and (1) measures of cognitive effort, (2) accuracy of residual memory traces, and (3) performance with respect to identifying potential problems. To test these predictions, I provided senior auditors with comprehensive case materials for a hypothetical client and asked them to use analytical procedures to identify potential audit problems. Subjects acquired information and documented their findings on personal computers using software that I developed to record their activities.
Date: February 1995
Creator: O'Donnell, Ed
Partner: UNT Libraries

Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity

Description: This is the official website for Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity (CSID) at the University of North Texas. CSID conducts research into the theory and practice of inter- and transdisciplinary approaches to knowledge. The site includes information about CSID's research projects, its publications, and the people involved.
Date: 2014
Creator: University of North Texas. Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity
Partner: UNT Libraries Digital Projects Unit

Knowledge and Confidence of Speech-Language Pathologists Regarding Autism

Description: The increased prevalence rate of autism has immense implications for speech language pathologists (SLPs) who are directly involved in the education and service delivery for students with autism. However, few studies have documented the effectiveness of the knowledge and confidence of SLPs regarding autism. The purpose of this study was to measure the knowledge and confidence of SLPs regarding autism and the extent to which their educational and professional training prepared them to work effectively with this population. An online survey was administered to and returned by 336 SLPs nation-wide. Two multiple linear regressions were conducted to determine the variables that explained overall knowledge and confidence. The number of students with autism on one's caseload explained most of the variance. Independent sample t-test results depicted knowledge and confidence scores of SLPs who were behaviorally trained versus those who were not behaviorally trained. SLPs who were behaviorally trained had higher mean scores on measures of knowledge and confidence when compared to those without formal behavioral training. Finally, a bivariate correlation was conducted to explore the relationship between knowledge and confidence of SLPs, however, results were not statistically significant.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Ray, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of the Effect of Normative Systems on an Empirical Variable

Description: This investigation is concerned, with the problem of the normative constraints upon scientific research within the broad theoretical framework of the sociology of knowledge, i.e., the contention that knowledge is functionally related to the social system. The concepts "knowledge" and "Social system" are open to wide interpretation; however, in this study knowledge refers to an empirically verifiable variable and the social system is synonomous with the normative system.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Sizemore, Mark T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Knowledge wins : public library books are free.

Description: A soldier climbs rocks to find stacked books that lead to a shining city in the distance. A rifle and military gear lie on the rocks near his feet. The titles on the spines of the books include: "Farming", "Drafting", "Citizenship", "Building", "Machine Shop Work", "Business", "Seamanship", "Engineering", "Law", "Foreign Trade", "Shipbuilding". The city skyline features tall buildings and smokestacks.
Date: unknown
Creator: Smith, Dan, 1865-1934.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Impact of Leadership Styles and Knowledge Sharing on Police Officers’ Willingness to Exert Extra Effort to Provide Better Security: A Study in the Riot Unit of the Turkish National Police

Description: The motivation for this study is to understand the factors affecting police officers’ willingness to exert extra effort for providing better service through knowledge sharing in different working environments such as riots. Since managers’ leadership styles may be important factors affecting subordinates’ willingness to exert extra effort, this study investigates which of the leadership styles -- transformational, transactional or laissezfaire leadership -- will have a positive effect on officers’ willingness to exert extra effort. In addition, the current study also examines the effect of the mentioned leadership styles on knowledge sharing, which, in turn, affects the officers’ willingness to exert extra effort in the riot unit of the Turkish National Police (TNP) in Ankara, Turkey. The sworn line police officers working in the riot unit in Ankara, Turkey, were the participants in this study. Three questionnaires --a Multifactor Leadership (MLQ), knowledge sharing, and demographic questionnaire -- were arranged as a booklet to be distributed to the respondents. The results of the study indicate that police supervisors' perceived transformational leadership behavior has a positive effect on officers' willingness to exert extra effort. In addition, the findings also reveal that although both officers' years of service in TNP and police supervisors' perceived transactional leadership behavior has no direct effect on officers' willingness to exert extra effort, they have an indirect positive effect through officers' knowledge sharing. On the other hand, police supervisors' perceive that laissez-fair leadership behavior has no effect on riot officers' willingness to exert extra effort. The findings also indicate that officers’ knowledge sharing is positively related to both their supervisors’ perceived transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. However, police supervisors’ perceived laissez-fair leadership behavior has no effect on officers’ knowledge sharing activities. This research study will provide police administrations with the data necessary to adopt the most appropriate leadership styles ...
Date: August 2011
Creator: Tombul, Fatih
Partner: UNT Libraries

Philosophy Matters - Examining the Value of Knowledge

Description: This paper discusses the University of North Texas' (UNT) Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity (CSID), where philosophers continue to examine the value of knowledge. The authors also discuss one example of CSID's work with the Comparative Assessment of Peer Review (CAPR) project. CAPR is a four-year project (2008-2012) studying the changing nature of peer review processes across six U.S. and foreign public science agencies. CAPR is funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Science of Science and Innovation Policy (SciSIP) program.
Date: May 10, 2012
Creator: Frodeman, Robert & Holbrook, J. Britt
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Topical content in sexuality education and sexual health outcomes.

Description: Secondary analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health is used to examine possible explanatory variables for sexual health outcomes. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between sexual health outcomes and topical content in sexuality education, controlling for race, biological sex, low socioeconomic status, and religiosity. Results indicated increasing topical content in sexuality education had a positive effect on knowledge acquisition and confidence, but no statistically significant effect on engagement in sexual risk behavior or likelihood of reporting sexual coercion. Control variables were significant predictors and overall model fit was low, indicating topical content in sexuality education is minimally important in creating adolescent sexual behavior. Further exploration of differing aspects of sexuality education is suggested.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Cudhea, Maia Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationships between selected sociometric variables and academic performance for counselors in training.

Description: The purpose of this research was to examine what relationships existed between selected sociometric variables and measures of academic performance for students in a counselor training program. The sociometric variables included counseling ability, counseling knowledge, and friendship. Academic performance measures included subject GPAs, group counseling participation and final grades, prepracticum grades, and practicum grades. Data was collected from sociometric questionnaires and academic records from the years 1991 to 2004, for 840 subjects who participated in a group counseling class at the University of North Texas. Counseling knowledge had the highest correlations with all academic measures except group counseling final grades, in which counseling ability had the highest strength. The strongest correlations for all three sociometric variables occurred with group counseling final grades; correlations were r = 0.42 for counseling ability, r = 0.40 for counseling knowledge, and r = 0.30 for friendship. The sociometric variable of friendship had the lowest correlations in all academic measures, but was more significant than expected. The friendship sociometric variable may account for likeability as a factor in making sociometric choices. Combined sociometric scores led to increased correlation strength and explained variances that reached the large level of 30% with group counseling final grades. A statistically significant difference was found between A and B grade students in group counseling, on all three sociometric variables. Effect sizes were generally large. Standard deviations for the A and B grade subjects were also large and could limit predictability of grades, based on sociometric scores alone. Results strongly suggested that all three sociometric variables would be a valuable source of information regarding counselor preparation. Results also validated that individual sociometric perceptions of others tended toward agreement. Significant correlations were found over a variety of academic measures and over a time-span of 14 years, suggesting a degree of consistency and ...
Date: May 2006
Creator: Smith, Michael Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries

Participants and Nonparticipants in Nonformal Education in Thai Rural Areas: A Secondary- Analysis

Description: This study was a secondary analysis of survey data on participants and nonparticipants in Thai rural education programs. The original data were collected in 1987 by the Office of the National Educational Commission, Office of the Prime Minister, Bangkok Thailand. This study was conducted in order to examine the effect of selected demographic variables on participation and to determine why some rural villagers participate in nonformal educational programs and other villagers do not. The data were collected from a survey of nonformal education in Thai rural areas conducted as part of the evaluation of the Fifth Five-Year Plan. The population consisted of 590 participants in nonformal education programs and 860 nonparticipants. The statistical techniques employed to analyze data were logit analysis, z-test, tables of binomial distribution, and ranking by each of the groups (participants and nonparticipants). The evidence from this study indicates that the average nonformal education participant is an adult between the age of 36 and 50 years, who has completed four or less years of education, and who is married and works in farming (cultivating rice). The findings reveal that participants and nonparticipants in nonformal education programs were significantly different according to their needs for health knowledge, agricultural knowledge, further education, knowledge for living, and vocational knowledge. The reasons associated with participation in nonformal education programs, in this study, were to gain knowledge useful for making a living, for personal interest, to interact with instructors and students, or to make new friends. In this study, the reasons that villagers did not participate in the program were because they lacked time and transportation. While majority of the participants responded that they were satisfied with the nonformal educational courses, four subgroups, adults from age 21 to 35 years, single adults, adults who completed P.5 (grade 5) and above, and farmers, ...
Date: December 1989
Creator: Puongrat Kesonpat
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of the Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Near-death Experiences Scale

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes about near-death experiences (NDEs) that would demonstrate acceptable psychometric properties. In consultation with a focus group of six NDE experts, I developed the 50-item Knowledge and Attitudes toward Near-Death Experiences Scale (KANDES), including the 24-item KANDES–Attitude subscale (KANDES-A) and the 26-item KANDES–Knowledge subscale (KANDES-K). Including a pilot administration in which feedback indicated no need for revision, a total of 256 professional and student counselors completed the KANDES. Separate reliability and validity analyses were conducted for each subscale. For the KANDES–A, Cronbach’s alpha was .909, and Pearson’s r for test-retest was .748, both indicating acceptable reliability. An exploratory factor analysis indicated four factors to retain and yielded a factor solution that explained 54.87% of the variance, an acceptable amount of variance to substantiate construct validity. For the KANDES–K, Cronbach’s alpha was .816, indicating acceptable reliability. For each of the scale’s three domains, Cronbach’s alpha was .816 for Domain 1: NDE Content, .817 for Domain 2: NDE Aftereffects, and .631 for Domain 3: Experiencer Characteristics, indicating acceptable reliability. Pearson’s r for test-retest on the total KANDES–K was .812, further demonstrating acceptable reliability.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Pace, Laura
Partner: UNT Libraries