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The State of the Hudson 2009

Description: This report describes the environmental quality of the Hudson River and its watershed, including issues such as pollution, population growth, and biodiversity. The report also describes the habitats of estuaries, watersheds, and rivers in general.
Date: 2009
Creator: New York (State). Hudson River Estuary Program.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan

Description: This action plan articulates the most significant ecosystem problems for the Great Lakes, and describes efforts to address them. The five areas are toxic substances, invasive species, health and pollution, wildlife and habitat preservation and restoration, and finally a component that covers accountability and evaluation.
Date: February 21, 2010
Creator: United States. Council on Environmental Quality.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Invasive Species: Obstacles Hinder Federal Rapid Response to Growing Threat

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Invasive species--harmful, nonnative plants, animals, and microorganisms--are widespread throughout the United States, causing billions of dollars of damage annually to crops, rangelands, and waterways. An important part of pest control is quick action to eradicate or contain a potentially damaging invasive species. Federal rapid response to invasive species varies: species that threaten agricultural crops or livestock are far more likely to elicit a rapid response than those primarily affecting forestry or other natural areas, including rangelands and water areas. A major obstacle to rapid response is the lack of a national system to address invasive species. Other obstacles to rapid response include the need for additional detection systems to identify new species; improved partnerships among federal, state, and local agencies; and better technologies to eradicate invasive species. The Invasive Species Council's Management Plan makes several recommendations for improving rapid response, including developing a program of coordinated rapid response and pursuing increases in discretionary spending to support the program. A concerted effort to improve the rapid response is clearly needed. If properly implemented, the Council's recommendations will go a long way toward developing a national system to address this pressing need."
Date: July 24, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Invasive Species: Progress and Challenges in Preventing Introduction into U.S. Waters Via the Ballast Water in Ships

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Numerous invasive species have been introduced into U.S. waters via ballast water discharged from ships and have caused serious economic and ecologic damage. GAO reported in 2002 that at least 160 nonnative aquatic species had become established in the Great Lakes since the 1800s--one-third of which were introduced in the past 30 years by ballast water and other sources. The effects of such species are not trivial; the zebra mussel alone is estimated to have caused $750 million to $1 billion in costs between 1989 and 2000. Species introductions via ballast water are not confined to the Great Lakes, however. The environment and economy of the Chesapeake Bay, San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, and other U.S. waters have also been adversely affected. The federal government has been taking steps since 1990 to implement programs to prevent the introduction of invasive species from ships' ballast water discharges. However, species introductions are continuing. This testimony discusses the legislative and regulatory history of ballast water management and identifies some of the issues that pose challenges for the federal government's program for preventing the introduction of invasive species via ships' ballast water."
Date: September 9, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Invasive Species: Clearer Focus and Greater Commitment Needed to Effectively Manage the Problem

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Harmful invasive species--nonnative plants and animals that are spreading throughout the United States--have caused billions of dollars in damage to natural areas, businesses, and consumers. In 2001, the federal government issued a National Invasive Species Management Plan to focus attention on invasive species and coordinate a national control effort involving the 20 or so federal agencies that are responsible for managing them. This report discusses the economic impacts of invasive species, implementation of the management plan, and coordination of U.S. and Canadian efforts to control invasive species, including those introduced to the Great Lakes via the ballast water of ships."
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Sediment Exposure and Water Depth on Torpedograss Invasion of Lake Okeechobee, Florida

Description: Torpedograss (Panicum repens) was first observed in Lake Okeechobee in the 1970s and appears to have displaced an estimated 6,400 ha of native plants, such as spikerush (Eleocharis cellulosa), where inundation depths are often less than 50 cm. Two series of studies evaluated substrate exposure and water depth influences on torpedograss establishment and competitiveness. Results revealed that fragments remain buoyant for extended periods and so facilitate dispersal. Once anchored to exposed substrate fragments can readily root and establish. Subsequently, torpedograss thrives when subjected to inundations to 75 cm and survives prolonged exposure to depths greater than 1 m. These findings suggest that fluctuating water levels contribute to torpedograss dispersal and colonization patterns and that low water levels increase marsh area susceptible to invasion. The competition study found that spikerush grown in monoculture produces significantly more biomass when continually inundated to shallow depths (10 to 20 cm) than when subjected to drier conditions (-25 cm) or greater inundations (80 cm). In contrast, torpedograss establishes more readily on exposed substrate (-25 to 0 cm) compared to inundate substrates. During the first growing season biomass production increases as substrate exposure interval increases. However, during the second year, established torpedograss produces more biomass when grown on intermittently wet (0 cm) compared to permanently dry (-25 cm) or intermittently inundated (10 cm) substrates. No difference in production was observed between substrates permanently inundated (10 cm) and any other regime tested. During the first two years of torpedograss invasion, regardless of treatment, spikerush suppresses invasion and torpedograss had little effect on established spikerush, indicating that spikerush-dominated areas are capable of resisting torpedograss invasion. Even so, disturbances that might cause mortality of long hydroperiod species, such as spikerush, may create open gaps in the native vegetation and thus facilitate torpedograss establishment and expansion.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Smith, Dian H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessing Habitat Preference of Invasive American Minks (Neovison vison) Using Trap-Cameras in Navarino Island, Chile

Description: Poster presented at the 2013 Ecological Society of America (ESA) Annual Meeting. This poster discusses research on assessing habitat preference of invasive American minks (Neovison vison) using trap-cameras in Navarino Island, Chile.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Crego, Ramiro D. & Jiménez, Jaime E.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Invasive Species: Federal Efforts and State Perspectives on Challenges and National Leadership

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Invasive species--nonnative plants and animals--have caused billions of dollars in damage to natural areas, businesses, and consumers. In 2001, the federal government issued a National Management Plan to coordinate a national control effort involving the 20 or so federal agencies that are responsible for managing invasive species. In October 2002, GAO reported on the implementation of the management plan and efforts to manage ballast water, among other things. This testimony discusses some of GAO's findings and recommendations in that report. It also presents the results of a subsequent GAO survey of state officials responsible for managing terrestrial and aquatic invasive species. This survey sought state perspectives on (1) the perceived gaps in existing legislation and barriers to addressing terrestrial and aquatic invasive species and (2) the federal leadership structure for addressing invasive species, as well as the integration of federal legislation on terrestrial invasive species with legislation on aquatic invasives."
Date: June 17, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DIVERSITAS Science Plan

Description: This Science Plan is mainly concerned with the current extinction crisis on Earth, which, unlike its predecessors, is occurring at an unprecedented rate, is the direct result of human activities and is occurring at all levels at which diversity is measured - from the genetic diversity of many natural and domesticated species to the diversity of ecosystems and landscapes, through the tremendous richness of species. Current human-induced rates of species extinction are estimated to be about 1,000 times greater than past background rates. Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. Scientists commonly measure and describe this variety at the level of genes, species and ecosystems, but scientific interest in biodiversity goes far beyond describing and measuring it. The DIVERSITAS programme was founded to address the scientific questions that need to be answered in order to understand how biodiversity supports life on Earth, what the impacts of the present loss of biodiversity are for human and ecosystem survival and how humans can sustainably use and conserve biodiversity.
Date: September 2002
Creator: DIVERSITAS
Partner: UNT Libraries

Invasive Species: Cooperation and Coordination Are Important for Effective Management of Invasive Weeds

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Invasive weeds, native or nonnative plant species, cause harm to natural areas such as rangelands or wildlife habitat and economic impacts due to lost productivity of these areas. While the federal investment in combating invasive species is substantial most has been concentrated on agricultural lands, not on natural areas. In this report, GAO describes (1) the entities that address invasive weeds in natural areas and the funding sources they use; (2) federal, state, and local weed management officials' views on the barriers to weed management; and (3) their opinions about how additional resources for weed management could be distributed. GAO limited this study to entities in the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, and California, Colorado, Idaho, Maryland, and Mississippi, and gathered information through interviews of over 90 weed management officials."
Date: February 25, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Invasive Species: Federal and Selected State Funding to Address Harmful, Nonnative Species

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on federal and selected state funding of invasive species activities, focusing on: (1) federal and selected state funding in fiscal years (FY) 1999 and 2000 and the departments' views on the effectiveness of coordination efforts with other entities; (2) funding by selected states for invasive species activities in fiscal years 1999 and 2000 and the states' views on the effectiveness of coordination with federal departments and other entities; and (3) actions taken by the Invasive Species Council to implement Executive Order 13112."
Date: August 24, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Invasive Species: State and Other Nonfederal Perspectives on Challenges to Managing the Problem

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Invasive species--harmful, nonnative plants, animals, and microorganisms--are found throughout the United States and cause damage to crops, rangelands, waterways, and other ecosystems that is estimated to cost in the billions of dollars annually. In addition to their economic costs, invasive species can have a devastating effect on natural areas, where they have strangled native plants, taken over wetland habitats, crowded out native species, and deprived waterfowl and other species of food sources. Scientists, academicians, and industry leaders have all recognized invasive species as one of the most serious environmental threats of the twenty-first century. More specifically, conservation biologists ranked invasive species as the second most serious threat to endangered species after habitat destruction. In June 2003, GAO testified before the Senate Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Water concerning invasive species issues reported in our October 2002 report. We also provided testimony on the partial results of our spring 2003 survey of state agencies involved in efforts to address invasive species and members of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). This report provides the final results of our survey and focuses on state perspectives on (1) gaps in, or problems with, federal legislation addressing invasive species, (2) barriers to managing invasive species, (3) effective leadership structures for addressing invasive species, and (4) integrating federal aquatic and terrestrial invasive species legislation and the potential gains and drawbacks of such legislation."
Date: September 5, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Invasive American mink Mustela vison in wetlands of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, southern Chile: what are they eating?

Description: This article discusses invasive American mink Mustela vison and its ecological effect in wetlands of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, southern Chile.
Date: January 2009
Creator: Ibarra, J. Tomás; Fasola, Laura; MacDonald, David W. (David Whyte); Rozzi, Ricardo, 1960- & Bonacic, Cristián
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Description: Four species of non-indigenous Asian carp are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. This report details the environmental and economic threats from this invasion, as well as ways to combat the spread of Asian carp in U.S. water.
Date: April 15, 2011
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Upton, Harold F.; Stern, Charles V. & Brown, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How to Destroy English Sparrows

Description: "Introduced into the United States many years ago from Europe, this sparrow has multiplied and extended its range until now it is numerous and firmly established over most of the country. The bad qualities of the bird far outweigh its good ones, and, although its extermination is impracticable, a reduction of its numbers is feasible and important. The present bulletin aims to describe the best methods of destruction." -- p. 2
Date: 1910
Creator: Dearborn, Ned, 1865-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The English Sparrow as a Pest

Description: Revised edition. "The English sparrow defiles private and public property, fights and dispossesses useful native birds, replaces their songs with discordant sounds, and destroys fruit, grain, and garden truck.... The methods of ridding premises of English sparrows advocated in this bulletin have been used with success and can be relied upon if followed carefully and persistently. No one should undertake to kill these birds, however, unless able to distinguish them from native sparrows with absolute certainty. Otherwise some of the most valued songsters surely will be destroyed." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Dearborn, Ned
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The English Sparrow as a Pest

Description: "The English sparrow has many objectionable habits and few redeeming qualities and, as its general extermination is out of the question because of the necessary expense, its numbers should be reduced so far as possible. The chief aim of this bulletin is to describe the best methods of effecting this reduction of numbers. Trapping, wherever practicable, is recommended above all other methods, more particularly as English sparrows form an excellent and nutritious article of diet." -- p. 2
Date: 1912
Creator: Dearborn, Ned
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department