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Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Description: This paper analyze the possible effects of implementing all high end pledges put forward by countries under the Copenhagen Accord. Among other analysis, the report predict that, (if the Copenhagen Accord would be fully implemented), the world could bridge a major part of the required efforts by 2020 in order to keep average global temperature increase below 2ºC. However, the report also argue that most high end targets are conditional on others taking similar action, on a legally binding international agreement or on the need for further international financial or technical support making their degree of implementation uncertain.
Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Partner: UNT Libraries

Low Carbon Technology Plan

Description: The document describes Japan's strategy for transforming into a low carbon society, through the promotion of alternative energy sources and energy efficient technologies.
Date: May 19, 2008
Creator: Kagaku Gijutsu Kaigi (Japan)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Report on Climate Security

Description: This document was the result of a study of how the concept of climate security should be understood and utilized in Japan, as well as how the concept can contribute to advancing future climate policy.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Japan. Kankyōshō
Partner: UNT Libraries

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Description: Since the EU took its historic decisions on combating climate change in 2008, the economic crisis has brought some fundamental changes to the political and economic landscape of the EU's climate policy. The pressure on the EU economy is intense. The EU, however, remains deeply committed to action on climate change. Arresting the rise in global temperature remains one of the biggest challenges facing this generation. This Communication has set out how changed global circumstances have impacted on the targets set in 2008. While the absolute costs of meeting a 20% target have been reduced, representing a welcome relief for businesses facing the uphill battle of recovery, it also represents a risk that the effectiveness of the 20% target as a motor for change diminishes.
Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

Description: This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission ("Commission") in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide ("CO2") and other greenhouse gases ("GHGs"). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading ("proposed Directive") as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. This report provides descriptions and evaluations of alternative mechanisms for initial allocation of allowances. The report has the following specific objectives: - Provide a typology of alternative initial allocation mechanisms. - Describe the allocation mechanisms that have been used in previous emissions trading programmes. - Develop criteria for evaluating alternative mechanisms. - Evaluate the alternative mechanisms in light of these criteria. - Develop plant-level data that allow one to simulate various initial allocation alternatives and thus shed light on key empirical issues, including feasibility and sector- and plantlevel effects. - Provide an overview of major conclusions and implications.
Date: 2010
Creator: NERA Economic Consulting
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Description: This paper responds to the mandate given in the Emissions Trading Directive (EU ETS directive, Article 10b) to the Commission to submit by end of June 2010 an analytical report assessing the situation of energy-intensive sectors that have been determined to be exposed to significant risks of carbon leakage in the light of the international negotiations.
Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Partner: UNT Libraries

Energy Security: Issues Related to Potential Reductions in Venezuelan Oil Production

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Venezuela is the world's eighth-largest oil exporter and among the top 10 countries in total proven oil reserves. Venezuela also supplies about 11 percent of current U.S. imports of crude oil and petroleum products and wholly owns five refineries in the U.S. Consequently, Venezuela is a key player in the future energy security of the United States and the world. The current global oil market is tight and may be more susceptible to short-term supply disruptions and higher and more volatile prices. Recently, tension between Venezuela and the United States has caused concern about the stability of Venezuelan oil supplies. On several occasions, Venezuela's President has threatened to stop exporting oil to the U.S. or to close Venezuela's U.S.-based refineries. In this context, GAO analyzed: (1) how Venezuela's crude oil production and exports of crude oil to the U.S. has changed in recent years, (2) the potential impacts of a reduction in Venezuelan oil exports to the U.S., and (3) the status of U.S. government programs and activities to ensure a reliable supply of oil from Venezuela. Commenting on a draft of the report, the State and Commerce Departments generally agreed with the report, but DOE contended that the report presents an "alarmist view" of U.S. energy security. We disagree and believe the report presents a contextually balanced treatment of the issue."
Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department