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Developing Countries: Challenges Confronting Debt Relief and IMF Lending to Poor Countries

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the International Monetary Fund's concessional (below-market terms) lending facility--the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility--are two multilateral programs intended to help spur economic growth and reduce poverty in low-income countries, most notably countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIPC Initiative represents a step forward in the international community's efforts to relieve poor countries of their heavy debt burdens. It does so by seeking to include all creditors and by providing significant debt relief to recipient countries. Unless strong, sustained economic growth is achieved, however the initiative will not likely provide recipient countries with a lasting exit from their debt problems. Furthermore, as long as the initiative links debt relief to poverty reduction strategies, the tension between quick debt relief and comprehensive country-owned strategies is likely to persist. These issues should not be seen, however, as a reason to abandon efforts to provide debt relief to eligible countries. Heavily indebted poor countries continue to carry unsustainable debt burdens that are unlikely to be lessened without debt relief, but participants and observers need to be more realistic about what the initiative may ultimately achieve. This testimony summarizes two GAO reports--NSIAD-00-161 and GAO-01-581."
Date: May 15, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partnership for Enhancing Developing Countries' Capacity in Participating in Global Knowledge Production and Use

Description: Poster discussing a partnership for enhancing developing countries' capacity in participating in global knowledge production and use. This poster highlights some of the contributing factors that enhance the capacity of African institutions to play active roles in the current global knowledge economy (in terms of information and knowledge creation, access, use and reuse).
Date: July 2013
Creator: Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw; Assefa, Shimelis & Rorissa, Abebe
Partner: UNT Libraries

Developing Countries: U.S. Financing for Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative Currently Experiencing a Shortfall

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "A buildup of foreign debt throughout the 1970s and 1980s--combined with low growth, falling commodity prices, and other economic difficulties--left many poor countries with significantly more debt than they could repay. International efforts to provide debt relief to 41 such heavily indebted poor countries have been ongoing for over a decade, and these efforts culminated in the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), which was announced in 2005. MDRI eliminates eligible debt that countries owe to four international financial institutions--the World Bank's International Development Association (IDA), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the African Development Bank's African Development Fund (ADF), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IaDB). To receive MDRI debt relief, countries must first complete the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, which the World Bank and IMF created in 1996 to relieve the debt burden of poor countries. In response to concerns over the continuing vulnerability of these countries, the World Bank and IMF enhanced the initiative to provide additional debt relief in 1999. Recognizing that recipient countries needed further assistance, MDRI was created to help accelerate countries' progress toward achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Of the 41 eligible countries, 23 countries have received debt relief under both the MDRI and HIPC Initiatives, and another 10 countries are receiving debt relief under just the HIPC Initiative. Donor governments (including the U.S. government) have agreed to help fund multilateral debt relief. Donor governments and each institution agree to the amount of MDRI costs each donor is to fund. To fund MDRI, governments may (1) provide funding in addition to their regular contributions or replenishments to the institutions, (2) provide their regular contributions early and generate credits through an approach known as early encashment, or (3) do both. If ...
Date: July 24, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Countries: Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Faces Challenges

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO: (1) assessed whether the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) is likely to free up resources for poverty reduction and achieve the goal of debt sustainability; (2) described the strategy to strengthen the link between debt relief and poverty reduction and how this strategy is to be implemented; and (3) described the challenges creditors face in fully funding the enhanced initiative."
Date: June 29, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Libraries and Democratization in Three Developing Countries: Exploring the Role of Social Capital

Description: This article explores the role of social capital. The authors develop a theoretical framework intended to facilitate systematic investigation of the contributions public libraries may make to democratization.
Date: March 2012
Creator: Ignatow, Gabriel; Webb, Sarah M.; Poulin, Michelle; Parajuli, Ramesh; Fleming, Peter; Batra, Shika et al.
Partner: UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service

Getting Back in the Game: U.S. Job Growth Potential from Expanding Clean Technology Markets in Developing Countries

Description: This report highlights a significant, but rarely discussed, economic angle to the Senate’s deliberations on the American Power Act. Unlike the House-passed climate bill, which set aside one percent of revenues from emissions auctions for international clean technology investments, the American Power Act contains no such dedicated funding stream nor a program to guide these public investments. This lack of secure, long-term funding would limit the job-creating potential of the legislation by limiting the opportunities for American companies to export their energy technology to global markets.
Date: May 2010
Creator: World Wildlife Fund
Partner: UNT Libraries

OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development: Emissions Trading: Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits Country Forum

Description: The aim of the Forum was to bring representatives from OECD and non-OECD country governments together with representatives from the research community, to identify and discuss key policy issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading and other project based mechanisms for GHG emission reduction, such as Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The Forum also aimed to promote dialogue between the various stakeholder groups, and discuss policy needs in the design and implementation of tradeable emissions schemes. Forum participants included representatives from OECD and non-OECD governments, as well as from the research community. Those from industry and other institutions involved with emissions trading, joint implementation and clean development mechanism projects such as the European Commission and the World Bank were also represented.
Date: March 2003
Creator: Gupta, Shreekant
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fast Facts: UNDP and Climate Change

Description: The document contains key facts about climate change drawn from UNDP's 2007/2008 Human Development Report. The document also outlines UNDP's work in the area of climate change and provides examples.
Date: January 2008
Creator: United Nations Environment Programme
Partner: UNT Libraries

Projections of Global Emissions of Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in 2050

Description: This is the result of a German study which underlines once more the urgent need for measures to reduce F-gas emissions. Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) will increase to 4 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalents by 2050 if no political mitigation measures are taken. The contribution of F-gases to global warming is projected to grow from 1.3% (2004) to 7.9% of total direct CO2 emissions.
Date: November 2009
Creator: Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried & Öko-Recherche
Partner: UNT Libraries

Feed-in Tariffs as a Policy Instrument for Promoting Renewable Energies and Green Economies in Developing Countries

Description: This report is intended as a resource for policy makers in developing countries to make informed policy decisions about the whether, when and how of FITs and to support nationally appropriate policy measures to scale up renewable energy. The report is also intended to improve the understanding of the potential benefits and challenges for developing countries to design FITs as well as the factors influencing their success, more in depth from the policy and legal foci, whilst also analysing the funding and capacity implications. Throughout the report, FITs are construed as interacting with national energy and non-energy policies in a dynamic manner.
Date: 2012
Creator: Rickerson, Wilson; Laurent, Chad; Jacobs, David; Dietrich, Christina & Hanley, Christina
Partner: UNT Libraries

.Negotiations on Additional Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change in Developing Countrie: An Environment & Energy Group Publication

Description: This paper is one of a series produced for the project that provides in-depth information on the four thematic building blocks of the Bali Action Plan—mitigation, adaptation, technology and finance—as well as on land-use, land-use change and forestry. The project materials also include executive summaries for policymakers, background briefing documents and workshop presentations. These materials will be used for national awareness raising workshops in the participating countries.
Date: July 2008
Creator: Haites, Erik
Partner: UNT Libraries

Climate Change Mitigation Negotiations, With An Emphasis on Options For Developing Counteries

Description: Climate change is one of the greatest threats to our planet and its people. Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is called mitigation. Responding to the impacts of climate change is called adaptation. A certain amount of adaptation will be necessary, no matter what we do. But, there will come a point where it will not be possible to adapt our way out of the problem.
Date: July 2008
Creator: Winkler, Harald
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Bali Action Plan: Key Issues in The Climate Negotiations: Summary for Policy Makers

Description: To assist policy makers in understanding the complex issues under discussion in the negotiating process, UNDP commissioned a series of background briefing papers on the key issues under the four main "building blocks" of the current international negotiations -- mitigation, adaptation, technology and finance -- as well as land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). This document contains summaries for policy makers of these briefing papers.
Date: September 2008
Creator: Carpenter, Chad
Partner: UNT Libraries

Tsunami disaster response: A case analysis of the information society in Thailand.

Description: The December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami wrecked thousands of lives, homes, and livelihoods - losses that could have been avoided with timely and better information. A resource such as information is needed at a fundamental level much like water, food, medicine, or shelter. This dissertation examines the development of the Thai information society, in terms of the share of information workforce and the level of diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICT), as well as, the role of the Thai information society in response to the tsunami disaster. The study combined the historical and political economy analyses in explaining factors influencing the growth of information workforce and the development of ICT in Thailand. Interviews conducted in 2007-08 revealed the Thai information society responded to the 2004 Tsunami - the first global internet-mediated natural disaster - in two areas: on-site assistance in collecting and recording identification information of tsunami disaster victims and on-line dissemination of disaster relief information. The effectiveness of ICT institutions in providing the tsunami disaster relief efforts and increasing the development of the information society were assessed using statistical procedures analyzing the perceptions of the Internet-based survey respondents. The disaster effects on survey respondents were also assessed. The study's findings include: (1) the Thai information sector development pattern confirmed a key difference between development patterns of information sectors in developed and developing countries, (2) the increasing number of Thai information workers was due more to the expansion of government than the expansion in the manufacturing and service sectors during the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis, (3) Thailand's expansion of ICT infrastructure was influenced not only on the basis of economic profitability but also by political desirability, and (4) volunteers were crucial in humanitarian aid and disaster relief.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Aswalap, Supaluk Joy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Developing Countries: Switching Some Multilateral Loans to Grants Would Lesson Poor Country Debt Burdens

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Last year, President Bush proposed that the World Bank and other development banks replace half of all future loans to the world's poorest countries with grants. The goal of the proposal was to relieve poor countries' long term debt burdens. The World Bank estimates that the proposal would result in a financial loss of $100 billion dollars to it during the next 40 years. GAO found that the proposal would help poor countries reduce their debt burdens and that the World Bank would lose only $15.6 billion, which could be financed through relatively small increases in donor contributions. This testimony is based on an April report. (See GAO-02-593.)"
Date: May 2, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Countries: The United States Has Not Fully Funded Its Share of Debt Relief, and the Impact of Debt Relief on Countries' Poverty-Reducing Spending Is Unknown

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1996, the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative was created to provide debt relief to poor countries that had reached unsustainable levels of debt. In 2005, the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) expanded upon the HIPC Initiative by eliminating additional debt owed to four international financial institutions (IFI): the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank's International Development Association (IDA), African Development Fund (ADF), and Inter-American Development Bank (IaDB). These four IFIs are projected to provide $58 billion in total debt relief to 41 countries. GAO (1) analyzed the U.S. financing approach for debt relief efforts; (2) reviewed the extent to which MDRI might affect resources available to countries for poverty-reducing activities; and (3) assessed revisions to the analyses conducted by the World Bank and IMF to review and promote future debt sustainability. GAO analyzed Treasury, IFI, and country documents and data, and interviewed officials at Treasury and the four IFIs."
Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Countries: Challenges in Financing Poor Countries' Economic Growth and Debt Relief Targets

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, established in 1996, is a bilateral and multilateral effort to provide debt relief to poor countries to help them achieve economic growth and debt sustainability. Multilateral creditors are having difficulty financing their share of the initiative, even with assistance from donors. Under the existing initiative, many countries are unlikely to achieve their debt relief targets, primarily because their export earnings are likely to be significantly less than projected by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). In a recently issued report, GAO assessed (1) the projected multilateral development banks' funding shortfall for the existing initiative and (2) the amount of funding, including development assistance, needed to help countries achieve economic growth and debt relief targets. The Treasury, World Bank, and African Development Bank commented that historical export growth rates are not good predictors of the future because significant structural changes are under way in many countries that could lead to greater growth. We consider these historical rates to be a more realistic gauge of future growth because of these countries' reliance on highly volatile primary commodities and other vulnerabilities such as HIV/AIDS."
Date: April 20, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Countries: Achieving Poor Countries' Economic Growth and Debt Relief Targets Faces Significant Financing Challenges

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, established in 1996, is a bilateral and multilateral effort to provide debt relief to poor countries to help them achieve economic growth and debt sustainability. Multilateral creditors are having difficulty financing their share of the initiative, even with assistance from donors. Under the existing initiative, many countries are unlikely to achieve their debt relief targets, primarily because their export earnings are likely to be significantly less than projected by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). GAO assessed (1) the projected multilateral development banks' funding shortfall for the existing initiative and (2) the amount of funding, including development assistance, needed to help countries achieve economic growth and debt relief targets. The Treasury, World Bank, and African Development Bank commented that historical export growth rates are not good predictors of the future because significant structural changes are under way in many countries that could lead to greater growth. We consider these historical rates to be a more realistic gauge of future growth because of these countries' reliance on highly volatile primary commodities and other vulnerabilities such as HIV/AIDS."
Date: April 14, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Countries: Switching Some Multilateral Loans to Grants Lessens Poor Country Debt Burdens

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Last year the United States proposed that the World Bank and other development banks distribute more grants to the world's poorest countries to help ease their long-term debt burdens. The United States recommended that grants replace up to half of all future lending. The proposal has been controversial because of its potential impact on the resources available to poor countries. The World Bank estimates that the proposal could reduce its resources by $100 billion during the next 40 years. A shift of multilateral loans to grants would reduce poor countries' debt burdens and increase their ability to repay future debt. The total financial loss to the World Bank of a 50-percent shift from loans to grants during the next 40 years would be $15.6 billion in present value terms. Financing the proposal through harder terms on the remaining loans to poor countries would reduce and potentially nullify any improvement to their debt sustainability arising from the 50-percent grants proposal. However, if donor contributions to the World Bank were to increase by 1.6 percent a year, which is less than the projected rate of inflation during the next 40 years, the World Bank could fully finance the 50-percent grants. GAO's projections on poor countries' future debt sustainability and the financial loss to the World Bank of the 50-percent grants proposal differ substantially from World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) projections. First, the World Bank and IMF project that all 10 countries will attain debt sustainability under the current debt relief initiative by assuming that the countries' future export growth rates will greatly exceed those achieved in the past. However, high export growth rates are unlikely because these countries rely on primary commodities, such as coffee and ...
Date: April 19, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Population Policy Implementation and Evaluation in Less Industrialized Countries

Description: This study emphasizes the impact of family planning program components on contraceptive prevalence in less industrialized countries. Building on Lapham and Mauldin's "Program Effort and Fertility Decline" framework and policy evaluation's theory, the author developed two models to examine the impact of family planning programs on contraceptive prevalence and fertility under the constraints of socioeconomic development and demand for family planning. The study employed path analysis and multiple regression on data from the 1982 program effort study in 94 less developed countries (LDCs) by Lapham and Mauldin and 98 LDCs of the 1989 program effort study by Mauldin and Ross. The results of data analyses for all data sets are consistent for the most part. Major findings are as follows: (1) A combination of program effort and socioeconomic development best explains the variation of contraceptive prevalence. (2) Among socioeconomic variables, female literacy exerts the strongest direct and indirect influences to increase contraceptive prevalence and indirect influence to decrease total fertility rate. (3) Christianity performs a significant role in reducing contraceptive prevalence. (4) Among program effort components, availability and accessibility for fertility-control supplies and services have the most influence on contraceptive prevalence. (5) When controlling for demand for family planning, female literacy and Christianity have expected and significant relationships with contraceptive prevalence. Availability and accessibility to fertility-control supplies and services exerts a positive and statistically significant impact on contraceptive prevalence. Demand for family planning has a positive and statistically significant effect on program variables, availability, and contraceptive prevalence. (6) There is a strong inverse relationship between contraceptive use and fertility. Demand for family planning, program effort, and socioeconomic development influence fertility through contraceptive prevalence. The findings of this study suggest that governments in LDCs should give priorities to increasing female education and availability of contraception to effectively reduce fertility.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Sirirangsi, Rangsima
Partner: UNT Libraries