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Compulsive Sexual Behavior and Personality Characteristics : A Comparative Analysis

Description: The purpose of the present study was to compare the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Coopersmith Inventory of heterosexual men with compulsive sexual behavior (N = 22), homosexual men with compulsive sexual behavior (N = 19), heterosexual men without compulsive sexual behavior (N = 38), and homosexual men without compulsive sexual behavior (N = 8). The Sex Addiction Screening Test was used to determined placement in a group. Findings revealed men who exhibit compulsive sexual behavior are significantly more depressed, experience lower self-esteem and have higher state anxiety (situational) than controls.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Austin, Christopher Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Coping Strategies in Depressed and Nondepressed Chronic Pain Patients

Description: This study investigated the relationship between preferred coping strategies, and major stressors for nondepressed, and depressed chronic pain patients. The subjects for this study were 67 chronic pain patients who are participating in a pain/spinal rehabilitation program. The information collected from the individuals or their records included: (1) basic demographic information, (2) level of activity, (3) level of perceived pain, (4) medication usage, (5) therapist rating of level of stabilization, (6) scores on three inventories including the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Analyses included an examination of the relationship between level of depression and (1) type of stressors, (2) coping strategies, and (3) level of perceived pain. Further analyses included multiple regression with outcome as defined by therapist ratings at the end of treatment, and patients' ratings at follow up as the criterion variables.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Henson, C. D. (Connie Dee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Maladaptive Coping, Heterosexist Harassment, Rejection and Discrimination, and State Anger; Correlates Of Depression In The LGBT Community

Description: Presentation for the 2010 University Scholars Day at the University of North Texas discussing research on maladaptive coping, heterosexist harassment, rejection and discrimination, state anger, and correlates of depression in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) community.
Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Sohocki, Carl C.; Vosvick, Mark A.; Logan, Mandy Alene & Catalano, Denise E.
Partner: UNT Honors College

Perceived Stress as a Mediator Between Self-Efficacy and Depression in HIV positive Individuals

Description: Presentation for the 2011 University Scholars Day at the University of North Texas discussing research on perceived stress as a mediator between self-efficacy and depression in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals.
Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Parks, Eddie; Vosvick, Mark A. & Chng, Chwee-Lye
Partner: UNT Honors College

Factors of the Geriatric Depression Scale that may Distinguish between Four Cognitive Diagnostic Groups: Normal, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, and Vascular Dementia

Description: The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between cognitive status and depression in a sample of geriatric patients. Participants included 282 geriatric patients ranging in age from 65 to 96 years who were classified according to diagnosis as: DAT, VaD, MCI, and Norm. All were referred for neurocognitive testing from the Geriatric Assessment Program (GAP) at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) in Fort Worth, Texas. This study sought to identify factor structures for two versions of the GDS using a geriatric sample of cognitively impaired and intact patients. It then compared these factors to each other to determine whether the GDS-15 is truly a shorter version of the GDS-30. These were then compared to a previously determined factor structure. This study explored whether the four-factors of the GDS-30 are able to differentiate cognitive diagnostic groups. Further, this study sought to identify whether the severity of cognitive decline impacted GDS factor score for each of the cognitively impaired groups. Results revealed a two-factor model of the GDS - 15 and a four-factor model with the GDS - 30. The GDS-15 factors did not differ from the first two factors of the GDS-30. Comparison between the GDS-30 factor structure and that reported by Hall and Davis (in press) revealed no significant differences despite the inclusion of a normal, non-demented group in the current study. Comparisons of subscale scores revealed that DAT patients tended to score lower than the other groups on all but the cognitive impairment subscale. Severity level analyses indicated that as severity of deficits increases, awareness of deficits decreases. This study found that although the GDS-30 is a good screening tool for depression in geriatric patients, it is not particularly useful in differentiating cognitive status group. Also, the GDS-15 was not found ...
Date: December 2009
Creator: Cornett, Patricia F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceived Stress as a Mediator Between Self-Efficacy and Depression in Persons Living with HIV

Description: Poster presentation for the 2011 University Scholars Day at the University of North Texas discussing research on perceived stress as a mediator between self-efficacy and depression in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Parks, Eddie; Chng, Chwee-Lye & Vosvick, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Honors College

[Letter from Camilla Wallace to Charles B. Moore, May 10, 1896]

Description: Letter from Camilla Wallace to Charles B. Moore in which she discusses the William Boyd family. She says she met "Auntie" and was impressed. She says that she has never known anyone else that old. She says that Mollie Moore and family are living on a coffee plantation in Mexico. She says she the fruit grown in Grand Junction, Colorado are the source of most of the funds in the valley. Camilla requests the last letter her father wrote the last day of his life that is in the possession of Charles Moore. She thanks Charles Moore for the family history he sent to her.
Date: May 10, 1896
Creator: Wallace, Camilla
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Personal Construction of the Self in Outpatients with Major Depression

Description: Clinical depression is characterized by alterations in thoughts, judgment, cognition and social behavior. This study focuses on non-optimal views of self and significant others that are proposed to underlie many of these alterations. Perceptions of self and significant others were elicited using the Role Construct Repertory Grid (Kelly, 1955a). Participants included depressed outpatients with high levels of trait anxiety (n = 27), depressed outpatients with lower levels of trait anxiety (n = 29) and a control group of never-depressed volunteers (n = 28). Consistent with prediction, significant group differences were found for negative self perception, discrepancies between actual self and self goals, alienation from significant others, and inconsistencies in self image. Results provided partial support for the self discrepancy theory of emotionality (Higgins, 1987). Among depressed patients, higher levels of anxiety were associated with increased self negativity and greater discrepancies between actual self and self goals. Increased levels of depression were associated with more alienation from significant others and more consistency in self image. Depressed patients' judgments of self and others were altered from optimal ratios, as predicted by the theory of interpersonal judgment (LeFebvre, LeFebvre & Adams-Webber, 1986). Findings have theoretical and clinical importance for the understanding and treatment of persons with clinical depression. They suggest that self image and interpersonal perceptions may be important characteristics to consider in chosing the most effective treatment for these individuals.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Weissenburger, Jan E. (Jan Elizabeth)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Susceptibility to Learned Helplessness

Description: A fifty-item questionnaire, representing personality attributes related to behaviors used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness, was administered to 152 undergraduate students. Based upon factor analysis of the results, six subscales were developed to predict latency of response, failures to solve, and trials to task criterion of anagram solving, this being used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness. The subscales comprised a ninety-item questionnaire given to seventy-seven undergraduate students three days before participation in the experiment proper. The subjects attempted to solve Levine (1971) discrimination problems (designed to be insolvable) and then attempted to solve patterned anagrams. Contrary to the learned helpless model of depression (Miller and Seligman, 1973), depression was curvilinearly related to latency of response and failures to solve in the anagram task. In addition, internal locus of control was linearly related to trials to criterion.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Foelker, George A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between College Student Perceived Separation and Emotional Status

Description: This study explored whether depression was related to the way college students interact with their parents. A second purpose was to explore whether the emotional states of depression, anxiety, and hostility were associated with different types of adolescent dependence (Functional, Attitudinal, Conflictual, and Emotional) on each parent. A total of 108 undergraduate students from intact families completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, hostility and psychological separation. A non-significant relationship was found between the way students relate to their parents and level of depression. However, subjects reporting angry or guilty feelings toward parents had significantly greater depression and hostility scores. Subjects reporting attitudes, values and beliefs that are not distinct from their parents also displayed significantly greater hostility scores. Furthermore, anxiety in the sample was significantly related to subjects' reports of dependence on approval, closeness and emotional support from parents.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Interrante, Ilana A. (Ilana Albanese)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Passive and Active Avoidance Learning in Depressives

Description: In order to aid in the understanding of the personality components that contribute to the symptoms of depression, the learning process of persons labeled as depressed was examined. Twenty female subjects who were either receiving or being evaluated for psychotherapy participated in this study. Based on MMPI and DACL scores, 10 depressed and 10 nondepressed subjects were placed in avoidance learning situations. An active avoidance situation required making the correct button press to avoid a sounding buzzer; the absence of the button-pressing response constituted a passive avoidance situation, There was no significant difference between the two groups in learning across avoidance conditions, Depressives were found 'to be less persistent in responding than were nondepressives. Results were explained as supporting a learned helplessness model of depression.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Weeks, Randall E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Depression, Activities of Daily Living, and Retirement

Description: Depression is a common clinical and subclinical psychiatric disorder in the middle-age to older adult population. This study examined the relationship between depression and activities of daily living (ADLs) in middle-age to older adults. This study examined longitudinal data from the 1998, wave 4, and 2000, wave 5, of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a National Panel Study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. A negative cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between higher ADL scores and depression was hypothesized. A goal of the present study was to determine the temporal precedence of these two constructs using a cross-lag panel design to first examine the cross-sectional relationship between ADLs and depression at time-one and at time-two, and then the time-one to time-two longitudinal relationships to examine temporal precedence possible causal relationships. Finally, differences in these correlational relationships by retirement status and then by marital status were tested. There were several interesting findings, including those who were retired in both 1998 and 2000 reported fewer ADLs (i.e., worse functioning), but also reported better health than those who were working in both 1998 and 2000. Similarly, those people who were not married in both 1998 and 2000 reported fewer ADLs but better health than those who were married in both 1998 and 2000. Married individuals reported fewer depressive symptoms than those who were not married.
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Date: May 2006
Creator: Jackson, Lauren Innes
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance of Adults With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Measures of Response Inhibition and Frontal Lobe Functioning

Description: In this study 2 groups of adults, those with and without ADHD, were studied in terms of cognitive functioning and symptoms of ADHD, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. Due to the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in this population three methods of diagnosis were used and the resulting findings presented. The groups did not differ in measures of depression, anxiety, substance abuse or age. Those adults who met criteria for ADHD showed worse performance on a measure of response inhibition compared to those without ADHD. The patterns of correlations among the cognitive measures differed between the two groups. The conclusions from the findings are discussed in relation to Barkley's (1997) self-regulation model of ADHD.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Wodushek, Thomas R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Decline in Chronic Pain Patients: A Neuropsychological Evaluation

Description: The purpose of the present study was to investigate cognitive functioning in a group of 30 chronic pain patients (CPG) as compared to a group of 39 acute pain patients (APG). In order to assess cognitive performance, certain subtests were selected from the McCarron-Dial System (MDS) of Neuropsychological Evaluation. Specifically, a measure of haptic discrimination was used along with the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. As such, completion of these subtests required a cortically mediated, central nervous system processing of sensory information. This particular method of assessment was chosen because it provided a nonverbal measure of higher-order cognitive performance. Additionally, the haptic measure provided separate scores for right and left hemispheric functioning. Data analysis revealed significantly poorer Bender performance among CPG members (t(69) = -5.09, E - •0004, two tailed). Further data analysis revealed that the CPG performed significantly poorer on certain of the haptic discrimination subtests. Specifically, both texture and configuration scores for the right hemisphere were significantly lower among CPG members (texture, p = -042 and configuration, p = .002). Subsequent analyses were conducted to determine predictive relationships between important variables. These data are discussed in terms of their clinical significance and importance for future research.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Nite, Leesa C. (Leesa Celeste)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Depressed and Nondepressed Students: Judgment of Control, Defensiveness, and Cognitive Functioning

Description: Ninety-six undergraduates were given four tasks under either reward or punishment conditions. Each task consisted of 20 trials of pressing or not pressing a button to make a light come on. Monetary reinforcement was contingent on light onset for all tasks and on accuracy of judgment of control for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th tasks. Cognitive processing was comprehensively assessed for each task by measuring expectancy, judgment of control, perception of environmental stimuli, evaluation of performance, attribution, and reinforcement value. Results showed that subjects were more accurate in moderate than in low control and in low than moderate frequency. Females were more accurate in perceiving environmental stimuli and had lower self-esteem, lower efficacy expectancies, and higher self-rated reinforcement values for monetary incentives than males. Low defensives were accurate in expectancy of control, judgment of control in punishment, and estimation of environmental stimuli. Subjects in reward were more accurate in perceiving reinforcing events and they gave themselves more credit for task performance than subjects in punishment gave themselves blame for comparable performance. Those in punishment had more stable and external attributions and were more anxious, depressed, and hostile. Depressives and nondepressives reacted differently to the monetary contingency on accuracy of judgment of control. Depressives showed overestimation of control immediately after initiation of this contingency, then gradually decreased their estimation until they were relatively accurate on the last task. Nondepressives showed more accurate judgment of control immediately after monetary contingency on accuracy, but returned to overestimation on subsequent tasks. These findings gave partial support to Alloy and Abramson (1979) in that mild depressives became increasingly accurate in judgment of control across tasks. Female depressives, compared to female nondepressives, were less accurate in perceiving environmental stimuli and gave themselves less credit in reward. Although depressives did not set a particularly high criterion for ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Tang, So-kum Catherine
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of the Perceptual Asymmetries of Depressed Persons as Mediated by Hypnosis

Description: This study evaluated the role of asymmetric processing of information in depression. Depression has been hypothesized to involve a deficit in the global processing of information (Tucker, 1982). This type of global processing has been manipulated through the use of hypnosis by Crawford and Allen (1983). In the current study, a 3 x 2 ANCOVA design allowed the comparison of three groups of subjects on their performance on a perceptual task measuring global perception. The task chosen was designed by Navon (1977) and consisted of designs which differed on global or local features. The groups were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, yielding 46 subjects divided into three groups of right-handed males and females. The experimental group consisted of high susceptible depressives from the community. The controls were one group of high susceptible normals and one of low susceptible depressives. All groups performed the Navon task under both waking and hypnosis conditions. Analysis of the results revealed a main effect for group (F(2, 86) = 9.60, p < .01) on the global scores. In addition, high social desirability scores predicted slower presentation times. However, hypnosis was not effective in creating a significant change in performance on the dependent measure. The results are discussed as support for the hypothesized differences between depressives and normals. Differences between the measures used in the present study and that of Crawford and Allen suggest that hypnosis may mediate imagery at a conceptual level but not at the level of the primary visual-perceptual system.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Wilson, Lucy Erma
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceived Contingency of Parental Reinforcements, Depression, and Locus of Control

Description: To determine the relationships among perceived contingency of parental reinforcements, depression, and locus of control, 66 male and 54 female undergraduate university students completed questionnaire measures. Significant relationships were obtained between depression and locus of control for both sexes. Also, subjects of both sexes who described their parents as having administered rewards and punishments more noncontingently tended to describe themselves as more external and as more depressed. Parental rewards were perceived by both sexes as administered more noncontingently than punishments. Females tended to perceive parental rewards as delivered more noncontingently than did males. All the intercorrelations among perceived contingency of parental reinforcement, locus of control, and depression were in the prediction direction.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Morrison, Frank David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Group Counseling as an Intervention in Anger Expression and Depression in Older Adults

Description: Depression is believed to be the most prevalent mental dysfunction among older adults, and depression and anger are frequently linked in theory and in therapy. This study was undertaken to determine whether participation in group counseling sessions would increase awareness and expression of anger and decrease depression levels in women aged 65 and older. Treatment group members were compared to a matching control group. Both groups completed the Anger Self Report Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison of the ASR subscale scores, Awareness of Anger, Expression of Anger, Guilt, Condemnation of Anger, and Mistrust, revealed no significant differences between the treatment and control groups. However, the treatment group scored significantly higher on the BDI than did the control group. Analysis of variance of the ASR and the BDI, and the variables upon which the treatment and control groups were matched revealed some significant differences, and comparison of the women in this study with the two groups upon whom the ASR was validated showed this study's older women scored significantly lower than the validation groups on the ASR. The author concluded that six sessions is not long enough to effect change in either anger awareness or expression in older women, and more time is needed to establish group cohesiveness in older populations than that generally thought to be needed for younger populations. Replication of the study with men and women, and replication of Khe study using a longitudinal design is recommended in order to determine whether awareness and expression of anger change with age, or whether differences between older and younger populations are due to historical and environmental influences.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Johnson, Wanda Y. (Wanda Yates)
Partner: UNT Libraries