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L-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections for ₂₀Ca, ₂₆Fe, ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu, ₃₀Zn, ₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge by Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium Ions

Description: L-shell x-ray production cross sections are presented for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge by 0.5- to 5.0-MeV protons and by 0.5- to 8.0-MeV helium ions and Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge by 0.75- to 4.5-MeV lithium ions. These measurements are compared to the first Born theory and the perturbed-stationary- state theory with energy-loss, Coulomb deflection, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR). The results are also compared to previous experimental investigations. The high precision x-ray measurements were performed with a windowless Si(Li) detector. The efficiency of the detector was determined by the use of thin target atomic-field bremsstrahlung produced by 66.5 keV electrons. The measured bremsstrahlung spectra were compared to theoretical bremsstrahlung distributions in order to obtain an efficiency versus energy curve. The targets for the measurement were manufactured by the vacuum evaporation of the target element onto thin foils of carbon. Impurities in the carbon caused interferences inthe L-shell x-ray peaks. Special cleansing procedures were developed that reduced the impurity concentrations in the carbon foil, making the use of less than 5 μg/cm^2 targets possible. The first Born theory is seen to greatly overpredict the data at low ion energies. The ECPSSR theory matches the data very well at the high energy region. At low energies, while fitting the data much more closely than the first Born theory, the ECPSSR theory does not accurately predict the trend of the data. This is probably due to the onset of molecular-orbital effects, a mechanism not accounted for in the ECPSSR theory.
Date: May 1992
Creator: McNeir, Michael Ridge
Partner: UNT Libraries

Enigmatic Realms

Description: The use of copper in my work has opened up an entirely new conceptual and esthetic world. I have expanded my vocabulary of visual imagery based on the nature of how copper reacts with fire. The organic beauty harmonizes so gracefully with the manufactured material. This new material has certainly opened up a refreshing platform on which to further develop my ideas.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Malik, Irum
Partner: UNT Libraries

Diffusion Barriers/Adhesion Promoters. Surface and Interfacial Studies of Copper and Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Description: The focus of this research is to study the interaction between copper and the diffusion barrier/adhesion promoter. The behavior of copper sputter-deposited onto sputter-cleaned tantalum nitride is investigated. The data show that copper growth on tantalum nitride proceeds with the formation of 3-D islands, indicating poor adhesion characteristics between copper and Ta0.4N. Post-annealing experiments indicate that copper will diffuse into Ta0.4N at 800 K. Although the data suggests that Ta0.4N is effective in preventing copper diffusion, copper's inability to wet Ta0.4N will render this barrier ineffective. The interaction of copper with oxidized tantalum silicon nitride (O/TaSiN) is characterized. The data indicate that initial copper depositions result in the formation a conformal ionic layer followed by Cu(0) formation in subsequent depositions. Post-deposition annealing experiments performed indicate that although diffusion does not occur for temperatures less than 800 K, copper "de-wetting" occurs for temperatures above 500 K. These results indicate that in conditions where the substrate has been oxidized facile de-wetting of copper may occur. The behavior of a sputter-deposited Cu0.6Al0.4 film with SiO2 (Cu0.6Al0.4/SiO2) is investigated. The data indicate that aluminum segregates to the SiO2 interface and becomes oxidized. For copper coverages less than ~ 0.31 ML (based on a Cu/O atomic ratio), only Cu(I) formation is observed. At higher coverages, Cu(0) is observed. These data are in contrast with the observed behavior of copper metal deposited onto SiO2 (Cu/SiO2). The data for Cu/SiO2 show that copper does not wet SiO2 and forms 3-D nuclei. Furthermore, post-annealing experiments performed on Cu0.6Al0.4/SiO2 show that neither de-wetting nor diffusion of copper occurs for temperatures up to 800 K, while Cu diffusion into SiO2 occurs ~ 600 K. These data indicate that aluminum alloyed with copper at the SiO2 interface serves as an effective adhesion promoter and thermal diffusion barrier.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Shepherd, Krupanand Solomon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Here's why we need more metal to win this war.

Description: Poster features a series of six black & white photographs on a black background. The photographs are of military weapons, vehicles, aircraft, and a ship. Each photograph has a caption describing the amount of copper, zinc, and lead used to manufacture the equipment shown.
Date: 1942
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physiological Responses of Myriophyllum spicatum to Time Varying Exposures of Diquat, 2,4-D and Copper

Description: The physiological responses of Myriophyllum spicatum to 2,4-D, diquat and copper were quantified using a plant tissue viability assay, and daily measures of dissolved oxygen and pH. Correlations of herbicide tissue residues to physiological response measures were determined and the relationship was used to develop exposure-response models. Diquat and copper had a greater effect on plant tissue viability than was observed for 2,4-D. Diquat produced greater reductions in dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH values than 2,4-D or copper. Copper exposure had the least effect on these parameters. Exposure-response models developed for 2,4-D predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 4000 to 4700 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 mg/L. Exposure-response models developed for diquat predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 225 to 280 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.113 to 0.169 mg/L. Exposure-response models developed for copper predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 680 to 790 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.32 to 0.64 mg/L. Model predictions for 2,4-D, diquat and copper were within 0.5 mg/L of the manufacturers' label recommendations for these herbicides. The use of laboratory microcosms in development of exposure-response models for diquat and copper produced results comparable to those using the larger-scale greenhouse systems. Diquat effectively controlled M. spicatum at lower tissue residues than 2,4-D or copper. In addition, initial aqueous exposure concentrations were also lower for diquat. Use of these models in field situations should be coupled with considerations of quantity of biomass present and environmental conditions, such as turbidity, in order to accurately calculate exposure concentrations necessary for effective tissue residues. Thus, the use of these models ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Rocchio, Patricia Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries

Study of Interactions Between Diffusion Barrier Layers and Low-k Dielectric Materials for Copper/Low-k Integration

Description: The shift to the Cu/low-k interconnect scheme requires the development of diffusion barrier/adhesion promoter materials that provide excellent performance in preventing the diffusion and intermixing of Cu into the adjacent dielectrics. The integration of Cu with low-k materials may decrease RC delays in signal propagation but pose additional problems because such materials are often porous and contain significant amounts of carbon. Therefore barrier metal diffusion into the dielectric and the formation of interfacial carbides and oxides are of significant concern. The objective of the present research is to investigate the fundamental surface interactions between diffusion barriers and various low-k dielectric materials. Two major diffusion barriers¾ tatalum (Ta) and titanium nitride (TiN) are prepared by DC magnetron sputtering and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), respectively. Surface analytical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are employed. Ta sputter-deposited onto a Si-O-C low dielectric constant substrate forms a reaction layer composed of Ta oxide and TaC. The composition of the reaction layer varies with deposition rate (1 Å-min-1 vs. 2 Å-sec-1), but in both cases, the thickness of the TaC layer is found to be at least 30 Å on the basis of XPS spectra, which is corroborated with cross-sectional TEM data. Sputter-deposited Cu will not wet the TaC layer and displays facile agglomeration, even at 400 K. Deposition for longer time at 2 Å-sec-1 results in formation of a metallic Ta layer. Sputter deposited Cu wets (grows conformally) on the metallic Ta surface at 300 K, and resists significant agglomeration at up to ~ 600 K. Cu diffusion into the substrate is not observed up to 800 K in the UHV environment. Tetrakis(diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) interactions with SiO2, Cu and a variety of low-k samples in the presence (~ 10-7 Torr or ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Tong, Jinhong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Copper Deposits Near Keating, Oregon

Description: From abstract: The copper deposits near Keating, Oreg., in the southwestern foothills of the Wallowa Mountains, form part of a series distributed along a belt over 75 miles long. The belt containing copper deposits extends from a point west of North Powder to and beyond the Snake River at Homestead.
Date: 1931
Creator: Gilluly, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cu Electrodeposition on Ru with a Chemisorbed Iodine Surface Layer.

Description: An iodine surface layer has been prepared on Ru(poly) and Ru(0001) electrodes by exposure to iodine vapor in UHV and polarizing in a 0.1 M HClO4/0.005 M KI solution, respectively. A saturation coverage of I on a Ru(poly) electrode passivates the Ru surface against significant hydroxide, chemisorbed oxygen or oxide formation during exposure to water vapor over an electrochemical cell in a UHV-electrochemistry transfer system. Immersion of I-Ru(poly) results in greater hydroxide and chemisorbed oxygen formation than water vapor exposure, but an inhibition of surface oxide formation relative that of the unmodified Ru(poly) surface is still observed. Studies with combined electrochemical and XPS techniques show that the iodine surface adlayer remained on top of the surface after cycles of overpotential electrodeposition/dissolution of copper on both Ru(poly) and Ru(0001) electrodes. These results indicate the potential bifunctionality of iodine layer to both passivate the Ru surface in the microelectronic processing and to act as a surfactant for copper electrodeposition. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) or polycrystalline Ru was studied using XPS with combined ultrahigh vacuum/electrochemistry methodology (UHV-EC) in 0.1 M HClO4 with Cu(ClO4)2 concentrations ranging from 0.005 M to 0.0005 M, and on polycrystalline Ru in a 0.05M H2SO4/0.005 M CuSO4/0.001 M NaCl solution. The electrochemical data show well-defined cyclic voltammograms (CV) with a Cu underpotential deposition (UPD) peak and overpotential deposition (OPD) peak. XPS spectra of Ru electrodes emersed from perchloric acid solution at cathodic potentials indicate that ClO4- anions dissociate to yield specifically adsorbed Cl and ClOx species. Subsequent Cu deposition results in the formation of a thin, insoluble Cu(II) film with Cu(I) underneath. In contrast, similar deposition on polycrystalline Ru in the sulfuric acid/Cu sulfate solution with NaCl added yields only Cu(0), indicating that the formation of Cu(II) and Cu(I) involves both Cl and perchlorate interactions with the ...
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Lei, Jipu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface

Description: An extremely facile and novel method called spontaneous deposition, to deposit noble metal nanoparticles on a most stable form of carbon (C) i.e. diamond is presented. Nanometer sized particles of such metals as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) could be deposited on boron-doped (B-doped) polycrystalline diamond films grown on silicon (Si) substrates, by simply immersing the diamond/Si sample in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution containing ions of the corresponding metal. The electrons for the reduction of metal ions came from the Si back substrate. The diamond/Si interfacial ohmic contact was of paramount importance to the observation of the spontaneous deposition process. The metal/diamond (M/C) surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology (i.e. size and distribution) of metal nanoparticles deposits could be controlled by adjusting the metal ion concentration, HF concentration and deposition time. XRD data indicate the presence of textured and strained crystal lattices of Pd for different Pd/C morphologies, which seem to influence the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The sensitivity of electrocatalytic reactions to surface crystal structure implies that M/C could be fabricated for specific electrocatalytic applications. The research also presents electroplating of Cu on ruthenium (Ru), which a priori is a promising barrier material for Cu interconnects in the sub 0.13 μm generation integrated circuits (ICs). Cu plates on Ru with over 90% efficiency. The electrochemical nucleation and growth studies using the potentiostatic current transient method showed a predominantly progressive nucleation of Cu on Ru. This was also supported by SEM imaging, which showed that continuous thin films of Cu (ca. 400 Å) with excellent conformity could be plated over Ru without dendrite formation. Scotch tape peel tests and SEM on Cu/Ru samples both at room temperature (RT) and ...
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Date: May 2003
Creator: Arunagiri, Tiruchirapalli Natarajan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interfacial Electrochemistry and Surface Characterization: Hydrogen Terminated Silicon, Electrolessly Deposited Palladium & Platinum on Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films and Electrodeposited Copper on Iridium

Description: Hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces play an important role in the integrated circuit (IC) industry. Ultra-pure water is extensively used for the cleaning and surface preparation of silicon surfaces. This work studies the effects of ultra-pure water on hydrogen passivated silicon surfaces in a short time frame of 120 minutes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy – attenuated total reflection techniques. Varying conditions of ultra-pure water are used. This includes dissolved oxygen poor media after nitrogen bubbling and equilibration under nitrogen atmosphere, as well as metal contaminated solutions. Both microscopically rough and ideal monohydride terminated surfaces are examined. Hydrogen terminated silicon is also used as the sensing electrode for a potentiometric sensor for ultra-trace amounts of metal contaminants. Previous studies show the use of this potentiometric electrode sensor in hydrofluoric acid solution. This work is able to shows sensor function in ultra-pure water media without the need for further addition of hydrofluoric acid. This is considered a boon for the sensor due to the hazardous nature of hydrofluoric acid. Thin carbon films can be formed by spin coating photoresist onto silicon substrates and pyrolyzing at 1000 degrees C under reducing conditions. This work also shows that the electroless deposition of palladium and platinum may be accomplished in hydrofluoric acid solutions to attain palladium and platinum nanoparticles on a this film carbon surface for use as an electrode. Catalysis of these substrates is studied using hydrogen evolution in acidic media, cyclic voltammetry, and catalysis of formaldehyde. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) is used to ensure that there is little strain on palladium and platinum particles. Iridium is thought to be a prime candidate for investigation as a new generation copper diffusion barrier for the IC industry. Copper electrodeposition on iridium is studied to address the potential of iridium as a copper diffusion barrier. Copper electrodeposition ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Chan, Raymond
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nuclear Reactions on the Palladium Isotopes

Description: The problem of interest in this investigation was to determine the cross sections of five nuclear reactions which occur when irradiating natural palladium with neutrons which have energy values of 15.1, 15.9, and 16.3 MeV. The cross sections were measured relative to a copper monitor which was "sandwitched" in with the palladium target.
Date: December 1970
Creator: White, Ronald Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Metallization and Modification of Low-k Dielectric Materials

Description: Aluminum was deposited onto both Teflon AF and Parylene AF surfaces by chemical vapor deposition of trimethylaluminum. This work shows that similar thin film (100 Angstroms) aluminum oxide adlayers form on both polymers at the low temperature dosing conditions used in the studies. Upon anneal to room temperature and above, defluorination of the polymer surfaces increased and resulted in fluorinated aluminum oxide adlayers; the adlayers were thermally stable to the highest temperatures tested (600 K). Angle-resolved spectra showed higher levels of fluorination toward the polymer/adlayer interface region. Copper films were also deposited at low temperature onto Teflon AF using a copper hexafluoroacetylacetonate-cyclooctadiene precursor. Annealing up to 600 K resulted in the loss of precursor ligands and a shift to metallic copper. As with aluminum adlayers, some polymer defluorination and resulting metal (copper) fluoride was detected. Parylene AF and polystyrene films surfaces were modified by directly dosing with water vapor passed across a hot tungsten filament. Oxygen incorporation into polystyrene occurred exclusively at aromatic carbon sites, whereas oxygen incorporation into parylene occurred in both aromatic and aliphatic sites. Oxygen x-ray photoelectron spectra of the modified polymers were comparable, indicating that similar reactions occurred. The surface oxygenation of parylene allowed enhanced reactivity toward aluminum chemical vapor deposition. Silicon-carbon (Si-Cx) films were formed by electron beam bombardment of trimethylvinylsilane films which were adsorbed onto metal substrates at low temperatures in ultra-high vacuum. Oxygen was also added to the films by coadsorbing water before electron beam bombardment; the films were stable to more than 700 K, with increasing silicon-oxygen bond formation at elevated temperatures. Copper metal was sputter deposited in small increments onto non-oxygenated films. X-ray photoelectric spectra show three-dimensional copper growth (rather than layer-by-layer growth), indicating only weak interaction between the copper and underlying films. Annealing at elevated temperatures caused coalescence or growth ...
Date: December 2008
Creator: Martini, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Forms in Space

Description: No Description Available.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1924~
Creator: Storrs, John Bradley
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Tantalum- and ruthenium-based diffusion barriers/adhesion promoters for copper/silicon dioxide and copper/low κ integration.

Description: The TaSiO6 films, ~8Å thick, were formed by sputter deposition of Ta onto ultrathin SiO2 substrates at 300 K, followed by annealing to 600 K in 2 torr O2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of the films yielded a Si(2p) binding energy at 102.1 eV and Ta(4f7/2) binding energy at 26.2 eV, indicative of Ta silicate formation. O(1s) spectra indicate that the film is substantially hydroxylated. Annealing the film to > 900 K in UHV resulted in silicate decomposition to SiO2 and Ta2O5. The Ta silicate film is stable in air at 300K. XPS data show that sputter-deposited Cu (300 K) displays conformal growth on Ta silicate surface (TaSiO6) but 3-D growth on the annealed and decomposed silicate surface. Initial Cu/silicate interaction involves Cu charge donation to Ta surface sites, with Cu(I) formation and Ta reduction. The results are similar to those previously reported for air-exposed TaSiN, and indicate that Si-modified Ta barriers should maintain Cu wettability under oxidizing conditions for Cu interconnect applications. XPS has been used to study the reaction of tert-butylimino tris(diethylamino) tantalum (TBTDET) with atomic hydrogen on SiO2 and organosilicate glass (OSG) substrates. The results on both substrates indicate that at 300K, TBTDET partially dissociates, forming Ta-O bonds with some precursor still attached. Subsequent bombardment with atomic hydrogen at 500K results in stoichiometric TaN formation, with a Ta(4f7/2) feature at binding energy 23.2 eV and N(1s) at 396.6 eV, leading to a TaN phase bonded to the substrate by Ta-O interactions. Subsequent depositions of the precursor on the reacted layer on SiO2 and OSG, followed by atomic hydrogen bombardment, result in increased TaN formation. These results indicate that TBTDET and atomic hydrogen may form the basis for a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the formation of ultraconformal TaNx or Ru/TaNx barriers. The interactions ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Zhao, Xiaopeng
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interfacial Studies of Bimetallic Corrosion in Copper/Ruthenium Systems and Silicon Surface Modification with Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

Description: To form Cu interconnects, dual-damascene techniques like chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and post-CMP became inevitable for removing the "overburden" Cu and for planarizing the wafer surface. During the CMP processing, Cu interconnects and barrier metal layers experience different electrochemical interactions depending on the slurry composition, pH, and ohmic contact with adjacent metal layers that would set corrosion process. Ruthenium as a replacement of existing diffusion barrier layer will require extensive investigation to eliminate or control the corrosion process during CMP and post CMP. Bimetallic corrosion process was investigated in the ammonium citrate (a complexing agent of Cu in CMP solutions) using micro test patterns and potentiodynamic measurements. The enhanced bimetallic corrosion of copper observed is due to noble behavior of the ruthenium metal. Cu formed Cu(II)-amine and Cu(II)-citrate complexes in alkaline and acidic solutions and a corrosion mechanism has been proposed. The currently used metallization process (PVD, CVD and ALD) require ultra-high vacuum and are expensive. A novel method of Si surface metallization process is discussed that can be achieved at room temperature and does not require ultra-high vacuum. Ruthenation of Si surface through strong Si-Ru covalent bond formation is demonstrated using different ruthenium carbonyl compounds. RBS analysis accounted for monolayer to sub-monolayer coverage of Si surface. Interaction of other metal carbonyl (like Fe, Re, and Rh) is also discussed. The silicon (111) surface modifications with vinyl terminated organic compounds were investigated to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and there after these surfaces were further functionalized. Acrylonitrile and vinylbenzophenone were employed for these studies. Ketone group of vinylbenzophenone anchored to Si surface demonstrated reactivity with reducing and oxidizing agents.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Nalla, Praveen Reddy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Releasing Polymer Nanoparticles

Description: Polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded with Cu²⁺ to explore the therapeutic potential for catically active transition metal ions and complexes other than cisplatin. Two types of nanoparticles were synthesized to show the potential for polymer based vectors. Copper loading and release were characterized via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded to the nano-sized carriers in an aqueous environment, and that the release was pH-dependent. The toxicity of these particles was measured in HeLa cells where significant toxicity was observed in vitro via dosing of high Cu-loaded nanoparticles. No significant toxicity was observed in cells dosed with Cu-free nanoparticles.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Harris, Alesha N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrochemical Study of Under-Potential Deposition Processes on Transition Metal Surfaces

Description: Copper under-potential deposition (UPD) on iridium was studied due to important implications it presents to the semiconductor industry. Copper UPD allows controlled superfilling on sub-micrometer trenches; iridium has characteristics to prevent copper interconnect penetration into the surrounding dielectric. Copper UPD is not favored on iridium oxides but data shows copper over-potential deposition when lower oxidation state Ir oxide is formed. Effect of anions in solution on silver UPD at platinum (Pt) electrodes was studied with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance. Silver UPD forms about one monolayer in the three different electrolytes employed. When phosphoric acid is used, silver oxide growth is identified due to presence of low coverage hydrous oxide species at potentials prior to the monolayer oxide region oxide region.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Flores Araujo, Sarah Cecilia
Partner: UNT Libraries

FTIR-ATR Characterization of Hydrogel, Polymer Films, Protein Immobilization and Benzotriazole Adsorption on Copper Surface

Description: Plasma polymerization techniques were used to synthesize and deposit hydrogel on silicon (Si) substrate. Hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are water-insoluble and has a high degree of flexibility. The various fields of applications of hydrogel include drug release, biosensors and tissue engineering etc. Hydrogel synthesized from different monomers possess a common property of moisture absorption. In this work two monomers were used namely 1-amino-2-propanol (1A2P) and 2(ethylamino)ethanol (2EAE) to produce polymer films deposited on Si ATR crystal. Their moisture uptake property was tested using FTIR-ATR technique. This was evident by the decrease in -OH band in increasing N2 purging time of the films. Secondly, two monomer compounds namely vinyl acetic acid and glycidyl methacrylate which have both amine and carboxylic groups are used as solid surface for the immobilization of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Pulsed plasma polymerization was used to polymerize these monomers with different duty cycles. Initial works in this field were all about protein surface adsorption. But more recently, the emphasis is on covalent bonding of protein on to the surface. This immobilization of protein on solid surface has a lot of applications in the field of biochemical studies. The polymerization of vinyl acetic acid and glycidyl methacrylate were shown as successful method to attach protein on them. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Cu is one of the processes in the integrated chips manufacturing industry. Benzotriazole is one of the constituents of this CMP slurry used as corrosion inhibitor for Cu. Benzotriazole (C6H5N3) is a nitrogen heterocyclic derivative having three nitrogen atoms, each with an unshared pair of electrons, forming five-membered ring structure. This molecule coordinates with Cu atoms by loosing a proton from one of its nitrogen atom and thereby forming a film which is polymeric in nature that prevents further oxidation of Cu. ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: Pillai, Karthikeyan
Partner: UNT Libraries