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Genomic and Co-expression Analyses Predict Multiple Genes Involved in Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula

Description: Article discusses genomic and coexpression analyses predicting multiple genes involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.
Date: March 9, 2010
Creator: Naoumkina, Marina A.; Modolo, Luzia V.; Huhman, David; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Tang, Yuhong; Sumner, Lloyd W. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Regulation of Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Biosynthesis

Description: Recent studies suggest that synthesis of the Colony-stimulating factor (CSF) is a well regulated process. However, the molecular mechanisms of the signal transduction of the various inducers of CSF such as monokines and lymphokines are not well understood. Using Interleukin 1 (IL-1) stimulation of CSF-1 in the MIA PaCa-2 cell line as a model system, the involvement of G-protein has been studied. The IL-1 induction of CSF-1 synthesis can be inhibited by both Pertussis toxin and Cholera toxin, which are known to modify the Gᵢ and Gₛ proteins respectively, thus activating adenylate cyclase to release more cAMP. The toxin inactivation can be prevented by inhibitors of the ADP-ribosylation such as, benzamide and MBAMG. Addition of dibutyryl-cAMP inhibits the IL-1 induced CSF production. Both Theophylline and Forskolin which increase cAMP by inhibiting phosphodiesterase and stimulating adenylate cyclase respectively, also inhibit CSF-1 production. Results from these studies have shown that cAMP level inversely regulates the biosynthesis of CSF-1. Preincubation of MIA PaCa-2 cells with IL-1 and 5'- guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp) prevents the inhibitory effect of pertussis toxin on CSF-1 production. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that IL-1 binds to its receptor and couples to Gᵢ∝ resulting in the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and reducing cAMP level. Lowering of the' cAMP level leads to the activation of CSF-1 gene expression. The activity of another inducer of CSF-1 production in this system, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), can be abolished by 1- (5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H-7), which is a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C. However, H-7 failed to inhibit IL-1 stimulated CSF-1 production. Other known activators of protein kinase C namely, Ca²⁺ and L-α-l-oleoyl-2-acetoyl-sn- 3-glycerol (OAG), also increase CSF production. On the other hand, Indomethacin which is known to inhibit prostaglandin E (PGE), stimulates CSF-1 production in MIA PaCa-2 cells. These data suggest that different mechanisms ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Ku, Chun-Ying
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation and Partial Characterization of Pigment Mutants of Corynebacterium poinsettie ATCC 9682

Description: Carotenoid pigments were extracted from Corynebacteriuma poinsettiae (wild type) ATCC 9682, and from 108 mutants obtained by exposure of a streptomycin resistant strain of C. poinsettiae to ultra-violet light irradiation and N-methyl- N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The pigments were characterized by their absorption maxima, Rf-values, and partition ratios in petroleum ether and methanol. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare pigments of the wild type with those of the mutants. Possible biosynthetic pathways in carotenoid synthesis of the wild type were postulated on the basis of the observed genetic blocks. Mutants were found which suggested the existence of a linear pathway in carotenoid synthesis from the aliphatic C4 0 molecule to the bi-cyclic C50-diol. Other mutants suggested possible alternative pathways in the biosynthesis of these pigments or the presence of intermediates not detectable by thin layer chromatography.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Wariso, Benjamin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries