Search Results

Best Practices: Setting Requirements Differently Could Reduce Weapon Systems' Total Ownership Costs

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "For fiscal year 2003, the Department of Defense (DOD) asked for about $185 billion to develop, procure, operate, and maintain its weapon systems. This request represents an increase of 18 percent since 2001 for the total ownership costs of DOD weapon systems. Often, DOD systems need expensive spare parts and support systems after they are fielded to meet required readiness levels. DOD has been increasingly concerned that the high cost of maintaining systems has limited its ability to modernize and invest in new weapons. This report examines the best practices of leading commercial firms to manage a product's total ownership costs and determines if those practices can be applied to DOD."
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Using A Knowledge-Based Approach To Improve Weapon Acquisition

Description: Other written product issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "At the request of Congress, we have been examining ways the Department of Defense (DOD) can optimize its investment in weapons systems, drawing on lessons learned from the best, mostly commercial, product development efforts. Leading commercial firms we have studied have developed increasingly sophisticated products in less time and at lower cost. Key to their success is their knowledge-based approach to the acquisition of new products. A knowledge-based approach is supported by incentives that encourage realism and candor. This booklet highlights the result of our work to date."
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: DOD Teaming Practices Not Achieving Potential Results

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO examined how best practices could help the Department of Defense (DOD) maximize the benefits of integrated product teams in its development of weapon systems. GAO conducted eight case studies--three from leading commercial firms; four from DOD programs experiencing cost, schedule, and performance problems; and one from a DOD program that has been meeting its objectives. GAO found that effective integrated product teams can make significant development decisions quickly and without relying on heavy consultations with organizations outside of the team. These teams have developed and delivered superior products within predicted time frames and budgets--often cutting calendar time in half compared with earlier products delivered without such teams. Officials from the more successful programs GAO reviewed--three commercial and one from DOD--all cited integrated product teams as a main factor in achieving such results. GAO found that the teams did not operate as effectively in the four DOD programs that were not meeting cost and schedule objectives. Their decision-making processes were sequential and involved many outside consultations for information and approval."
Date: April 10, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Increased Focus on Requirements and Oversight Needed to Improve DOD's Acquisition Environment and Weapon System Quality

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "A Senate report related to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 asked GAO to compare quality management practices used by the Department of Defense (DOD) and its contractors to those used by leading commercial companies and make suggestions for improvement. To do this, GAO (1) determined the impact of quality problems on selected weapon systems and prime contractor practices that contributed to the problems; (2) identified commercial practices that can be used to improve DOD weapon systems; (3) identified problems that DOD must overcome; and (4) identified recent DOD initiatives that could improve quality. GAO examined 11 DOD weapon systems with known quality problems and met with quality officials from DOD, defense prime contractors, and five leading commercial companies that produce complex products and/or are recognized for quality products."
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: DOD Training Can Do More to Help Weapon System Programs Implement Best Practices

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO evaluated the role the Department of Defense (DOD) training is playing in implementing best practices in weapon system programs, focusing on the: (1) contribution DOD training makes to program offices' ability to apply best practices; (2) different methods used by DOD and leading commercial firms in training on best practices; and (3) strategic approaches that underlie DOD's and leading commercial firms' training methods for best practices."
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Highlights of the Knowledge-Based Approach Used to Improve Weapon Acquisition

Description: Other written product issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This is a best practices pamphlet discussing the highlights of the knowledge-based approach to improving weapons acquisition. It reviews the manufacturing processes through three phases, (1) technology development, (2) product development, and (3) production."
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Capturing Design and Manufacturing Knowledge Early Improves Acquisition Outcomes

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report examines how best practices offer improvements to the way the Department of Defense (DOD) develops new weapons systems, primarily the design and manufacturing aspects of the acquisition process. Knowledge about a product's design and producibility facilitates informed decisions about whether to significantly increase investments and reduces the risk of costly design changes later in the program. Leading commercial companies employ practices to capture design and manufacturing knowledge in time to make key decisions during product development. First, the companies kept the degree of the design challenge manageable before starting a new product development program by using an evolutionary approach. Second, the companies captured design and manufacturing knowledge before the two critical decision points in product development: when the design was demonstrated to be stable--the second knowledge point--and when the product was demonstrated to be producible at an affordable cost--the third knowledge point. DOD has made changes to its acquisition policy in an attempt to improve its framework for developing weapons systems, but the policy does not require the capture of design or manufacturing knowledge or sufficient criteria to enter the system demonstration and production phases. In addition, it does not require a decision review to enter the demonstration phase of product development."
Date: July 15, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: An Integrated Portfolio Management Approach to Weapon System Investments Could Improve DOD's Acquisition Outcomes

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Over the next several years, the Department of Defense (DOD) plans to invest $1.4 trillion in major weapons programs. While DOD produces superior weapons, GAO has found that the department has failed to deliver weapon systems on time, within budget, and with desired capabilities. While recent changes to DOD's acquisition policy held the potential to improve outcomes, programs continue to experience significant cost and schedule overruns. GAO was asked to examine how DOD's processes for determining needs and allocating resources can better support weapon system program stability. Specifically, GAO compared DOD's processes for investing in weapon systems to the best practices that successful commercial companies use to achieve a balanced mix of new products, and identified areas where DOD can do better. In conducting its work, GAO identified the best practices of: Caterpillar, Eli Lilly, IBM, Motorola, and Procter and Gamble."
Date: March 30, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Better Support of Weapon System Program Managers Needed to Improve Outcomes

Description: A chapter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) relies on a relatively small cadre of officials to develop and deliver weapon systems. In view of the importance of DOD's investment in weapon systems, we have undertaken an extensive body of work that examines DOD's acquisition issues from a perspective that draws lessons learned from the best commercial product development efforts to see if they apply to weapon system acquisitions. In response to a request from the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support, Senate Committee on Armed Services, this report assesses (1) how successful commercial companies position their program managers, (2) how DOD positions its program managers, and (3) underlying reasons for the differences. In compiling this report, GAO conducted a survey of program managers. See GAO-06-112SP."
Date: November 30, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: A More Constructive Test Approach Is Key to Better Weapon System Outcomes

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the role of testing and evaluation in product development, focusing on: (1) how the conduct of testing and evaluation affects commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) program outcomes; (2) how best commercial testing and evaluation practices compare with DOD's; and (3) what factors account for the differences in these practices."
Date: July 31, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Improved Knowledge of DOD Service Contracts Could Reveal Significant Savings

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Department of Defense (DOD) spending on service contracts approaches $100 billion annually, but DOD's management of services procurement is inefficient and ineffective and the dollars are not always well spent. Recent legislation requires DOD to improve procurement practices to achieve savings. Many private companies changed management practices based on analyzing spending patterns and coordinating procurement in order to achieve major savings. This report evaluates five companies' best practices and their conduct and use of "spend analysis" and the extent that DOD can pursue similar practices."
Date: June 9, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Better Management of Technology Development Can Improve Weapon System Outcomes

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO assessed how best practices offer improvements to the way the Department of Defense (DOD) incorporates new technology into weapon system programs, focusing on: (1) the impact of technology maturity on product outcomes; (2) best practices for managing new technologies and incorporating them into products; and (3) ways DOD can adapt these practices to get better outcomes on weapon system programs."
Date: July 30, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chronicles in Preservation: Building Institutional Capacity in Digital Preservation

Description: Poster presented at the 2013 iPres Conference. The poster discusses the Chronicles in Preservation project, which evaluates how to improve the preservation readiness of digitized and born-digital newspapers on a spectrum of essential to optimal levels of conformance to digital preservation standards.
Date: September 2013
Creator: Schultz, Matt; Phillips, Mark Edward; Krabbenhoeft, Nick & Eisenhauer, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Knowledge management in virtual organizations: A study of a best practices knowledge transfer model.

Description: Knowledge management is a major concern for organizations today, and in spite of investments in technology, knowledge transfer remains problematic. This study sought to determine whether a relationship exists among participant group demographics (experience), implementation of an integrated knowledge transfer system (best practices model), knowledge transfer barriers, and knowledge transfer project (Web-based training) outcome in a virtual organization. The participant organization was a network of individuals and groups who practice patient advocacy in the research and treatment of cancer. These advocates volunteer in various capacities and are not collocated nor do they report to any single organizational entity. Volunteer participants were randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition. The treatment participants received a training supplement based upon a best practices knowledge transfer model. All participants reviewed a Web-based communications training module scheduled for deployment by the participant organization. Upon completion of the training program, participants were instructed to practice specific techniques from the program. At the end of this period, participants completed an online survey that measured demographics, perceived barriers to the knowledge transfer, and project outcome. Knowledge transfer barriers were defined as knowledge, source, recipient, and organizational context characteristics that inhibit the expected transfer. Project outcome was a composite score of items measuring completion time, budget, and satisfaction of the user. Multiple regression identified two significant predictor variables, source (the training program and implementation) and experience (amount of time spent in advocacy practice). Additional analyses found knowledge (causal ambiguity and unproven knowledge) and the experimental treatment condition to show a strong relationship with the explained variance of the dependent variable, knowledge transfer project outcome. Results suggest that an online training implementation is a valid tool for certain specific transfer design characteristics. Experience was a negative predictor of outcome, suggesting that participant-specific level of training material may produce improved ...
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Berryman, Reba
Partner: UNT Libraries

Roadmap to Sustainable Government Buildings

Description: This document encourages governments to use LEED certifications in the construction of government buildings, and to promote LEED buildings in their jurisdictions. The document provides advice on how to promote and administer such projects.
Date: 2009
Creator: U.S. Green Building Council
Partner: UNT Libraries

Best Practices: Better Acquisition Outcomes Are Possible If DOD Can Apply Lessons from F/A-22 Program

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Over the next 5 years, DOD's overall investments are expected to average $150 billion a year to modernize and transition our forces. In addition, DOD must modernize its forces amid competing demands for federal funds, such as health care and homeland security. Therefore, it is critical that DOD manage its acquisitions in the most cost efficient and effective manner possible. DOD's newest acquisition policy emphasizes the use of evolutionary, knowledge-based concepts that have proven to produce more effective and efficient weapon systems outcomes. However, most DOD programs currently do not employ these practices and, as a result, experience cost increases, schedule delays, and poor product quality and reliability. This testimony compares the best practices for developing new products with the experiences of the F/A-22 program."
Date: April 11, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: DOD Can Achieve Better Outcomes by Standardizing the Way Manufacturing Risks Are Managed

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Cost growth and schedule delays are prevalent problems in acquiring defense weapon systems. Manufacturing systems has proven difficult, particularly as programs transition to production. In December 2008, the Department of Defense (DOD) issued an updated version of its acquisition policy that reflects earlier consideration of manufacturing risks. A joint defense and industry group developed manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) to support assessments of manufacturing risks. Use of MRLs on all weapon acquisition programs has been proposed. In response to a congressional request, this report assesses the manufacturing problems faced by DOD, how MRLs can address manufacturing problems, how MRLs compare to manufacturing best practices of leading commercial firms, and challenges and barriers to implementing MRLs at DOD. In conducting our work, we contacted DOD, military services, and contractors; held interviews with leading commercial firms; reviewed program documents and policy proposals; and spoke with manufacturing experts."
Date: April 22, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: High Levels of Knowledge at Key Points Differentiate Commercial Shipbuilding from Navy Shipbuilding

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Cost growth is a prevalent problem in Navy shipbuilding programs, particularly for the first ships in new classes. In response to a mandate in the conference report accompanying the Defense Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2008, GAO undertook this review to (1) identify key practices employed by leading commercial ship buyers and shipbuilders that ensure satisfactory cost, schedule, and ship performance; (2) determine the extent to which Navy shipbuilding programs employ these practices; and (3) evaluate how commercial and Navy business environments incentivize the use of best practices. To address these objectives, GAO visited leading commercial ship buyers and shipbuilders, reviewed its prior Navy work, and convened a panel of shipbuilding experts."
Date: May 13, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Using Spend Analysis to Help Agencies Take a More Strategic Approach to Procurement

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins ""Spend analysis" is a tool that provides knowledge about who are the buyers, who are the suppliers, how much is being spent for what goods and services, and where are the opportunities to leverage buying power. Private sector companies are using spend analysis as a foundation for employing a strategic approach to procurement. Recognizing the potential in government purchasing, GAO examined if the departments of Agriculture, Health and Human Services (HHS), Justice, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs are using spend analysis to take a strategic approach. GAO assessed (1) if agencies use spend analysis to obtain knowledge to improve procurement of goods and services and (2) how agencies' practices compare to leading companies best practices."
Date: September 16, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Stronger Practices Needed to Improve DOD Technology Transition Processes

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) relies on its science and technology community to develop innovative technologies for weapon systems, spending $13 billion on basic, applied, and advanced technology research. Several GAO reports have addressed problems in transitioning technologies to the acquisition community. This report, which was prepared under the Comptroller General's authority to conduct evaluations, compares DOD's technology transition processes with commercial best practices. Specifically, GAO identifies technology transition techniques used by leading companies and assesses the extent to which DOD uses the techniques"
Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Taking a Strategic Approach Could Improve DOD's Acquisition of Services

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO studied several leading companies in the private sector that have made dramatic changes to their process for acquiring services. GAO found that these changes generally began with a corporate decision to pursue a more strategic approach to acquiring services--from developing a better picture of what the company was actually spending on services to developing new ways of doing business. The Defense Department (DOD), the government's largest purchaser of services, already has some elements in place that are essential to such a strategic approach, such as a commitment by top management to adopting best practices. However, DOD has yet to conduct a comprehensive analysis of its spending on services or thoroughly assess it's current structure, processes, and roles. DOD's size, the range and complexity of the services that it acquires, the capacity of its information and financial systems, and the unique requirements of the federal government are among the factors that DOD will need to consider as it tailors a strategic approach to its diverse needs."
Date: January 18, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices: Better Matching of Needs and Resources Will Lead to Better Weapon System Outcomes

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report examines how best practices offer improvements to the way the Department of Defense defines and matches weapon system requirements to available resources such as cost, schedule, and mature technologies. GAO identified three factors that were key to matching needs and resources before product development began. First, developers employed the technique of systems engineering to identify gaps between resources and customer needs before committing to a new product development. Second, customers and developers were flexible. Leeway existed to reduce or defer customer needs to future programs or for the developer to make an investment to increase knowledge about a technology or design feature before beginning product development. Third, the roles and responsibilities of the customer and the product developer were matched, with the product developer being able to determine or significantly influence product requirements. In cases where these factors were not present at program launch, product development began without a match between requirements and resources. Invariably, this imbalance favored meeting customer needs by adding resources, which resulted in increased costs and later deliveries."
Date: March 8, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department