Search Results

Air Pollution: Implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO discussed the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments and on sources regulated by multiple provisions of the act, focusing on: (1) the status of EPA's implementation of requirements established by the 1990 amendments; (2) the views from the stakeholders--state governments, local programs, industries that are regulated under the act, and environmental advocacy groups--on the issues that either helped or hindered the implementation of the 1990 amendments; (3) examples of emission sources subject to regulation under more than one Clean Air Act program; and (4) the status of EPA's efforts to facilitate compliance for such sources."
Date: May 17, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Pollution: Meeting Future Electricity Demand Will Increase Emission of Some Harmful Substances

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Electric power plants burn fuels that can produce harmful emissions, such as carbon dioxide, mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, which can pose human health and environmental risks. To assess the potential risks of meeting future electricity demand, congressional committees asked GAO to (1) report on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) national and regional projections of such emissions by 2020, and (2) determine how the projections would change using alternative assumptions about future economic growth and other factors that advisers in these fields recommended. GAO also assessed the potential effects of future electricity demand on water demand and supply."
Date: October 30, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Pollution: Emissions from Older Electricity Generating Units

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Although fossil fuels--coal, natural gas, and oil--account for more than two thirds of the nation's electricity, generating units that burn these fuels are major sources of airborne emissions that pose health and environmental risks. To limit emissions and protect air quality, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from a variety of sources including electricity generating units that burn fossil fuels, other industrial sources, and automobiles. Older electricity generating units--those that began operating before 1972--emit 59 percent of the sulfur dioxide, 47 percent of the nitrogen oxides, and 42 percent of all electricity produced by fossil-fuel units. Units that began operating in or after 1972 are responsible for the remainder of the emissions and electricity production. For equal quantities of electricity generated, older units, in the aggregate, emitted twice as much sulfur dioxide and 25 percent more nitrogen oxides than newer units which must meet the new source standards for these substances. Older and newer units emitted about the same amount of carbon dioxide for equal quantities of electricity generated. Of the older units, those in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Southeast produced the majority of the emissions, and in disproportionate quantities for the amount of electricity they generated compared with units located in other parts of the country. Older units that burned coal released a disproportionate share of emissions for the electricity they produced compared with units burning natural gas and oil. Thirty-six percent of older units, in 2000, emitted sulfur dioxide at levels above the new source standards applicable to newer units, and 73 percent emitted nitrogen oxides at levels above the standards. These "additional" emissions--those above the standards for newer units--accounted for 34 percent of the sulfur dioxide and ...
Date: June 12, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Pollution: EPA's Actions to Resolve Concerns with the Fine Particulate Monitoring Program

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the National Academy of Sciences March 1998 report on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) plans to monitor particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), focusing on: (1) EPA's actions in response to the Academy's concerns with the planned PM2.5 monitoring program; and (2) the challenges that state and local agencies face in establishing and operating the PM2.5 monitoring program, as well as EPA's response to these challenges."
Date: August 12, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Pollution: EPA Should Improve Oversight of Emissions Reporting by Large Facilities

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performs limited oversight of states' processes for verifying the accuracy of large industrial facilities' emissions reports. EPA's data show that most emissions determinations from large sources are based on generic emissions factors. Although EPA allows facilities to estimate their emissions in this manner, EPA officials generally consider direct methods to be more reliable. The accuracy of these reports is important because they influence (1) the financing of states' regulatory programs through fees and (2) the development of emissions inventories, which, in turn, help regulators to develop control strategies and establish permit limits. Furthermore, steps taken to assess the accuracy of these reports, such as more thoroughly reviewing the supporting information, could improve compliance with Clean Air Act requirements. For example, a more thorough review of the information underlying a facility's emission reports, or a more systematic comparison of these reports over time, could identify increased emissions. Such indications could, in turn, trigger a review of compliance with new source review requirements, an area in which EPA found widespread noncompliance in four industries. In the four states that GAO reviewed, the states that had done the most detailed reviews found widespread inaccuracies. Although it is taking steps to improve its overall compliance monitoring strategy, EPA does not plan to evaluate states' processes for verifying emissions reports from large facilities."
Date: April 6, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Pollution: Air Quality and Respiratory Problems in and Near the Great Smoky Mountains

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Concerns have been growing about the air quality, visibility, and respiratory illnesses around the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which straddles the border between North Carolina and Tennessee. This testimony analyzes recent trends in and contributing factors to (1) visibility impairments, (2) ground-level ozone, and (3) respiratory illnesses. This testimony also examines the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) plans to reduce its emission of regulated pollutants. Visibility impairments and ozone are largely attributable to the following three types of emissions: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. The counties that border the park generally have slightly higher mortality rates from two types of respiratory illness. The three types of emissions interact in the atmosphere to form ozone gas and sulfate particles, which are linked to respiratory illnesses. In response to federal laws and other factors, TVA is making substantial environment-related investments and expects to reduce its annual emissions of sulfur dioxide by 36 percent and its "ozone-season" emissions of nitrogen oxides by 68 percent between 1999 and 2005. This testimony summarizes a May report, (GAO-01-658)."
Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Pollution Control Act

Description: This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) to control air pollution and protect the environment and human health.
Date: May 30, 2006
Creator: China (Republic : 1949- ). Huan jing bao hu shu
Partner: UNT Libraries

The American Way to the Kyoto Protocol: an Economic Analysis to Reduce Carbon Pollution. A Study for World Wildlife Fund

Description: This report presents a study of policies and measures that could dramatically reduce US greenhouse gas emissions over the next two decades. It examines a broad set of national policies to increase energy efficiency, accelerate the adoption of renewable energy technologies, and shift energy use to less carbon-intensive fuels. The policies address major areas of energy use in residential and commercial buildings, industrial facilities, transportation, and power generation.
Date: July 2001
Creator: Bailie, Alison; Bernow, Stephen; Dougherty, William; Lazarus, Michael & Kartha, Sivan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution: Relationship to North American Air Quality. A Review of Federal Resarch and Future Needs

Description: This government report describes pollutants which are carried between continents by air currents. The report also addresses current and future research to better understand how these pollutants are transported.
Date: April 2001
Creator: National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Air Quality Research Subcommittee.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Atmospheric Ammonia: Sources and Fate. A Review of Ongoing Federal Research and Future Needs

Description: This report provides a brief summary of the state of the current state of federal scientific research related to atmospheric ammonia, based on discussions from an October, 1999 meeting of the Air Quality Research Subcommittee of CENR.
Date: June 2000
Creator: National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Air Quality Research Subcommittee.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assembly Bill No. 32 CHAPTER 488

Description: California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006. This bill would require Air Resources Board (ARB) to adopt a statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit equivalent to the statewide greenhouse gas emissions levels in 1990 to be achieved by 2020. ARB shall adopt regulations to require the reporting and verification of statewide greenhouse gas emissions and to monitor and enforce compliance with this program. AB 32 directs Climate Action Team established by the Governor to coordinate the efforts set forth under Executive Order S-3-05 to continue its role in coordinating overall climate policy.
Date: September 2006
Creator: Secretary of State
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ozone

Description: In the stratosphere, ozone is created primarily by ultraviolet radiation. When high-energy ultraviolet rays strike ordinary oxygen molecules (O2), they split the molecule into two single oxygen atoms, known as atomic oxygen. A freed oxygen atom then combines with another oxygen molecule to form a molecule of ozone. There is so much oxygen in our atmosphere, that these high-energy ultraviolet rays are completely absorbed in the stratosphere.
Date: 2002
Creator: NASA Earth Observatory
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ozone

Description: Although it represents only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere, ozone is crucial for life on Earth. Depending on where ozone resides, it can protect or harm life on Earth.
Date: 2002
Creator: NASA Earth Observatory
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ozone

Description: The term "ozone depletion" means more than just the natural destruction of ozone, it means that ozone loss is exceeding ozone creation.
Date: 2002
Creator: NASA Earth Observatory
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Clean Air Act

Description: The United States Clean Air Act is legislation authorizing the Environmental Protection Agency to control air pollutiants on a national level.
Date: February 24, 2004
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ozone

Description: The amount and distribution of ozone molecules in the stratosphere varies greatly over the globe. Ozone molecules are transported around the stratosphere much as water clouds are transported in the troposphere. Therefore, scientists observing ozone fluctuations over just one spot could not know whether a change in local ozone levels meant an alteration in global ozone levels, or simply a fluctuation in the concentration over that particular spot. Satellites have given scientists the ability to overcome this problem because they provide a picture of what is happening daily over the entire Earth.
Date: 2002
Creator: NASA Earth Observatory
Partner: UNT Libraries

Carbon Monoxide from California Fires

Description: Large fires can be blamed for some polluted air. In addition to ash and smoke, fires release carbon monoxide into the atmosphere as they burn. This false-color image shows the atmospheric column of carbon monoxide, with yellow and red indicating high levels of pollution. (The gray areas show where no data were taken, likely due to cloud cover.) The data were taken by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite for the period October 26-31, 2003.
Date: November 4, 2003
Creator: NASA Earth Observatory
Partner: UNT Libraries