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Physiological aspects of flying.

Description: "The purpose of this manual is to endeavor to explain in everyday terms the various physical and physiological problems that arise during flying, and to give in detail the latest knowledge of proved solutions to these problems." (--Page 2.)
Date: September 25, 1943
Creator: United States. War Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airship aerodynamics.

Description: "This manual is designed as a text for the instruction of airship student pilots .... to give the knowledge of aerodynamics essential to the operation of [lighter than air aircraft]."(Page 2.)
Date: February 11, 1941
Creator: United States. War Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Loading and Strength of Cladding Glass

Description: Report issued by the National Bureau of Standards over studies conducted on glass cladding behavior under wind loads. Procedures for investigating cladding behavior are discussed. This report includes graphs, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Reed, Dorothy A. & Simiu, Emil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Airfoil Data

Description: Recent airfoil data for both flight and wind-tunnel tests have been collected and correlated insofar as possible. The flight data consist largely of drag measurements made by the wake-survey method. Most of the data on airfoil section characteristics were obtained in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel. Detail data necessary for the application of NACA 6-serles airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures, together with recent data for the NACA 24-, 44-, and 230-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6- and 7-series airfoils and their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Data and methods are given for rapidly obtaining the approximate pressure distributions for NACA four-digit, five-digit, 6-, and 7-series airfoils. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed. The data indicate that the effects of surface condition on the lift and drag characteristics are at least as large as the effects of the airfoil shape and must be considered in airfoil selection and the prediction of wing characteristics. Airfoils permitting extensive laminar flow, such as the NACA 6-series airfoils, have much lower drag coefficients at high speed and cruising lift coefficients than earlier types-of airfoils if, and only if, the wing surfaces are sufficiently smooth and fair. The NACA 6-series airfoils also have favorable critical-speed characteristics and do not appear to present unusual problems associated with the application of high-lift and lateral-control devices. Much of the data given in the NACA Advance Confidential Report entitled "Preliminary Low-Drag-Airfoil and Flap Data from Tests at Large Reynolds Number and Low Turbulence," by Eastman N. ...
Date: March 1, 1945
Creator: Stivers, Louis S.; Abbott, Ira H. & von Doenhoff, Albert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Wing and the Wing-Fuselage Combination of a Full-Scale Model of the Republic XP-91 Airplane in the Ames 40-by 80-Foot Wing Tunnel

Description: Wind-tunnel tests of a full-scale model of the Republic XP-91 airplane were conducted to determine the longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the wing alone and the wing-fuselage combination, the characteristics of the aileron, and the damping in roll af the wing alone. Various high-lift devices were investigated including trailing-edge split flaps and partial- and full-span leading-edge slats and Krueger-type nose flaps. Results of this investigation showed that a very significant gain in maximum lift could be achieved through use of the proper leading-edge device, The maximum lift coefficient of the model with split flaps and the original partial-span straight slats was only 1.2; whereas a value of approximately 1.8 was obtained by drooping the slat and extending it full span, Improvement in maximum lift of approximately the same amount resulted when a full-span nose flap was substituted for the original partial-span slat.
Date: June 10, 1948
Creator: Hunton, Lynn W. & Dew, Joseph K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Drag of a Lockheed F-94C Airplane (A.F. No. 50-956)

Description: The aerodynamic characteristics in pitch of an F-94C airplane, with the primary attention given to its drag characteristics, have been evaluated at low speed in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The increments of drag due to various surface irregularities, ports, and component parts of the production airplane were determined. Wing-wake surveys were taken to determine the section drag coefficients at midsemispan for the smooth and the production wing. Base-pressure and internal drags of the air-induction system were measured at low inlet-velocity ratios. The characteristics of the airplane in the landing configuration are also included.
Date: April 25, 1952
Creator: Maki, Ralph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Note on a Correlation of a Boundary-Layer Transition Results on Highly Cooled Blunt Bodies

Description: Transition data on highly cooled blunt bodies are correlated in terms of the ratio of wall to local-stream enthalpy, Reynolds number based on displacement thickness, and location of transition. The proposed correlation, although not sensitive enough to predict the exact location of transition does predict the enthalpy ratio below which very early transition on blunt bodies is expected. The correlation is not altered by moderate amounts of surface roughness; however, the location of transition may well be affected by roughness.
Date: October 14, 1957
Creator: Wisniewski, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Performance Data on Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator Operating on J34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

Description: The behavior of the Westinghouse electronic power regulator operating on a J34-WE-32 turbojet engine was investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The object of the program was to determine the, steady-state stability and transient characteristics of the engine under control at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios, without afterburning. Recordings of the response of the following parameters to step changes in power lever position throughout the available operating range of the engine were obtained; ram pressure ratio, compressor-discharge pressure, exhaust-nozzle area, engine speed, turbine-outlet temperature, fuel-valve position, jet thrust, air flow, turbine-discharge pressure, fuel flow, throttle position, and boost-pump pressure. Representative preliminary data showing the actual time response of these variables are presented. These data are presented in the form of reproductions of oscillographic traces.
Date: October 11, 1950
Creator: Ketchum, James R.; Blivas, Darnold & Pack, George J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine, 5, Combustion-Chamber Characterisitcs

Description: An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and corrected horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, overall total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horsepowers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horsepowers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.
Date: August 6, 1948
Creator: Geisenheyner, Robert M. & Berdysz, Joseph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turbulent Skin Friction at High Mach Numbers and Reynolds Numbers

Description: For a number of years now, experimenters have been making measurements of skin friction. Formerly, the main interest was at low Mach numbers; later, measurements were made at supersonic Mach numbers. However, almost all of these measurements were over a limited range of Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, these measurements fairly well determined the effects of Mach number and heat transfer on skin friction. The purpose of this paper is to give the results of skin-friction measurements in turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers where data have not previously existed. The equipment used was expressly designed to provide these conditions. As is well known, it is difficult to obtain high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers simultaneously with air in a wind tunnel. In order to avoid condensation, it is necessary to heat the air, with a resulting loss in density and Reynolds number. It is desirable, then, to use a gas that does not condense at high Mach numbers. This suggested helium, which was used as a working fluid in some of the tests. At high Mach numbers in a given wind tunnel, higher Reynolds numbers can be obtained with helium than with air, principally because no heating of the helium is required. The different ratios of specific heats also contribute to the increase. In using helium as a working fluid, it is, of course, necessary to determine the equivalence of air and helium in the turbulent boundary layer.
Date: July 24, 1958
Creator: Matting, Fred W. & Chapman, Dean R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary-Layer-Transition Measurements in Full-Scale Flight

Description: Chemical sublimation has been employed for boundary-layer-flow visualization on the wings of a supersonic fighter airplane in level flight at speeds near a Mach number of 2.0. The tests have shown that laminar flow can be obtained over extensive areas of the wing with practical wing-surface conditions. In addition to the flow visualization tests, a method of continuously monitoring the conditions of the boundary layer has been applied to flight testing, using heated temperature resistance gages installed in a Fiberglas "glove" installation on one wing. Tests were conducted at speeds from a Mach number of 1.2 to a Mach number of 2.0, at altitudes from 35,000 feet to 56,000 feet. Data obtained at all angles of attack, from near 0 deg to near 10 deg, have shown that the maximum transition Reynolds number on the upper surface of the wing varies from about 2.5 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 1.2 to about 4 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 2.0. On the lower surface, the maximum transition Reynolds number varies from about 2 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 1.2 to about 8 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 2.0.
Date: July 28, 1958
Creator: Banner, Richard D.; McTigue, John G. & Petty, Gilbert, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Design of Axial-Flow Compressors, Volume 2

Description: Available experimental two-dimensional-cascade data for conventional compressor blade sections are correlated. The two-dimensional cascade and some of the principal aerodynamic factors involved in its operation are first briefly described. Then the data are analyzed by examining the variation of cascade performance at a reference incidence angle in the region of minimum loss. Variations of reference incidence angle, total-pressure loss, and deviation angle with cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and Reynolds number are investigated. From the analysis and the correlations of the available data, rules and relations are evolved for the prediction of the magnitude of the reference total-pressure loss and the reference deviation and incidence angles for conventional blade profiles. These relations are developed in simplified forms readily applicable to compressor design procedures.
Date: August 1, 1956
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Characteristics at High and Low Subsonic Mach Numbers of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 Airfoil Sections at Angles of Attack from -2 Degrees to 30 Degrees

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel of the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 airfoil sections. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.3 to that for tunnel choke, at angles of attack from -2deg to 30deg, and with the surface. of each airfoil smooth-and with roughness applied at the leading edge.The Reynolds numbers of the tests ranged from 0.8 x 10(exp 6) to 4.4 x 10(exp 6). The results are presented as variations of lift, drag, and quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients with Mach number.
Date: 1954?
Creator: Critzos, Chris C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Characteristics at High Speeds of Full-Scale Propellers having Different Shank Designs

Description: Tests of two 10-foot-diameter two-blade propellers which differed only in shank design have been made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel. The propellers are designated by their blade design numbers, NACA 10-(5)(08)-03, which had aerodynamically efficient airfoil shank sections, and NACA l0-(5)(08)-03R which had thick cylindrical shank sections typical of conventiona1 blades, The propellers mere tested on a 2000-horsepower dynamometer through a range of blade-angles from 20deg to 55deg at various rotational speeds and at airspeeds up to 496 miles per hour. The resultant tip speeds obtained simulate actual flight conditions, and the variation of air-stream Mach number with advance ratio is within the range of full-scale constant-speed propeller operation. Both propellers were very efficient, the maximum envelope efficiency being approximately 0,95 for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller and about 5 percent less for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller. Based on constant power and rotational speed, the efficiency of the NACA 10-(05)(08)-03 propeller was from 2.8 to 12 percent higher than that of the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller over a range of airspeeds from 225 to 450 miles per hour. The loss in maximum efficiency at the design blade angle for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 and 10-(5)(08)-03R propellers vas about 22 and 25 percent, respectively, for an increase in helical tip Mach number from 0.70 to 1.14.
Date: February 13, 1947
Creator: Maynard, Julian D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Modified Koppers Aeromatic Impeller-Generator Combination, TED No. NACA ARR 2901

Description: An investigation was conducted in the 6- by 6-foot test section of the Langley stability tunnel on a modified Koppers Aeromatic wind-driven impeller-generator combination. This investigation consisted of a few fixed pitch tests and a series of variable pitch tests, The fixed pitch tests indicated that the impeller should operate between the blade-pitch angles of 20 and 32deg at the specified output of 11.7 kilowatts in order to remain within the specified rotational speed of from 5000 to 8000 rpm for airspeeds of from 130 to 175 miles per hour. The requirement that the impeller maintain rotational speeds of - between 5000 and 8000 rpm as the impeller output varied from 0 to ll.7 kilowatts at airspeeds of from 130 to 175 miles per hour was not met at any tims during the variable pitch tests. The main difficulty seemed to be the inability of the impeller blades to change blade-pitch angle smoothly and quickly as load conditions varied. There was some indication that the vibration normally occurring on an airplane might cause the impeller to operate satisfactorily.
Date: December 26, 1946
Creator: Queijo, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an 0.08-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel. Part V - Wing-Alone Tests and Effect of Modifications to the Vertical Fins, Speed Brakes, and Fuselage TED No. NACA DE308, Part V, Wing-Alone Tests and Effect of Modifications to the Vertical Fins, Speed Brakes, and Fuselage, TED No. NACA DE308

Description: Tests have been conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.91 to determine the stability and control characteristics of an 0.08-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane. The wing-alone tests and the effect of the various vertical-fin modifications, speed-brake modifications, and fuselage modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics in pitch and yaw are presented in the present paper with a limited analysis of the results. Also included are tuft studies of the flow for some of the modifications tested.
Date: October 10, 1947
Creator: Kuhri, Richard E. & Myers, Boyd C., II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Longitudinal Characteristics of a Semispan Model of the Grumman Airplane Design 83 having a Sweptback Wing and of the Model with a Straight Wing as Determined from Wing-Flow Tests at Transonic Speeds, TED No. NACA DE337

Description: An investigation has been made by the NACA wing-flow method to provide information on the relative longitudinal characteristics of a straight and sweptback wing in the transonic speed range. Tests were made of a semispan model of the Grumman airplane design 83 (XFlOF) incorporating a wing swept back 42.5deg with reference to quarter-chord line and also of the model with the swept wing replaced by a straight wing similar to that of the XF9F airplane. The airfoil sections were symmetrical 64l-series, with thickness ratios of 12 percent for the straight wing and 10 percent for the sweptback wing parallel to the stream direction. Measurements were made of normal force, chord force, and pitching moment at various angles of attack with the two wings both with and without the empennage, and with the fuselage alone. The tests covered a range of effective Mach numbers at the wing of the model from 0.65 to 1.10.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Silsby, Norman S. & Kennedy, Robert M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department