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Physiological aspects of flying.

Description: "The purpose of this manual is to endeavor to explain in everyday terms the various physical and physiological problems that arise during flying, and to give in detail the latest knowledge of proved solutions to these problems." (--Page 2.)
Date: September 25, 1943
Creator: United States. War Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airship aerodynamics.

Description: "This manual is designed as a text for the instruction of airship student pilots .... to give the knowledge of aerodynamics essential to the operation of [lighter than air aircraft]."(Page 2.)
Date: February 11, 1941
Creator: United States. War Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Loading and Strength of Cladding Glass

Description: Report issued by the National Bureau of Standards over studies conducted on glass cladding behavior under wind loads. Procedures for investigating cladding behavior are discussed. This report includes graphs, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Reed, Dorothy A. & Simiu, Emil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Wing and the Wing-Fuselage Combination of a Full-Scale Model of the Republic XP-91 Airplane in the Ames 40-by 80-Foot Wing Tunnel

Description: Wind-tunnel tests of a full-scale model of the Republic XP-91 airplane were conducted to determine the longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the wing alone and the wing-fuselage combination, the characteristics of the aileron, and the damping in roll af the wing alone. Various high-lift devices were investigated including trailing-edge split flaps and partial- and full-span leading-edge slats and Krueger-type nose flaps. Results of this investigation showed that a very significant gain in maximum lift could be achieved through use of the proper leading-edge device, The maximum lift coefficient of the model with split flaps and the original partial-span straight slats was only 1.2; whereas a value of approximately 1.8 was obtained by drooping the slat and extending it full span, Improvement in maximum lift of approximately the same amount resulted when a full-span nose flap was substituted for the original partial-span slat.
Date: June 10, 1948
Creator: Hunton, Lynn W. & Dew, Joseph K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Drag of a Lockheed F-94C Airplane (A.F. No. 50-956)

Description: The aerodynamic characteristics in pitch of an F-94C airplane, with the primary attention given to its drag characteristics, have been evaluated at low speed in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The increments of drag due to various surface irregularities, ports, and component parts of the production airplane were determined. Wing-wake surveys were taken to determine the section drag coefficients at midsemispan for the smooth and the production wing. Base-pressure and internal drags of the air-induction system were measured at low inlet-velocity ratios. The characteristics of the airplane in the landing configuration are also included.
Date: April 25, 1952
Creator: Maki, Ralph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Note on a Correlation of a Boundary-Layer Transition Results on Highly Cooled Blunt Bodies

Description: Transition data on highly cooled blunt bodies are correlated in terms of the ratio of wall to local-stream enthalpy, Reynolds number based on displacement thickness, and location of transition. The proposed correlation, although not sensitive enough to predict the exact location of transition does predict the enthalpy ratio below which very early transition on blunt bodies is expected. The correlation is not altered by moderate amounts of surface roughness; however, the location of transition may well be affected by roughness.
Date: October 14, 1957
Creator: Wisniewski, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Performance Data on Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator Operating on J34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

Description: The behavior of the Westinghouse electronic power regulator operating on a J34-WE-32 turbojet engine was investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The object of the program was to determine the, steady-state stability and transient characteristics of the engine under control at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios, without afterburning. Recordings of the response of the following parameters to step changes in power lever position throughout the available operating range of the engine were obtained; ram pressure ratio, compressor-discharge pressure, exhaust-nozzle area, engine speed, turbine-outlet temperature, fuel-valve position, jet thrust, air flow, turbine-discharge pressure, fuel flow, throttle position, and boost-pump pressure. Representative preliminary data showing the actual time response of these variables are presented. These data are presented in the form of reproductions of oscillographic traces.
Date: October 11, 1950
Creator: Ketchum, James R.; Blivas, Darnold & Pack, George J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine, 5, Combustion-Chamber Characterisitcs

Description: An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and corrected horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, overall total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horsepowers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horsepowers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.
Date: August 6, 1948
Creator: Geisenheyner, Robert M. & Berdysz, Joseph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turbulent Skin Friction at High Mach Numbers and Reynolds Numbers

Description: For a number of years now, experimenters have been making measurements of skin friction. Formerly, the main interest was at low Mach numbers; later, measurements were made at supersonic Mach numbers. However, almost all of these measurements were over a limited range of Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, these measurements fairly well determined the effects of Mach number and heat transfer on skin friction. The purpose of this paper is to give the results of skin-friction measurements in turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers where data have not previously existed. The equipment used was expressly designed to provide these conditions. As is well known, it is difficult to obtain high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers simultaneously with air in a wind tunnel. In order to avoid condensation, it is necessary to heat the air, with a resulting loss in density and Reynolds number. It is desirable, then, to use a gas that does not condense at high Mach numbers. This suggested helium, which was used as a working fluid in some of the tests. At high Mach numbers in a given wind tunnel, higher Reynolds numbers can be obtained with helium than with air, principally because no heating of the helium is required. The different ratios of specific heats also contribute to the increase. In using helium as a working fluid, it is, of course, necessary to determine the equivalence of air and helium in the turbulent boundary layer.
Date: July 24, 1958
Creator: Matting, Fred W. & Chapman, Dean R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary-Layer-Transition Measurements in Full-Scale Flight

Description: Chemical sublimation has been employed for boundary-layer-flow visualization on the wings of a supersonic fighter airplane in level flight at speeds near a Mach number of 2.0. The tests have shown that laminar flow can be obtained over extensive areas of the wing with practical wing-surface conditions. In addition to the flow visualization tests, a method of continuously monitoring the conditions of the boundary layer has been applied to flight testing, using heated temperature resistance gages installed in a Fiberglas "glove" installation on one wing. Tests were conducted at speeds from a Mach number of 1.2 to a Mach number of 2.0, at altitudes from 35,000 feet to 56,000 feet. Data obtained at all angles of attack, from near 0 deg to near 10 deg, have shown that the maximum transition Reynolds number on the upper surface of the wing varies from about 2.5 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 1.2 to about 4 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 2.0. On the lower surface, the maximum transition Reynolds number varies from about 2 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 1.2 to about 8 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 2.0.
Date: July 28, 1958
Creator: Banner, Richard D.; McTigue, John G. & Petty, Gilbert, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Characteristics at High and Low Subsonic Mach Numbers of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 Airfoil Sections at Angles of Attack from -2 Degrees to 30 Degrees

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel of the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 airfoil sections. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.3 to that for tunnel choke, at angles of attack from -2deg to 30deg, and with the surface. of each airfoil smooth-and with roughness applied at the leading edge.The Reynolds numbers of the tests ranged from 0.8 x 10(exp 6) to 4.4 x 10(exp 6). The results are presented as variations of lift, drag, and quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients with Mach number.
Date: 1954?
Creator: Critzos, Chris C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Characteristics at High Speeds of Full-Scale Propellers having Different Shank Designs

Description: Tests of two 10-foot-diameter two-blade propellers which differed only in shank design have been made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel. The propellers are designated by their blade design numbers, NACA 10-(5)(08)-03, which had aerodynamically efficient airfoil shank sections, and NACA l0-(5)(08)-03R which had thick cylindrical shank sections typical of conventiona1 blades, The propellers mere tested on a 2000-horsepower dynamometer through a range of blade-angles from 20deg to 55deg at various rotational speeds and at airspeeds up to 496 miles per hour. The resultant tip speeds obtained simulate actual flight conditions, and the variation of air-stream Mach number with advance ratio is within the range of full-scale constant-speed propeller operation. Both propellers were very efficient, the maximum envelope efficiency being approximately 0,95 for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller and about 5 percent less for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller. Based on constant power and rotational speed, the efficiency of the NACA 10-(05)(08)-03 propeller was from 2.8 to 12 percent higher than that of the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller over a range of airspeeds from 225 to 450 miles per hour. The loss in maximum efficiency at the design blade angle for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 and 10-(5)(08)-03R propellers vas about 22 and 25 percent, respectively, for an increase in helical tip Mach number from 0.70 to 1.14.
Date: February 13, 1947
Creator: Maynard, Julian D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Modified Koppers Aeromatic Impeller-Generator Combination, TED No. NACA ARR 2901

Description: An investigation was conducted in the 6- by 6-foot test section of the Langley stability tunnel on a modified Koppers Aeromatic wind-driven impeller-generator combination. This investigation consisted of a few fixed pitch tests and a series of variable pitch tests, The fixed pitch tests indicated that the impeller should operate between the blade-pitch angles of 20 and 32deg at the specified output of 11.7 kilowatts in order to remain within the specified rotational speed of from 5000 to 8000 rpm for airspeeds of from 130 to 175 miles per hour. The requirement that the impeller maintain rotational speeds of - between 5000 and 8000 rpm as the impeller output varied from 0 to ll.7 kilowatts at airspeeds of from 130 to 175 miles per hour was not met at any tims during the variable pitch tests. The main difficulty seemed to be the inability of the impeller blades to change blade-pitch angle smoothly and quickly as load conditions varied. There was some indication that the vibration normally occurring on an airplane might cause the impeller to operate satisfactorily.
Date: December 26, 1946
Creator: Queijo, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an 0.08-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel. Part V - Wing-Alone Tests and Effect of Modifications to the Vertical Fins, Speed Brakes, and Fuselage TED No. NACA DE308, Part V, Wing-Alone Tests and Effect of Modifications to the Vertical Fins, Speed Brakes, and Fuselage, TED No. NACA DE308

Description: Tests have been conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.91 to determine the stability and control characteristics of an 0.08-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane. The wing-alone tests and the effect of the various vertical-fin modifications, speed-brake modifications, and fuselage modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics in pitch and yaw are presented in the present paper with a limited analysis of the results. Also included are tuft studies of the flow for some of the modifications tested.
Date: October 10, 1947
Creator: Kuhri, Richard E. & Myers, Boyd C., II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Lift Drag of the Grumman F9F-9 Airplane as Obtained by a 1/7.5-Scale Rocket-Boosted Model and by Three 1/45.85-Scale Equivalent-Body Models between Mach Numbers of 0.8 and 1.3, TED No. NACA DE 391

Description: Low-lift drag data are presented herein for one 1/7.5-scale rocket-boosted model and three 1/45.85-scale equivalent-body models of the Grumman F9F-9 airplane, The data were obtained over a Reynolds number range of about 5 x 10(exp 6) to 10 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord for the rocket model and total body length for the equivalent-body models. The rocket-boosted model showed a drag rise of about 0,037 (based on included wing area) between the subsonic level and the peak supersonic drag coefficient at the maximum Mach number of this test. The base drag coefficient measured on this model varied from a value of -0,0015 in the subsonic range to a maximum of about 0.0020 at a Mach number of 1.28, Drag coefficients for the equivalent-body models varied from about 0.125 (based on body maximum area) in the subsonic range to about 0.300 at a Mach number of 1.25. Increasing the total fineness ratio by a small amount raised the drag-rise Mach number slightly.
Date: March 24, 1955
Creator: Stevens, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 0.04956-Scale Model of the Convair F-102A Airplane at Transonic Speeds

Description: Tests have been conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel on a 0.04956-scale model of the Convair F-102A airplane which employed an indented and extended fuselage, cambered wing leading edges, and deflected wing tips. Force and moment characteristics were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.135 at angles of attack up to 20 . In addition, tests were made over a limited angle-of-attack range to determine the effects of the cambered leading edges, deflected tips, and a nose section with a smooth area distribution. Fuselage modifications employed on the F-102A were responsible for a 25.percent reduction in the minimum drag-coefficient rise between the Mach numbers of 0.85 and 1.075 when compared with that for the earlier versions of the F-102. Although the wing modifications increased the F-102A subsonic minimum drag-coefficient level approximately 0.0020, they produced large decreases in drag at lifting conditions over that for the original (plane-wing) F-102. The F-102A had 15 to 25 percent higher maximum lift-drag ratios than did the original F-102. The F-102A had about 15 percent lower maximum lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers below 0.95 and slightly higher maximum lift-drag ratios at supersonic speeds when compared with those ratios for sn earlier modified-wing version of the F-102. Chordwise wing fences which provided suitable longitudinal stability for the original F-102 were not adequate for the cambered-wing F-102A The pitching-moment curves indicated a region of near neutral stability with possible pitch-up tendencies for the F-102A at high subsonic Mach numbers for lift coefficients between about 0.4 and 0.5.
Date: March 28, 1955
Creator: Tempelmeyer, Kenneth E. & Osborne, Robert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning Tunnel Tests of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA 2390

Description: A spin investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane, The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal-fighter condition. The investigation also included tests for the take-off fighter condition (wing-tip tanks plus fuel added) spin-recovery parachutes, and simulated pilot escape. In general, for the normal-fighter condition, the model was extremely oscillatory in roll, pitch, and yaw. The angles of the fuselage varied from extremely flat to inverted attitudes, and the model rotated with the rudder in a series of short turns and glides. Recoveries by rudder reversal were rapid but the model would immediately go into a spin in the other direction. Recoveries by merely neutralizing the rudder were satisfactory when the elevator and ailerons were set to neutral, the ensuing flight path being a steep glide. Thus, it is recommended that all controls be neutralized for safe recovery from spins obtained on the airplane. With the external wing-tip tanks installed, the spins were somewhat less oscillatory in roll but recovery could not be obtained unless full-down elevator was used in conjunction with the rudder. If a spin is entered inadvertently with the full-scale airplane with external wing-tip tanks installed and if recovery is not imminent after a recovery attempt is made, it is recommended that the tanks be jettisoned and the controls neutralized.
Date: November 5, 1946
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Speed Load Distribution of the Wing of a 3/16-Scale Model of the Douglas XSB2D-1 Airplane with Flaps Deflected

Description: The tests reported herein were made for the purpose of determining the high-speed load distribution on the wing of a 3/16 scale model of the Douglas XSB2D-1 airplane. Comparisons are made between the root bending moment and section torsional moment coefficients as obtained experimentally and derived analytically. The results show good correlation for the bending moment coefficients but considerable disagreement for the torsional moment coefficients, the measured moments being greater than the analytical moments. The effects of Mach number on both the bending moment and torsional moment coefficients were small.
Date: February 5, 1947
Creator: Barnes, Robert H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Lateral Control Characteristics of Plain Ailerons on a Wing with Various Amounts of Sweep

Description: A three-dimensional investigation of straight-sided-profile plain ailerons on a wing with 30 degrees and 45 degrees of sweepback and sweepforward was made in a high-speed wind tunnel for aileron deflections from -10 degrees to 10 degrees and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.96. Wing configurations of 30 degrees generally reduced the severity of the large changes in rolling-moment and aileron hinge-moment coefficients experienced by the upswept wing configurations as the result of compression shock and extended to higher Mach numbers the speeds at which such changes occurred.
Date: December 19, 1947
Creator: Luoma, Arvo A.; Bielat, Ralph P. & Whitcomb, Richard T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department