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Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Description: This report discusses the 2002 rule (the Clean Water Act), focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Date: January 23, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Date: April 10, 2014
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safeguarding the Nation's Drinking Water: EPA and Congressional Actions

Description: This report discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to increase drinking water security, Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, and EPA and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) water infrastructure security roles.
Date: June 2, 2008
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Water Trough]

Description: Photograph of water flowing down a handmade trough.
Date: 194u
Creator: Clark, Joe
Item Type: Photograph
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Date: April 8, 2015
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Date: February 6, 2015
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 1)

Description: This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98. The Frenchman Flat CAU is located along the eastern border of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and includes portions of Areas 5 and 11. The Frenchman Flat CAU constitutes one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site used for underground nuclear testing in the past. The nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity as well as downgradient of the underground test areas. The CAIP describes the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) to be conducted at the Frenchman Flat CAU to evaluate the extent of contamination in groundwater due to the underground nuclear testing. The Frenchman Flat CAI will be conducted by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project which is a part of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Project. The CAIP is a requirement of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996 ) agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Based on the general definition of a CAI from Section IV.14 of the FFACO, the purpose of the CAI is ''...to gather data sufficient to characterize the nature, extent, and rate of migration or potential rate of migration from releases or discharges of pollutants or contaminants and/or potential releases or discharges from corrective action units identified at the facilities...'' (FFACO, 1996). However, for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) CAUs, ''...the objective of the CAI process is to define boundaries around each UGTA CAU that establish areas that contain water that may be unsafe for domestic and municipal use.'', as stated in Appendix VI of the FFACO (1996). According to the UGTA strategy (Appendix VI of the FFACO), the ...
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: /NV, USDOE
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.

Description: The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: Peplow, Dan
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and Water Development: FY2011 Appropriations

Description: This report covers key budgetary issues involving the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill, which provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies.
Date: March 21, 2011
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA's Proposed Vessel General Permits: Background and Issues

Description: In November 2011 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed two Clean Water Act permits to regulate certain types of discharges from vessels into U.S. waters. This report is an overview of the proposed permits and two key issues: inclusion of numeric performance standards to limit ballast water discharges from vessels, and controversies about the role of states in regulating vessel discharges.
Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Great Lakes Water Withdrawals: Legal and Policy Issues

Description: This report describes the characteristics of the Great Lakes, the interests they support, and possible threats to lake levels. It analyzes the federal laws and policies that regulate the diversion, withdrawal, and consumptive use of water from the Great Lakes. Also included is a discussion of the final Compact and Agreement and some of the issues raised by various interest groups. This report concludes with a general discussion on the relationship between compacts, federal law, and the Congress.
Date: September 4, 2009
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Brougher, Cynthia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Description: This report discusses the 2002 rule (the Clean Water Act), focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Date: August 21, 2013
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act

Description: This report discusses the Clean Water Act that contains two different permitting regimes: (1) Section 402 permits (called the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, or NPDES, permit program) address the discharge of most pollutants, and (2) Section 404 permits address the discharge of dredged or fill material into navigable waters of the United States at specified sites. These permit programs differ in nature and approach.
Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSR): Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Date: April 10, 2009
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law

Description: This report presents a summary of the law, describing the essence of the statute without discussing its implementation. Other CRS products do discuss implementation, including CRS Report RL33800, Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation, and numerous products cited in that report.
Date: March 17, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Description: Report discussing specifics of the U.S. Clean Water Act. Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. For the most part, the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests.
Date: March 20, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations

Description: This report discusses the Energy and Water Development bill, which includes funding for civil works projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the Department of the Interior's Central Utah Project (CUP) and Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies, including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC).
Date: September 13, 2013
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Description: This report discusses the regulation of stormwater drainage. Stormwater discharge systems are the pipes and sewer lines that carry rainwater or snow melt, but not domestic sanitary wastes, away from urban areas and commercial and industrial facilities. For many years the focus of the nation's water quality programs was on controlling pollutants associated with industrial process wastewaters and municipal sewage discharges.
Date: May 27, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of transport process involved in FGD. Final technical report, September 1994--February 1996

Description: This report describes the work done in the fifth year of this project. The objectives of this five year plan of study were to experimentally obtain a basic understanding of (1) turbulent flow structure of the mixing zone and its influence on particle dispersion, (2) the effect of particle loading on turbulent properties and mixing, (3) the effect of jet entrainment, (4) water spray-sorbent interaction, sorbent wetting and mixing, (5) investigate the flow field where certain ratios of jet velocity to flue gas velocity result in regions of negative flow and define onset of negative flow, and (6) sorbent reactivity in immediate mixing zone. Some of the highlights for this period are: sorbent injection facility was modified by adding a heater so as to simulate the higher flue gas temperatures; spray cocurrent flow interaction tests were conducted at the higher temperatures; tests were conducted with particle laden jet to understand the cocurrent flow particle interactions and flow reversals; tests were conducted on two new swirl nozzles and the simple nozzle; test data indicated better mixing characteristics for the swirl nozzles; test results with simulated flue gas indicate substantial improvement, up to 140%, in sulfur capture by lime when swirl nozzle 1 is used over the results obtained for the simple nozzle.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Kadambi, J.R.; Yurteri, C. & Assar, M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Description: On May 3, 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) announced a regulation redefining two key terms, "fill material" and "discharge of fill material," in rules that implement Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. This report discusses the 2002 rule, focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

Description: This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and ...
Date: May 27, 1999
Creator: /A, N
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to biodegrade or biotransform hazardous organic contaminants to environmentally safe levels in soils, subsurface materials, water, sludges, and residues.. ...
Date: April 18, 2000
Creator: /A, N
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

Description: This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It ...
Date: March 31, 1998
Creator: Benemann, J.R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department