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Let the Dogs Bark: The Psychological War in Vietnam, 1960-1968

Description: Between 1960 and 1968 the United States conducted intensive psychological operations (PSYOP) in Vietnam. To date, no comprehensive study of the psychological war there has been conducted. This dissertation fills that void, describing the development of American PSYOP forces and their employment in Vietnam. By looking at the complex interplay of American, North Vietnamese, National Liberation Front (NLF) and South Vietnamese propaganda programs, a deeper understanding of these activities and the larger war emerges. The time period covered is important because it comprises the initial introduction of American PSYOP advisory forces and the transition to active participation in the war. It also allows enough time to determine the long-term effects of both the North Vietnamese/NLF and American/South Vietnamese programs. Ending with the 1968 Tet Offensive is fitting because it marks both a major change in the war and the establishment of the 4th Psychological Operations Group to manage the American PSYOP effort. This dissertation challenges the argument that the Northern/Viet Cong program was much more effective that the opposing one. Contrary to common perceptions, the North Vietnamese propaganda increasingly fell on deaf ears in the south by 1968. This study also provides support for understanding the Tet Offensive as a desperate gamble born out of knowledge the tide of war favored the Allies by mid-1967. The trend was solidly towards the government and the NLF increasingly depended on violence to maintain control. The American PSYOP forces went to Vietnam with little knowledge of the history and culture of Vietnam or experience conducting psychological operations in a counterinsurgency. As this dissertation demonstrates, despite these drawbacks, they had considerable success in the period covered. Although facing an experienced enemy in the psychological war, the U.S. forces made great strides in advising, innovating techniques, and developing equipment. I rely extensively on untapped sources ...
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Roberts, Mervyn Edwin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Humping it on their Backs: A Material Culture Examination of the Vietnam Veterans’ Experience as Told Through the Objects they Carried

Description: The materials of war, defined as what soldiers carry into battle and off the battlefield, have much to offer as a means of identifying and analyzing the culture of those combatants. The Vietnam War is extremely rich in culture when considered against the changing political and social climate of the United States during the 1960s and 70s. Determining the meaning of the materials carried by Vietnam War soldiers can help identify why a soldier is fighting, what the soldier’s fears are, explain certain actions or inactions in a given situation, or describe the values and moral beliefs that governed that soldier’s conduct. “Carry,” as a word, often refers to something physical that can be seen, touched, smelled, or heard, but there is also the mental material, which does not exist in the physical space, that soldiers collect in their experiences prior to, during, and after battle. War changes the individual soldier, and by analyzing what he or she took (both physical and mental), attempts at self-preservation or defense mechanisms to harden the body and mind from the harsh realities of war are revealed. In the same respect, what the soldiers brought home is also a means of preservation; preserving those memories of their experiences adds validity and meaning to their experiences. An approach employing aspects of psychology, sociology, and cultural theory demonstrates that any cookie-cutter answer or characterization of Vietnam veterans is unstable at best, and that a much more complex picture develops from a multidisciplinary analysis of the soldiers who fought the war in Vietnam.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Herman, Thomas Shannon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Oral History Interview with Robert J. Wehner, August 22, 1992

Description: Interview with Robert J. Wehner, an army veteran and nurse from Dayton, Ohio. This interview recounts his experiences as an Army nurse in Vietnam, 1968-70. Topics include: his assignment to 22nd Surgical Medical Battalion, Chu Lai; treatment of battle casualties and illnesses; camp life; treatment of civilian casualties and illnesses; lasting effects of Vietnam experience.
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Date: August 22, 1992
Creator: Houser, Cindy & Wehner, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Oral History Program

Oral History Interview with Larry S. Hilliard, April 18, 1992

Description: Interview with Larry S. Hilliard, army veteran and nurse from Kerens, Texas. This interview looks into his experiences as a nurse in Vietnam, 1970-71. Topics include: assignment to 18th surgical Hospital, Quang Tri; his typical workday; off-duty recreation; treatment of combat casualties; equipment and blood shortages; drug problems; morale; communications with his family; leave policies; work with Vietnamese civilians; treating enemy POWs; “short-time”; lasting effects of Vietnam experience.
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Date: April 18, 1992
Creator: Houser, Cindy & Hilliard, Larry S.
Partner: UNT Oral History Program

Oral History Interview with Oscar Houser, Jr., February 23, 1992

Description: Interview with Oscar Houser, Jr., an army veteran from Tennessee. This interview delves into his experiences as an Army nurse and anesthetist in Vietnam, 1972-73. Topics include: his decision to enter nurse training and the military; attending anesthesia school at William Beaumont Medical Center, 1972; his attitudes toward Vietnam War; being assigned to 95th Evacuation Hospital, China Beach, Vietnam; camp living conditions; work at Da Nang and Pleiku; the treatment of battle casualties; work with Montagnards and Vietnamese medical personnel; social life and recreational activities; morale and drug problems; personal relationships among camp personnel; communications with home; decision to stay in the military; and the effect on Vietnam experience on his later life.
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Date: February 23, 1992
Creator: Houser, Cindy & Houser, Oscar, Jr.
Partner: UNT Oral History Program

Oral History Interview with Tillman E. Barrington, May 22, 1992

Description: Interview with Tillman E. Barrington, a veteran army nurse from Portales, New Mexico. This interview is about his experiences as a nurse in Vietnam, 1969-70. Topics regarding his life include: nursing school at Lubbock Methodist Hospital, 1955; enlistment in the Army, 1969, and anesthesia training at Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, Colorado; assignment to Vietnam, 1969; 95th Evacuation Hospital, Da Nang; medical cases and responsibilities; functions as special services officer; treating North Vietnamese wounded; after-effects of Vietnam.
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Date: May 22, 1992
Creator: Houser, Cindy & Barrington, Tillman E.
Partner: UNT Oral History Program

Oral History Interview with John M. Evans, Jr., March 7, 1992

Description: Interview with John M. Evans, Jr., an army veteran and nurse from Berwick, Pennsylvania. Herein he recounts his experiences as a nurse in Vietnam, 1969-70. Included: his assignment to a convalescent center, Cam Ranh Bay; attack by enemy sapper team, August, 1969; morale and drug problems; living conditions; recreation; and readjustment to stateside life.
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Date: March 7, 1992
Creator: Houser, Cindy & Evans, John M., Jr.
Partner: UNT Oral History Program

Oral History Interview with Thomas E. Parr, January 6, 1993

Description: Interview with Thomas E. Parr, an army veteran from Adams, Wisconsin. This interview contains his experiences as an army nurse in Vietnam, 1971. Topics include psychiatric casualties at Long Binh and the heroin detoxification center at Cam Ranh Bay.
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Date: January 6, 1993
Creator: Houser, Cindy & Parr, Thomas E.
Partner: UNT Oral History Program

The Phantom Menace: the F-4 in Air Combat in Vietnam

Description: The F-4 Phantom II was the United States' primary air superiority fighter aircraft during the Vietnam War. This airplane epitomized American airpower doctrine during the early Cold War, which diminished the role of air-to-air combat and the air superiority mission. As a result, the F-4 struggled against the Soviet MiG fighters used by the North Vietnamese Air Force. By the end of the Rolling Thunder bombing campaign in 1968, the Phantom traded kills with MiGs at a nearly one-to-one ratio, the worst air combat performance in American history. The aircraft also regularly failed to protect American bombing formations from MiG attacks. A bombing halt from 1968 to 1972 provided a chance for American planners to evaluate their performance and make changes. The Navy began training pilots specifically for air combat, creating the Navy Fighter Weapons School known as "Top Gun" for this purpose. The Air Force instead focused on technological innovation and upgrades to their equipment. The resumption of bombing and air combat in the 1972 Linebacker campaigns proved that the Navy's training practices were effective, while the Air Force's technology changes were not, with kill ratios becoming worse. However, the last three months of the campaign introduced an American ground radar system that proved more effective than Top Gun in improving air-to-air combat performance. By the end of the Vietnam War, the Air Force and Navy overcame the inherent problems with the Phantom, which were mostly of their own making.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Hankins, Michael W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Understanding the Motivation of Vietnamese International Students and Their Higher Education Experiences in the United States

Description: This research describes what motivates Vietnamese students to come to the U.S. to study for a degree, what outcomes they expect, and what they experience academically and culturally while studying in the U.S. Currently the surge of international students from Vietnam has reached an all time high of 13,112 students to the U.S. This moves the relatively small South East Asian nation to the ranking of ninth among all nations for the number of international students sent to the U.S. in depth interviews were conducted fall semester 2011 with 11 students enrolled in two large public universities in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Denton Metro area. the participants were students from Vietnam holding J-1 or F-1 visas who were in their sophomore year or beyond. Interviews were conducted with these undergraduate and graduate students on the campus where each was enrolled. Interview transcripts were provided to participants for their review and comments. Ethnograph qualitative research software was used to analyze and code the data. These students reported that the increased number of students coming to study in the U.S. is because of the reputation of higher education in the U.S., relatives living in the U.S. who create a support system, and economic growth in Vietnam which has made education abroad more accessible. More students are coming to the U.S. for study because of the respect that these students families and friends have for the educational system and potential of opportunity that a U.S. degree brings. Meaningful relationships with other students provide a better and broader educational experience for Vietnamese international students. Vietnamese international students desire not only gainful employment from their degree but also a balanced growth experience that includes friendships, immersion in the culture, and being responsible members of the host society. These students made strategic use of the community college to ...
Date: May 2012
Creator: Miller, Randy Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries

Piracy on the Ground: How Informal Media Distribution and Access Influences Cultures in Contemporary Hanoi, Viet Nam

Description: This thesis explores how pirate cultures and “informal” distribution circuits operate on the ground level and integrate global media texts (mainly Hollywood films) into a small section of the local everyday society of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Situating the pirate stores and its components as active and central, this thesis will examine the physical flow of media through these store sites. In addition, by exploring the interactions between media texts, store owners and workers, customers, and the store’s design itself, this thesis will reveal how media piracy (as a form of distribution and “normal” access) influences and negotiates modernity, cultures, identities, and meanings in Hanoi and Viet Nam.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Tran, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

[News Clip: Art Protest]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6:00 P.M.
Date: June 13, 1997
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Viet reax pkg]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 5 P.M.
Date: 1995-07-uu
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections