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International decay data evaluation project

Description: Basic concepts of, and information from, radionuclide decay are used in many applications. The author limits this discussion to the data needed for applied {gamma}-ray spectrometry; this includes applications such as nuclide identification and quantitative assay. Many of these applications require a knowledge of half-lives and radiation energies and emission probabilities. For over 50 years, people have compiled and evaluated measured data with the goal of obtaining the best values of these quantities. This has resulted in numerous sets of recommended values, many of which still have scientific, historical, or national reasons for existing. These sets show varying degrees of agreement and disagreement in the quoted values and varying time lags in incorporating new and improved experimental results. A new informational international group has been formed to carry out evaluations for radionuclides of importance in applications; it is expected that the results will become an authoritative and widely accepted set of decay data.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Helmer, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

Description: The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Meagher, B.G. & Cole, L.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint UK/US Radar Program progress reports for period December 1--31, 1994

Description: Topics discussed in this report are current accomplishments in many functions to include: airborne RAR/SAR, radar data processor, ground based SAR signal processing workstation, static airborne radar, multi-aperture space-time array radar, radar field experiments, data analysis and detection theory, management, radar data analysis, modeling and analysis, current meter array, UCSB wave tank, stratified flow facility, Russian Institute of Applied Physics, and budget status.
Date: January 23, 1995
Creator: Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Rino, C.; Chambers, D.H.; Robey, H.F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint UK/US Radar Program progress reports for period January 1--31, 1995

Description: Our current objectives are to modify the Hughes x-band radar for airborne implementation, to upgrade it to polarimetry, high-power, and add SLAR mode, and then to deploy in UK/US field experiments as needed. We are on schedule and within budget on bringing the airborne (Hughes A-3) system for future SAR and eventually, SLAR imaging at low grazing angles. Hughes and LLNL continued work on system integration, radar hardware, and associated control hardware and software. The belly radome design modification previously completed is now being procured. The overall radar and testbed remains on schedule for engineering checkout in April 1995, pending the arrival of FY95 funds as expected.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Robey, H.F.; Mantrom, D.D.; Rino, C.; Chambers, D.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loch Linnhe `94: Test operations description and on-site analysis, US activities

Description: A field experiment named Loch Linnhe `94 (LL94) is described. This experiment was conducted in upper Loch Linnhe, Scotland, in September 1994, as an exercise involving UK and US investigators, under the Joint UK/US Radar Ocean Imaging Program. This experiment involved a dual-frequency, dual-polarization hillside real aperture radar operated by the UK, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) current meter array (CMA), in-water hydrodynamic sensors, and meteorological measurements. The primary measurements involved imaging ship-generated and ambient internal waves by the radar and the CMA. This report documents test operations from a US perspective and presents on-site analysis results derived by US investigators. The rationale underlying complementary radar and CMA measurements is described. Descriptions of the test site, platforms, and major US instrument systems are given. A summary of test operations and examples of radar, CMA, water column profile, and meteorological data are provided. A description of the rather extensive analysis of these data performed at the LL94 test site is presented. The products of this analysis are presented and some implications for further analysis and future experiments are discussed. All experimental objectives were either fully or partially met. Powerful on-site analysis capabilities generated many useful products and helped improve subsequent data collection. Significant further data analysis is planned.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Mantrom, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loch Linnhe experiment 1994: Background stratification and shear measurements. Part 1: Profile summary and dispersion relations

Description: This report documents water column measurements made during the 1994 Loch Linnhe experiment, a joint US/UK radar ocean imaging experiment. Part 1 summarizes the profiles of temperature, salinity, density, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and horizontal currents resolved into along and cross track directions. Internal wave dispersion relations, phase and group velocities, and eigenfunctions for modes 1 and 2 are computed for each profile. The effect of depth on these derived internal wave parameters is examined as well by computing eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for two different depths. The trials were conducted in Loch Linnhe, Scotland during the period from September 4, 1994 to September 17, 1994. The measurements reported herein were made from on board the R. V. Calanus, a research vessel operated by the Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory (DML). The Calanus was moored approximately 125 meters from the track of the wake generating ship, either the R. V. Colonel Templer or a {open_quotes}Dog{close_quotes} class tug, the Collie. The depth at the mooring location was approximately 45 meters, while the depth at the closest point along the ship track was approximately 80 meters. For further details of the experiment, one is referred to the Loch Linnhe Experiment 1994: Trial Plan, Draft Version 3.0.
Date: October 10, 1994
Creator: Robey, H.F. & Ravizza, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress reports for October 1994 -- Joint UK/US Radar Program

Description: This report gives the principle investigator, objectives, recent accomplishments, milestones for reporting period, expected milestones for ensuing period, other issues and planned expenditures for each of the following programs: airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; multi-aperture space-time array radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; management; E-2C radar data analysis; modeling and analysis; current meter array; UCSB wave tank; stratified flow facility; and IR sensor system. Finally the budget status is given.
Date: November 18, 1994
Creator: Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Chambers, D.H. & Robey, H.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress reports for period November 1--30, 1994 -- Joint UK/US Radar Program

Description: This report gives the principle investigator, objectives, recent accomplishments, milestones for reporting period, expected milestones for ensuing period, other issues and planned expenditures for the following programs: airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; multi-aperture space-time array radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; management; E-2C radar data analysis;modeling and analysis; current meter array; UCSB wave tank; stratified flow facility; and IR sensor system. Budget status is also given.
Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Chambers, D.H. & Robey, H.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASAP progress and expenditure report for the month of February 1--29, 1996

Description: This is the ASAP progress and expenditure report for the month of February, 1996. The individual projects` report includes the sponsoring organization, the project identification, the principal investigator, long term objectives, short term objectives, accomplishments this reporting period, identification of issues or concerns, project budget estimate for the fiscal year, and monthly actual and year to date expenditures. The research project concerns a joint US/UK program to develop a high-priority radar system based on real aperture and synthetic aperature radar. Topics being researched include airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; program management; modeling and analysis; UCSB wave tank; stratified wave tank; and experiments in a thermo-stratified tank at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia.
Date: March 20, 1996
Creator: Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Chambers, D.H.; Mantrom, D.M.; Miller, M.G.; Newman, M.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

Description: Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Maaranen, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US/UK actinides experiment at the Dounreay PFR. 1: Fission products

Description: The US and the United Kingdom have been engaged in a joint research program in which samples of higher actinides were irradiated in the 600-MW Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor in Scotland. Analytical results using mass spectrometry and radiometry for actinides and fission products are now available for the samples in Fuel Pins 1 and 2 which were irradiated for 63 full-power days and for the samples in Fuel Pin 4 which were irradiated for 492 full-power days. Results from these three fuel pins are providing estimates of integral cross sections and fission yields.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Raman, S. & Murphy, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The US/UK Actinides Experiment at the Dounreay PFR

Description: The United States and the United Kingdom have been engaged in a joint research program in which samples of higher actinides were irradiated in the 600-MW Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor in Scotland. Analytical results using mass spectrometry and radiometry for actinides and fission products are now available for the samples in Fuel Pins 1 and 2, which were irradiated for 63 full-power days, and for the samples in Fuel Pin 4, which were irradiated for 492 full-power days. Results from these three fuel pins are providing estimates of integral cross sections and fission yields.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Raman, S., Walker, R.L., Dickens, J.K., Murphy, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

Description: This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.
Date: February 24, 2003
Creator: Dalton, John & McCall, Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical results of physics specimens and dosimeters in fuel pins, 1, 2, and 4 irradiated in the Dounreay prototype fast reactor

Description: The United States and the United Kingdom have been engaged in a joint research program in which samples of higher actinides were irradiated in the 600-MW Dounreay prototype fast reactor in Scotland. Three separate fuel pins (FPs) were prepared and irradiated. The actinides in FP-1 and FP-2 were irradiated for 63 full power days (FPD). The irradiation of FP-4 was carried out over a longer period (492 FPD) and should provide the best estimate for cross-section and fission-yield measurements made to date. This report presents the analytical results using mass spectrometry and radiometry for the actinides and the primary activation products for the three FPs. This report also details the fission-product yield measurements for samples of FP-4 by gamma-ray assay techniques with selected results from similar measurements previously obtained for FP-1 and FP-2 samples.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Walker, R.L.; Botts, J.L.; Hydzik, R.J.; Keller, J.M.; Dickens, J.K. & Raman, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

Description: In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B. & Santo Domingo, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis

Description: We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.
Date: April 22, 2004
Creator: Novakov, T. & Hansen, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

Description: Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, ...
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Energy Nexus Group, . .
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

Description: The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.
Date: September 19, 1999
Creator: Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P. & Monahan, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

Description: This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the ninth reporting period (September 27--December 31, 1999), EER prepared a paper Kinetic Model of Biomass Reburning and submitted it for publication and presentation at the 28th Symposium (International) on Combustion, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, July 30--August 4, 2000. Antares Group Inc, under contract to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, evaluated the economic feasibility of biomass reburning options for Dunkirk Station. A preliminary report is included in this quarterly report.
Date: January 28, 2000
Creator: Zamansky, Vladimir; Lindsey, Chris & Lissianski, Vitali
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

Description: With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own refrigeration unit; low-charge direct expansion--similar to conventional multiplex refrigeration systems but with improved controls to limit charge. Means to integrate store HVAC systems for space heating/cooling with the ...
Date: May 19, 2003
Creator: Baxter, VAN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface void detection using seismic tomographic imaging

Description: Tomographic imaging has been widely used in scientific and medical fields to remotely image media in a nondestructive way. This paper introduces a spectrum of seismic imaging applications to detect and characterize voids in coal mines. The application of seismic waves to detect changes in coal relies on two types of waves: body waves refracted along the interface between coal and bedrock (i.e., refracted P-waves) and channel waves that propagate directly through the coal (dispersive wave trains of the Rayleigh or Love type). For example, a P-wave tomography study to find underlying old mine workings in a coal mine in England, produced velocity patterns that revealed increases in velocity where high stress concentrations occur in the rock, which are most likely connected to old pillars left in support of the old working areas. At the same time, low velocities were found in areas of low stress concentrations, which are related to roof collapses indicating the locations of mined areas below. The application of channel wave tomography to directly image the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2} in a low velocity oil reservoir showed that the injected CO{sub 2} followed an ancient flow channel in the reservoir migrating from the injector to the producer well. The study showed how channel waves are preferable over refracted P-waves, as the latter were only marginally affected by the presence of the gas in the low-velocity channel. Similar approaches show great promise for the detection of voids in coal mines. Finally, a newly developed technique, based on scattering theory, revealed that the location and the size of a subsurface cavity could be accurately determined even in the presence of strong correlated and uncorrelated noise.
Date: June 26, 2003
Creator: Gritto, Roland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International nuclear waste management fact book

Description: The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Abrahms, C. W.; Patridge, M. D. & Widrig, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department