Search Results

Use of Phillips's five level training evaluation and ROI framework in the U.S. nonprofit sector.

Description: This study examined training evaluation practices in U.S. nonprofit sector organizations. It offered a framework for evaluating employee training in the nonprofit sector and suggested solutions to overcome the barriers to evaluation. A mail survey was sent to 879 individuals who were members of, or had expressed an interest in, the American Society for Training and Development. The membership list consisted of individuals who indicated association/nonprofit or interfaith as an area of interest. Data from the survey show that training in the nonprofit sector is evaluated primarily at Level 1 (reaction) and Level 2 (learning). It also shows decreasing use from Level 3 (application) through Level 5 (ROI). Reaction questionnaires are the primary method for collecting Level 1 data. Facilitator assessment and self-assessment were listed as the primary method for evaluating Level 2. A significant mean rank difference was found between Level 2 (learning) and the existence of an evaluation policy. Spearman rho correlation revealed a statistically significant relationship between Level 4 (results) and the reasons training programs are offered. The Kruskal-Wallis H test revealed a statistically significant mean rank difference between "academic preparation" of managers with Level 3 evaluation. The Mann-Whitney U test was used post hoc and revealed that master's degree had a higher mean rank compared to bachelor's degree and doctorate. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that there were statistically significant mean rank differences on Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, and Level 5 evaluation use with the barriers "little perceived value to the organization," "lack of training or experience using this form of evaluation," and "not required by the organization." Research findings are consistent with previous research conducted in the public sector, business and industry, healthcare, and finance. Nonprofit sector organizations evaluate primarily at Level 1 and Level 2. The existence of a written policy increases ...
Date: August 2007
Creator: Brewer, Travis K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Photophysical properties of pyrene, 2,7 diazapyrene and 1,3-bis(β-naphthyl)propane.

Description: The luminescence properties of Van Der Waals' dimers and clusters of pyrene and diazapyrene have been investigated. Excimers, dimeric species which are associative in an excited electronic state and dissociative in their ground state, have long been established and play an important role in many areas of photochemistry. My work here focuses on the luminescence and absorption properties of ground state dimers/aggregates, which are less understood, and allows further characterization of the ground state and excited state association of these aromatic molecules.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Boateng, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis, characterization and properties of rigid macromolecules with extended conjugation, using palladium-catalyzed alkynylated polyhaloarenes.

Description: A synthetic approach to macromolecules of acetylenic arrays and luminescent properties is proposed and the execution of initial steps is described. Palladium-catalyzed coupling of 1,3,5-triiodobenzene with trimethylsilylbuta-1,3-diyne, trimethylsilylocta-1,3,5,7-tetrayne, and trimethylsilylhexadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15-octayne to yield the new 1,3,5-tris(trimethylsilylbuta-1,3-diynyl)benzene and the proposed 1,3,5-tris(8-(trimethylsilyl)octa-1,3,5,7-tetraynyl)benzene and 1,3,5-tris(trimethylsilyl)hexadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15-octaynyl)benzene respectively. The proposed three-coordinate Au (I) complexed macromolecules will be derived from the metallation of the aforementioned alkynylated arenes.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Akintomide, Temiloluwa
Partner: UNT Libraries

ANTI Preference of the Pyramidalized Radical Center to the Two Fluorines in Difluoro Cyclic Compounds.

Description: An extensive study of disubstituted cycloalkanes like CnH2n where n=3,4,5 and 6 using DFT((U)B3LYP/6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(2df,2p)) calculations is presented focusing on the effect of pyramidalization of the radical center. A potential energy surface (PES) analysis shows that the radical prefers to pyramidalize anti to the two cis fluorines in the disubstituted cycloalkanes. The degree of pyramidalization for 1,2-difluorocyclopropyl radical is 43.9o away from the cis fluorines whereas for 1,3-difluorocyclobutyl radical, 1,3-difluorocyclopentyl radical and 1,3-difluorocyclohexyl radical is 3.8o, 5.4o and 14.5o respectively away from the cis fluorines. The importance of this pyramidality effect in these compounds is discussed in context with the carbon-hydrogen bond dissociation energies (BDE's) because the preference of the radical centers to pyramidalize anti to the fluorines affects the bond dissociation energy. Importance of steric effect and unfavorable electronic interactions have been extensively explored in planar permethylated cyclobutadiene (Me4CBD) and cyclooctatetraene (Me8COT) using ((U)B3LYP/6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(2df,2p)) calculations. It is thought that steric interactions dominate electronic interactions in Me8COT, while this works opposite in case of Me4CBT. Instead, in Me4CBD the number of unfavorable electronic interactions between π bonds and out-of-plane hydrogens plays the dominant role in determining the relative energies. Interactions between the π bonds of CBD and the out-of-plane hydrogens on carbons attached to the four-membered ring becomes very interesting when the ring size changes. With ethano bridge on the cyclobutadiene ring interaction with the diagonal bonds results in non-bonding AOs across the other diagonal having the opposite phase in the highest occupied (HO)MO. If the HOMO and LUMO are switched, bis-ethano-bridged tetrahedrane is formed. It is suggested that bis-ethano-bridged tetrahedrane is thermodynamically more stable than bis-ethano-bridged cyclobutadienes. While the reverse is true for unsubstituted cyclobutadienes. The ability of ethano bridges to reverse the usual order is because it causes the doubly-bonded carbons to pyramidalize.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Tanna, Jigisha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sexual and Nonsexual Boundary Violations Between Sport Psychology Professionals and Their Client-athletes

Description: Sexual attraction (SA), as well as sexual (SBVs) and nonsexual boundary violations (NSBVs), have been identified as matters of ethical concern, being viewed as harmful within mental health or counseling relationships. Much of the literature in the area of SA and SBVs has focused on the counselor-client relationship, but it has been investigated only minimally in the field of sport psychology and specifically with regard to sport psychology professionals (SPPs). Because SA, SBVs, and NSBVs between SPPs and their client-athletes seem to be potentially problematic concerns in need of empirical investigation and practical scrutiny, the aim of this study was to examine: (a) the incidence of SBV and NSBV beliefs and behaviors among SPPs; (b) SPPs' feelings regarding SA for and from client-athletes; and (c) SPPs' willingness to seek supervision to manage their SA beliefs and behaviors towards client-athletes. SPPs (n = 365) completed the Survey of Applied Sport Psychologists (SASP) via e-mail or regular mail. As expected, SPPs experienced SA (40.6%) and generally did not experience strong feelings as a result of the SA. However, of the SPPs experiencing SA, 13.5% of males and 13.8% of females engaged in a SBV with a client-athlete. NSBV behaviors and beliefs are also reported. Chi-squared analyses revealed male SPPs engaged in nonsexual touching with their client-athletes more frequently than female SPPs. T-tests suggested ethically trained SPPs were more likely to seek supervision as a result of SA and view certain NSBVs as good professional behavior in comparison to non-ethically trained SPPs. Appropriate supervision and ethical training for SPPs experiencing SA could be helpful in the management of potential future SBV or NSBV behaviors. Implications for SPPs working with athletes, limitations of the present study, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Moles, Troy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Longitudinal Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes

Description: Female collegiate athletes have been established as a high-risk group for the development of eating disorders due to the high prevalence rates of clinical and subclinical eating disorders, which have ranged from 1.9% to 16.6% and 4.0% to 26.1%, respectively. Collegiate athletes appear to meet criteria for ED-NOS more often than anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and frequently engage in pathogenic weight control behaviors (e.g., dieting, excessive exercise). To date, only a few studies have examined the long-term stability of eating disorders in collegiate female athletes. The current study investigated the prevalence of eating disorders (i.e., eating disordered, symptomatic, and asymptomatic) and pathogenic weight control behaviors (e.g, binging, vomiting, laxative use) in 325 NCAA-DI female collegiate gymnasts and swimmers/divers across two time points – the beginning of their competitive seasons (Time 1) and during the final two weeks of their competitive seasons (Time 2). By Time 2, 90% of the athletes classified as eating disordered at Time 1 (n = 20) maintained clinical or subclinical eating disturbances. Of the 83 athletes originally symptomatic, 37.3% remained so and 10.8% became eating disordered. Significantly more athletes became satisfied with their bodies over the course of the season than became dissatisfied. The athletes reported using exercise and dieting/fasting as the most frequent forms of weight control behaviors, each of which were used less frequently at Time 2 than at Time 1. The results support overall stability of eating disorder behaviors and classification over the course of a competitive season. Limitations and implications are discussed.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Thompson, Alexandra J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Examining High School Coaches’ Likelihood to Refer To, Interest in Working With, and Plans to Hire a Sport Psychologist

Description: The primary goal of the current study was to extend previous research suggesting that coaches are the primary gatekeepers who may be a barrier to working with athletes by examining high school coaches likelihood to refer to, interest in, and intention to hire a sport psychologist. Specifically, the current study examined relationships between high school coaches’ sex, age, and type of sport coached (i.e., contact vs. non-contact) and their likelihood to refer athletes to a sport psychologist for a variety of presenting issues (i.e., poor attentional focus, poor leadership, family issues, etc.). It also examined relationships between coaches’ sex, age, and type of sport coached (i.e., contact vs. non-contact) and their interest in working with a sport psychologist. Finally, the study examined reasons why coaches did not plan to hire a sport psychologist. An examination of the possible reasons that high school coaches do not plan to hire a sport psychologist served an exploratory purpose. Participants included 450 coaches who coached high school sports in the United States. Results indicated that female coaches and non-contact sport coaches were more likely to refer athletes to a sport psychologist for a variety of referral issues than male coaches and coaches of contact sports. Similarly, significantly more female coaches and non-contact sport coaches showed interest in working with a sport psychologist than male coaches and coaches of contact sports. Coaches who did not plan to hire a sport psychologist reported that cost, lack authority to hire, and lack of availability as primary reasons. Implications of the findings, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Austin, Harlan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Pathogenic Weight Control Behaviors Among Male Collegiate Athletes

Description: Training in sport environments that emphasize leanness and muscularity may damage athletes' body image and negatively influence male athletes' eating behaviors and attitudes. The Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis and the Bulimia Test – Revised were completed anonymously online by 732 male intercollegiate athletes. Most male collegiate athletes were classified as asymptomatic (82.9%), followed by symptomatic (16%) and eating disordered (1.1%). The most common forms pathogenic behaviors were excessive exercise (51.6%), binge eating (21.4%), and dieting or fasting (20.5%). Results suggested that athletes who participate in weight class sports are at higher risk for developing these behaviors than endurance sport or ball game athletes. Counseling and other implications for professionals working with athletes are discussed.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Chatterton, Justine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mental Toughness: An Analysis of Sex, Race, and Mood

Description: Mental toughness has become a focus for researchers as coaches, athletes, and others extol its influence in performance success. In this study I examined mental toughness among collegiate athletes, focusing on its potential relationship to different demographic variables and to the athletes’ mood. Two hundred seventy-two student-athletes representing 12 different sports from a southwestern NCAA Division I university, participated by completing the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ), the Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM), and providing demographic information. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) assessed differences in mental toughness scores by sex, race, scholarship status, and starting status. Significant differences in mental toughness emerged between Black – White, male – female, and full – partial – zero scholarship athletes. Pearson correlations showed mental toughness was significantly related to lower levels of anxiety, sadness, anger, confusion, fatigue, and total mood disturbance, and higher levels of vigor.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Beck, Nicholas M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality Correlates of Anorexia Nervosa in a Nonclinical Sample

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between anorexia nervosa and several personality traits. Past research in this area has been contradictory for several reasons. Sociocultural theories have described the media's role in promoting eating disorders by portraying a thin body-type as the ideal. However, they have neglected to describe the personality ideal which our society promotes in women. It is proposed here that anorexics incorporate and oppose this ideal. Therefore, the anorexic personality is one filled with conflict.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Rogers, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Lynn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Parental Conflict on Late Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Support

Description: The question addressed in this study is whether either parent's conflict style affected the supportive quality of the parents' relationship with the son or daughter. It was important to explore variables that affect support because supportive relationships with parents have been related to adolescent adjustment. Past studies have suggested parental conflict has a negative impact on the parent-adolescent relationship. Research in the area of mediators of perceived support in the parent-adolescent relationships is limited. This study focused on perceived support in the specific relationship of the parent and adolescent. Qualitative measures of conflict were used since they have been more strongly related to changes in parent-adolescent relationships than quantitative measures. In this study the supportive quality of the parent-adolescent relationship was operationalized as a measure of parental support, depth of the parent-adolescent relationship, and conflict in the parent-adolescent relationship (Quality of Relationship Inventory).
Date: August 1998
Creator: Flint, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries

A model for the development of disordered eating among lesbians

Description: It has only been in recent years that eating disorder researchers have begun focusing on sexual orientation as a variable that may affect prevalence rates. Heeding the call for studies that extend beyond identification of fixed eating disorder risk factors (e.g., gender), this study was designed to explore factors that contribute to the development of disordered eating among lesbians. In this study, a hypothesized Lesbian Model of Disordered Eating was tested using structural equation modeling. Lesbian Sexual Identity and Social Supports were hypothesized to positively influence Psychological Health. In addition, Internalization of U.S. Societal Norms of beauty and attractiveness was hypothesized to negatively affect Psychological Health. Psychological Health, in turn, was hypothesized to negatively influence Body Image Concerns. Body Image Concerns was then hypothesized to positively affect Disordered Eating. The fit of the model was evaluated and one of the hypothesized pathways, Internalization of Norms was moved to directly predict Body Image Concerns. After adjusting the model, the model accounted for 54% of the variance in disordered eating. Most notably, the results highlight the potential affects of adopting a positive lesbian identity on disordered eating and underscore the importance of including sexual identity as a demographic variable in studies of body image and disordered eating. Implications for counseling and directions for future research are discussed.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Joshua, Michelle D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Longitudinal Investigation of Different Exercise Modalities on Social Physique Anxiety

Description: The current study examined if students' levels of social physique anxiety vary depending on the type of exercise setting they select. The study determined the degree to which social physique anxiety changed over the course of semester-long involvements in different exercise settings.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Diehl, Nancy S. (Nancy Sue)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological correlates of eating disorders: Exploring the continuum perspective.

Description: Psychological and behavioral characteristics of female undergraduates with varying levels of disordered eating, as measured by the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD; Mintz, O'Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997), were investigated. Results suggest that the Q-EDD is an appropriate instrument for measuring eating disorder symptomatology. Greater disordered eating was associated with more bulimic, dieting, and weight fluctuation symptoms, higher impression management and approval-seeking needs, more dichotomous thinking, self control, and rigid weight regulation, and increased concern with body shape and dissatisfaction with facial features. Eating-disordered and symptomatic women evidenced more severe eating disorder behaviors and psychological distress than asymptomatic women. Findings are congruent with a redefined discontinuity perspective of eating disorder symptomatology. Treatment implications and campus-wide preventions are suggested.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Cohen, Diane L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Multiple Predictors of College Adjustment and Academic Performance for Undergraduates in Their First Semester

Description: College success, as defined by adjustment to college and academic performance, is a multidetermined with a number of contributing influences, including academic factors, personality variables, family characteristics, and environmental factors. This study attempted to provide an organizing model of the college success literature that was based on previous research (e.g., Aspinwall & Taylor, 1994) and current stress-coping theory (Moos & Swindle, 1990). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the hypothesized model did not fit the data well. However, subsequent regression analyses did validate the view that college success is multidetermined. Specifically, academic performance was predicted by a combination of academic factors (SAT score and class rank) and academic adjustment. In turn, academic adjustment was predicted by locus of control, perceived social support, and high school class rank. Personal adjustment was predicted by coping strategies employed, parents who fostered autonomy, locus of control, self-esteem, and high school class rank. Finally, social adjustment was predicted by optimism, coping strategies employed, and locus of control. Treatment implications as well as directions for future research were discussed.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Stoever, Shawn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating

Description: This study explored the relationship between cheating among university students and their cognitive developmental levels, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating. The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) The relationships between academic dishonesty and each of the following overall independent variables: cognitive development, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating, and (2) the reasons behind college student academic cheating behaviors. The study used data from anonymous, self-report surveys administered to undergraduate students in-class and at supplemental sessions. Student participation was voluntary. The study was correlational. The five hypotheses were: (1) Self-concept is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (2) Cognitive development is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (3) Attitude toward cheating is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (4) The use of neutralization techniques is significantly and positively related to academic dishonesty; (5) Cognitive development, self-concept, and attitude toward cheating will make significant contributions to the regression model for the dependent variables of academic dishonesty. The data supported the first, third, and fourth hypotheses. However, the second and fifth hypotheses were supported under certain conditions. The roles of cognitive development and self-concept in academic dishonesty represent major findings.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Arvidson, Cody Jean
Partner: UNT Libraries

Intuitive Eating Scale: An Examination Among Adolescents

Description: Intuitive eating assesses the degree to which individuals eat based on physiological cues rather than emotional or situational cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale was initially developed using college women. This study extends the work of Tylka and reports on the psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) in a sample of 515 middle school boys and girls. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered 4 factors: unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical rather than emotional reasons, trust in internal hunger/satiety cues and awareness of internal hunger/satiety cues; confirmatory factor analysis suggested that this 4-factor model adequately fit the data after 4 items with low factor loadings were deleted. Supporting its construct validity, IES scores were negatively related to body mass index, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, pressure for thinness, and internalization of the thin ideal, and were positively related to satisfaction with life, and experiencing greater positive affect.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Dockendorff, Sally A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Parent-Initiated Task Motivational Climate and Factors Influencing Eighth Grade Boys’ Intention to Continue Sports

Description: The motivational climate, as defined by parents’ behaviors, and athletes’ goal orientations are essential in understanding children’s experiences with sport. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived motivational climate created by parents, and its relationship to psychological outcomes experienced by adolescent male athletes in youth sports. In particular, the parent created task climate was examined through its influence on goal orientation and subsequently to psychological outcomes experienced in sport, specifically, sport competence, self-esteem, enjoyment, and intention to continue participating in sport. Participants were 405 8th grade male athletes (mean age = 13.5); (Sample A: n = 205; Sample B: n = 200). As expected, the task-oriented parent initiated motivational climate was associated with the boys’ mastery goal orientation. Participants with higher mastery goal orientation had greater sport competence, self-esteem, and more enjoyment in sport. Intention to continue playing sport was predicted primarily by their level of enjoyment, and secondarily by their increased feelings of self-esteem.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Force, Erica C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effectiveness of a Learning Strategies Course on College Student-Athletes' and Non-Athletes' Adjustment, Academic Performance, and Retention after the First Two Years of College

Description: This study replicated and extended previous research I had performed that suggested that a student success course is an effective intervention to assist student-athletes in the adjustment to college. Participants in the current study included 4 groups of students, including (1) non-athletes and (2) student-athletes who were mandated and enrolled in the student success course, and (3) non-athletes and (4) student-athletes who were not mandated and did not enroll in the student success course. Overall, results from the current study suggested that the student success course was effective in helping non-athletes and student-athletes learn key cognitive strategies that are necessary for college success. In addition, results indicated that after taking the student success course, academically at-risk students earned equivalent grades, percentage of hours passed, and retention rates compared to their peers who were not classified as being academically underprepared. Finally, adjustment patterns of all groups were examined, with particular emphasis on the decrease in adjustment over the course of the semester that was demonstrated by the student-athletes. Intervention implications and future research directions are discussed, specifically in terms of how to address the unique needs of college freshmen student-athletes.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Tebbe, Carmen M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Photophysical studies of silver(I), platinum(II), palladium(II), and nickel(II) complexes and their use in electronic devices.

Description: This dissertation deals with two major topics that involve spectroscopic studies of (a) divalent group 10 metals and (b) silver(I)-phosphine complexes. The scope of the work involved the delineation of the electronic structure of these complexes in different environments and their use in electronic devices. The first topic is a look at the luminescence of tetrahedral silver(I)-phosphine complexes. Broad unstructured emissions with large Stokes shifts were found for these complexes. Computational analysis of the singlet and triplet state geometries suggests that this emission is due to a Jahn-Teller type distortion. The second topic represents the major thrust of this research, which is an investigation into the electronic structure of M(diimine)X2 (M= Pt(II), Pd(II), or Ni(II); X = dichloro, or dithiolate ligands) complexes and their interactions with an electron acceptor or Lewis acid. Chapter 3 assesses the use of some of these complexes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); it is shown that these complexes may lead to a viable alternative to the more expensive ruthenium-based dyes that are being implemented now. Chapter 4 is an investigation into donor/acceptor pairs involving this class of complexes, which serves as a feasibility test for the use of these complexes in organic photo-voltaics (OPVs) and thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFTs). The mixing of a donor Pt molecule with an electron deficient nitrofluorenone gives rise to new absorption bands in the NIR region. Computational studies of one of the solids suggest that these complexes may have metallic behavior. Chapter 5 demonstrates association in solution, previously unobserved, for Pt(diimine)Cl2 complexes. This chapter is an investigation into the effects of the association mode for this class of complexes on the absorption and emission properties. One of the complexes was used as the emitter in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The results of this study show that these complexes ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: Hudson, Joshua M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The evaluation of Project SCORE: A life skills program for an inner city high school.

Description: Project SCORE: Life Skills for Future Success, is a structured, 20-lesson curriculum, designed to help students develop academic and life skills, as well as self-responsibility, commitment, optimism, respect, and excellence. The curriculum was presented during 36, 90-minute class periods over the fall semester of the students' freshmen year. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Project SCORE at improving grades, learning strategies, self esteem and coping skills with freshmen students at an inner-city high school. In order to evaluate the program, students completed paper-pencil surveys at the beginning and end of the semester in which they were enrolled in the Project SCORE class. In addition, teachers completed evaluations on their perceptions of each student's peer relationships, classroom behavior, mood, and activity level. All teachers and students involved in the course were asked to complete an evaluation to determine their level of satisfaction with the course and areas in need of improvement. Lastly, information pertaining to grades, discipline and standardized test scores were used to determine the impact of SCORE. Participants were 333 9th grade students at a large 4A high school in Texas. Findings suggest that SCORE had a positive effect on coping resources, study skills and grades during the semester students were enrolled in the course. Specifically, students reported significantly higher levels of school self concept and improved coping resources at the end of the semester long course. Lastly, students and teachers believed SCORE to be helpful in easing the transition into high school and at teaching the various life and study skills.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Jones, Gretchen M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The relationships between goal orientation, perfectionism, parental involvement, peer climate, enjoyment, and intention to continue in sport in children.

Description: This investigation examined the relationships between parental involvement, peer-initiated climates, and perfectionism to goal orientation as well as children's enjoyment and the intention to continue playing sport in youth sport. Participants were 188 athletes, 100 boys (M = 12.06, SD = 1.06) and 88 girls (M = 12.18, SD = .73). The athletes completed the TEOSQ, Sport MPS, PIAS, and the PeerMCYSQ. Parental support and peer task environment was related to girls' and boy's task orientation. For boys, personal standards, parental pressure, and fewer concerns over mistakes, also were related to task orientation. Ego orientation was related to peer-initiated ego and task climates, for the boys. For the girls, higher personal standard was the only variable related to ego orientation. For enjoyment, task orientation was the strongest predictor for the girls and the only predictor for the boys for enjoyment. The fewer concerns girls had over mistakes the more enjoyment they reported. For girls and boys, intention to continue playing next season was predicted only by enjoyment. However, results were varied when intention to play next year was examined. For boys, no predictors were discovered whereas for girls, higher levels of enjoyment and task orientation, and lower levels of parental support and pressure related to intention.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Braddock, LaTisha Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

A test of an etiological model: The development of disordered eating in Division-I university female gymnasts and swimmers/divers.

Description: Certain sport environments may contribute to the development of disordered eating and those that heavily emphasize weight and/or body shape can be particularly damaging to an athlete's body image, self-concept, and eating behaviors. In particular, female athletes in collegiate sports are at a greater risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors because they face both societal pressures from Western culture to be thin, in addition to sport pressures that focus on performance and appearance. According to the American Medical Association almost half of American women are trying to lose weight, illustrating that societal pressures alone to be thin and attractive can influence the development of disordered eating. Athletes are exposed to the same sociocultural pressures as their nonathlete counterparts, and would be expected to have similar feelings about their bodies as women in general. Add subsequent pressures like team "weigh-ins," coaches' body comp preferences, judges' critiques, revealing attire, and endurance/strength demands, and the stage is set for the development of disordered eating. In the current study, participants were 414 Division-I female gymnasts, swimmers/divers, and they completed self-report measures assessing sport pressures, body satisfaction and disordered eating behavior to test Petrie & Greenleaf's etiological model. Results indicate that sport pressures do lead directly to dietary restraint, a precursor to disordered eating, and are not always mediated through internalization and body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that decreasing and intervening with perceived sport pressures may lessen the risk of female athletes developing an eating disorder.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Anderson, Carlin Mahan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measuring Male Body Dissatisfaction: Factorial and Construct Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men

Description: Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of health risk behaviors (e.g., eating disorders, muscle dysmorphia) and psychological distress in men, the ability to measure it accurately is essential. Across two studies, the psychometric properties and factor structure of a new measure of male body satisfaction were established. The Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men (BPSS-M) was found to have three scores: full body muscularity and leanness (18 items), upper body (12 items), and legs (4 items). All three scores were internally and temporally reliable, and support was found for the convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity of the scores. The BPSS-M represents an advance in the measurement of male body image, providing researchers and clinicians with a versatile and valid way to assess this important construct.
Date: August 2010
Creator: McFarland, Michael Blaine
Partner: UNT Libraries