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Is There Justice in Mercy? the Retributive Philosophies of Executive Clemency

Description: Executive clemency is assumed to be a mechanism to correct miscarriages of justice brought about by the criminal justice system, yet little empirical research exists to confirm this assumption. This research study examined the types of rationales cited in 799 cases of executive clemency from six states from 2005 to 2012. Rationales based upon retributive philosophies, in which a miscarriage of justice was cited, were further analyzed. This analysis revealed that only seven percent of all clemency decisions from the examined states cited retributive rationales. Of the fifty-six grants of clemency that cited retributive rationales, most were granted in the forms of pardons. The analysis indicated that executive clemency is utilized as a mechanism to correct injustices, specifically in cases of innocence. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications and the reliance on executive clemency as a fail-safe to the criminal justice system.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Gibbs, Gina N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Accuracy Variations in Human Facial Identification Based on Time of Exposure.

Description: This study examined the relationship between time of exposure to the human face and accurate subsequent photo line-up identification. A volunteer group of 124 undergraduate students was divided into three approximately equal sized subgroups. The three groups were then exposed to a video or a portion of a video depicting a theft. Exposure times ranged from two minutes to 30 seconds. The subjects were then given a questionnaire and shown a photo line-up of the mock perpetrator and five foils. Subjects were asked to identify the perpetrator and mark that identification on the questionnaire. Results of the experiment indicated that the longer a subject was exposed the greater the possibility of an accurate identification.
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Date: December 2006
Creator: Cowle, Kenneth M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Civil Asset Forfeiture in the Fight Against Drugs (Policy Analysis)

Description: Even if the main criminals of an organization are incarcerated, they will be replaced by others who would continue illegal activities, unless their financial assets are removed. Thus, civil forfeiture intends to dismantle the economic infrastructure of drug trafficking networks. Civil forfeiture considers the property as guilty, rather than the owner, and it may exist even if there is not a criminal action. Therefore, it is claimed that police agencies have chosen easy targets, such as wealthy drug users rather than major drug traffickers. Consequently, it has been particularly challenged on the basis of the Excessive Fines, Double Jeopardy, and Due Process Clauses. The use of criminal forfeiture instead of civil forfeiture and the elimination of the equitable sharing provision are considered to be the primary solutions.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Tuncer, Hakki
Partner: UNT Libraries

Political Misuse of Domestic Intelligence: A Case Study on the FBI

Description: Domestic intelligence is very important in preventing disorder while ensuring unity and security during a time of national crisis. However, if uncontrolled, domestic intelligence can be subject to political misuse, which causes serious damage both to individuals and to democratic institutions. There are various theoretical explanations for political misuse of domestic intelligence. The political use of domestic intelligence is best explained by the sociological theory of unfulfilled needs. On the other hand, political counterintelligence can be best explained by Threat Theory. In order for a domestic intelligence organization to be effective, its organizational discretion must be limited by establishing clear legislation that is not secret, on the focus, limits, and techniques of domestic intelligence. This system must be supported by a multi-level control mechanism.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Pacci, Mehme
Partner: UNT Libraries

Community Policing Training Programs and Their Roles in Implementation of Community Policing

Description: The main goal of this study is to indicate the importance of community policing training programs for implementation of community policing. Community policing requires a transition from traditional policing methods to proactive and problem-oriented policing which is constructed upon police-citizen partnership. For the successful implementation of community policing, the change process needs to be fully realized throughout the organization. Suitably appropriate methods of training will help both officers and citizens to fully understand the goals of community policing. This study focuses on the types of existing community training methods as well as the obstacles that complicate training efforts. Consequently, this study provides some recommendations on community policing training programs to make them more helpful for police departments.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Demir, Cuneyt
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Matter of Due Process: An Examination of How State Mandated Accreditation has Impacted Texas Crime Laboratories

Description: Mandated accreditation of crime laboratories is a fairly new phenomenon. The state of Texas was the first to require that crime laboratories be accredited in order to be able to present evidence in a criminal proceeding. The laws that govern this are Texas House Bill 2703 and Texas House Bill 1068. The goal of this study is see how the enactment of these laws impacted crime laboratories. There are 42 crime laboratories that are accredited in the state of Texas. This study was conducted by the use of telephone survey interviews. Results indicated that mandated accreditation is a step in the right direction to ensure that objectivity is maintained during the processing and evaluation of physical evidence.
Date: May 2008
Creator: DeLillo, Sandy Dawn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Killing the one you love: Examining cases of intimate partner homicide occurring in Dallas, Texas between the years 1990-1997.

Description: Research has consistently shown that intimate partner homicide (IPH) rates have been on a steady downward decline over the past two decades. A relatively recent movement in IPH research, however, has emphasized the need for further dissecting the aggregate trends by factors such as gender, race, and victim-offender relationship. In response to these issues, this study looks at the relationship between IPHs and factors such as gender, race, and age. The present study explores officially reported IPH cases in Dallas, Texas between the years 1990-1997. Specific attention will be paid to the victim's and suspect's age, race, and gender. The findings of the study will assist in identifying significant characteristics of these IPH incidents which may lead to a greater understanding of the types of relationships in which IPH is more likely to occur. Studying the relationship between IPHs and these factors, as this research aims to do, is important to understanding what IPH incident characteristics need more attention to help prevent future incidents from occurring. As a result of this research, a better understanding of whether IPH may occur in certain types of relationships will be reached and then can be further utilized to educate.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Foster, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries

Responding to Child Sexual Abuse: Exploring the Case Files of Children Under the Age of 6 Admitted to a Children’s Advocacy Center for Evaluation

Description: Research suggests that roughly 25% of women and 10% of men within the United States were sexually abused at some point during childhood. With such high rates of victimization affecting society, the current study explores a population of children under the age of 6 who were suspected of being sexually victimized and thus admitted to a children’s advocacy center (CAC) for evaluation. This investigation contributes to the literature concerning child sexual abuse (CSA) by exploring the characteristics of these alleged victims, the characteristics of their suspected offenders, the alleged victim’s familial demographics characteristics, and by looking at the data pertaining to the incarceration rates of the suspected offenders identified within the sample.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Glassner, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

Transnational Organized Crime and Destabilization in Democracies, Russian Organized Crime as Case Study

Description: Transnational organized crime has been prevalent during the last century, but it recently has been recognized as a threat to the world order. Governments throughout the world, along with the intergovernmental organizations identified this phenomenon as a new threat to domestic and international security. This paper attempts to explain the impacts of transnational organized crime on the functioning of democratic societies by adopting the Russian Organized Crime as case study. The descriptive research with regard to definition, scope and organization of transnational organized crime, along with the objectives, limitations and methodology of this research will be included in the first chapter. Recent trends observed in organized crime`s character and the impact of organized crime on the political economies of democratic regimes will be contained in the following chapters. Pre-conditions for a broader response to transnational organized crime and conclusive remarks will be the context of the last chapter.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Yasar, Muhammet Murat
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact Of Community Policing On The Structure And Administration of Police Agencies

Description: The last decade has witnessed the rise of a new movement called “community policing.” Basic philosophical principles, which focus on improved services to the public through decentralization, better communication and decision-making processes, and more police discretion highlight the community policing movement. Essentially, community policing is the quality movement in American policing. This thesis will explore the impact of community policing on the structure and administration of police agencies. Since this movement is centered in local police agencies, the focus will also be at that level. Considerable effort will be devoted to providing an accurate description of law enforcement in the United States; however, the crux of this treatise will be on the discussion of organizational problems developed at the local level as a result of implementing community policing concepts.
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Date: August 2001
Creator: Erdem, Mehmet
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Correctional Orientation of Juvenile Facility Directors

Description: Over the last 30 years, the juvenile justice system and juvenile correctional ideology shifted to become more punitive in nature. However, studies examining this shift are lacking in the literature. The present study will attempt to assess what correctional ideology, rehabilitative or punitive, is dominant within juvenile corrections by conducting a national survey to juvenile facility directors. This study will be based on prior literature, most of which has focused upon line staff in an adult correctional setting. From this prior literature, more specifically from the work of Cullen et al. (1989), scales will be created to determine the correctional orientation of the key administrators in juvenile facilities. This will allow us to assess whether the correctional ideology driving the juvenile system has in fact become punitive. The findings from this study have the opportunity to alter the current status quo in juvenile corrections.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Sifuentes-Hammer, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Truancy Intervention: A Study of Dallas Independent School District Participants in the Dallas Challenge Truancy and Class C Enforcement Center

Description: This research examines agency data for participants in a truancy intervention program. Previous literature provides mostly descriptive information and fails to examine the effects of truancy intervention efforts. The analysis provides a profile of truant participants referred to the program and factors that correlate to successful completion of the program requirements. The results will be applicable to the study program as evaluation research and will be generalized for application to other truancy programs. Directions for future truancy research will be suggested based on the need to continue to evaluate truancy reduction efforts.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Fairchild, James John
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploring job related stress and job satisfaction in a modern law enforcement communications division.

Description: One of the most neglected areas of criminological and social science research is the police communications or dispatch center. While research projects dealing with stress and job satisfaction are found in abundance for other occupations, studies specific to the police dispatcher are uncommon. The role of the dispatcher has changed significantly in the last few decades. Improvements in technology and changes in public expectations of emergency services have forever altered the communications professional. Dispatchers work in an environment reliant on information. There is tremendous pressure to process the information coming into a communications center quickly and correctly. A mistake could prove fatal. Work pressures, burnout, high employee turnover, low pay, and a lack of respect from police coworkers can easily result in negative emotional and psychological consequences for the dispatcher. An effective manager could reduce the feelings of stress and low job satisfaction this environment can facilitate. The current study utilizes survey data from a sample of police dispatchers and their managers in the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas area. The purpose of the survey is to identify the level of stress and job satisfaction reported by the dispatchers and their managers. The effects of differing types of stress will be investigated. Other relationships such as length of service, education, gender, ethnicity, and agency size will also be addressed.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Burgess, Lavona
Partner: UNT Libraries

Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994: A Case Study

Description: The purpose of this study is: to explore and analyze the Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (CALEA), to identify problems related to CALEA, to identify solutions devised by other countries to overcome problems similar to CALEA's, and to propose feasible solutions to CALEA problems.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Ozdogan, Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries

FISA and warrantless wire-tapping: Does FISA conform to Fourth Amendment standards?

Description: Electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes was largely unregulated prior to 1978. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (hereinafter "FISA") was enacted to implement a judicial authorization process for foreign intelligence electronic surveillance that would effectively balance competing needs for national security and civil liberty under the Fourth Amendment. This study examines the evolution of FISA and its effectiveness under the Fourth Amendment, as assessed by federal reviewing courts and scholars since the statute's enactment. The study concludes that the FISA electronic surveillance authorization process has been effective in providing a constitutional mechanism to obtain foreign intelligence information.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Meyer, Aric
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Etiology of Juvenile Homicide in Dallas, Texas: 1988-1997

Description: This research analyzed all juveniles involved in a homicide, both victims and offenders, in the city of Dallas, Texas from the years 1988 through 1997. This study addressed several research questions including the identification of risk factors common to both victims and offenders. Data for this study was obtained from the homicide files of the Dallas Police Department. The findings in part identify specific profiles of the victims and offenders, as well as identifying comparisons of risk factors between the two groups. Also identified are the relationships between the offenders and victims. Conclusions from this research present implications for law enforcement agencies, as well as furthering the etiology of juvenile homicide.
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Date: December 2001
Creator: Haynes, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries

Criminal Investigations: The Impact of Patrol Officers on Solving Crime

Description: This two-part study of the criminal investigation process first evaluated the frequency with which patrol officers solve cases assigned to the investigations division and then examined how detectives spent their time, both on case assignments and on other activity not related to current case assignment. Cases assigned to the investigations division for follow up were examined to determine how often a case was cleared by the patrol officer. The detective's time was then evaluated in order to determine how much time detectives spent on investigative tasks and other activities. This study confirms that the patrol officer should be given more time to conduct preliminary investigations for specific cases, and that tasks performed by detectives could be shifted to other personnel in the department. Both actions should serve to positively impact case clearance rates.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Womack, Charissa L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Violent Female Offending: Examining the Role of Psychopathy and Comorbidity with DSM-IV Personality Disorders

Description: This thesis examines the role of psychopathy in violent female offending, and explores DSM-IV personality disorders that may also be a factor. Past research on female offenders and psychopathy suggest that this is a valid construct when looking at female offenders. This study was driven by two questions: which personality disorders are most common in adult female offenders who are psychopathic, and are adult female offenders who are psychopathic more likely to have been convicted of a violent offense than those who are not psychopathic, but have at least one personality disorder. The results indicate that Cluster B personality disorders were the most common, and Cluster C the least common. The results also showed that those women who were psychopathic were no more likely to have been convicted of a violent crime than those who had at least one personality disorder, but were not psychopathic. Treatment implications and the direction of future research are discussed.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Hilving, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computer Crime as a Barrier to Electronic Commerce: New Solutions for Public Law Enforcement.

Description: Electronic commerce was expected to grow exponentially, but the actual rate of growth in recent years has been disappointing. Recent surveys of perceptions of the development of electronic commerce clearly focus our attention on the perception and fear of computer crime as the major cause of this disappointing growth pattern. The thesis critiques existing private law solutions to this problem and argues from a normative theory on “the commons” for the application of new public law enforcement solutions in the public trust, sanctions, and public coproduction of order. The thesis argues that given the failures of existing private law solutions to the problem, these public law enforcement solutions should be more effective, efficient, and more satisfactory.
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Date: August 2002
Creator: Temur, Nuri
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Case Study on Police Misconduct in the United States of America and an Applicable Model for the Turkish National Police.

Description: This study explores the underlying causes and deterrent control mechanisms of police misconduct in the United States. Outcomes of causes and control mechanisms constitute the basis for an applicable model for the Turkish National Police (TNP). Why is some police behavior deviate? What are the main determinants of police misconduct? Is police misconduct a result of sociological behavior and subcultural development within police organizations or a psychological behavior as an outcome of officers' personal traits? What are the control mechanisms for police misconduct? What are their strengths and weaknesses? Do they deter or not? Is there a control mechanism that deters better than others? What is the best deterrence model for the TNP?
Date: August 2002
Creator: Lofca, Izzet
Partner: UNT Libraries

Correlates of Recidivism: A Study Examining the Differences Between First Time Felony Probationers and Recidivist Felony Probation Offenders

Description: The purpose of this study is to explore the differences and characteristics between first time felony probationer and recidivist felony probation offender. The importance of said studies grows significantly, given current trends of sentencing offenders to probation. Using archived data on random sample of felony offenders in 2000 and based on information acquired and maintained by the Denton County Community Supervision and Corrections Department (CSCD), the study consists of 40 first time felony offenders and 40 recidivist felony offender placed on probation during the year 2000. The method consists of a longitudinal comparison model. To examine the research question, descriptive statistics are used to compare basic demographics. Then, in order to answer the research question bi-variate significant tests, Chi-square and Independent Sample T-tests were employed when appropriate. Results indicate differences between first time felony probation offenders and recidivist felony probationers.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Lynton, Eddy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Clinical Correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - Adolescent (MMPI-A) for a Male Delinquent Population

Description: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was one of the most widely used psychological tests administered to adolescents. The MMPI-A is a revised version of the MMPI that was developed specifically for adolescents. The purpose of this study is to establish clinical correlates for the MMPI-A standard scale codetypes.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Cashel, Mary Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Aggressive and Socially Disruptive Behavior among Forensic Patients: a Validation of the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version

Description: Psychopathic criminals commit more crimes, are more prone to recidivism, and more likely to engage in violent crimes and other aggressive behavior than nonpsychopathic criminals. Less is known about forensic patients, both with and without psychopathy, and their aggression. In the current study, patients in a maximum security hospital were examined with respect to their psychopathy and its predictive value on institutional management and dangerousness. In this regard, the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) and the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) have proven to be valid and reliable measures of psychopathy. The present study was an attempt to establish predictive validity for a new version: the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCLSV). As such, this study examined the PCL-SV's relationship to (a) diagnoses of Antisocial Personality Disorder according to DSM-III-R criteria and (b) the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Aggression, Drug Problems, and Antisocial Features scales. The influence of major Axis I disorders on the assessment of psychopathy with the PCLSV was also examined. Participants were 150 male forensic psychiatric patients at Vernon State Hospital who were committed for various reasons: incompetence to stand trial, initial evaluation and treatment after having been found not guilty by reason of insanity, and manifest dangerousness. Chart reviews were completed for a six month follow-up period during which all instances of aggressive or socially disruptive behaviors were recorded. Results supported the predictive validity of the PCL-SV as a measure of psychopathy for aggression and treatment noncompliance. Unexpected findings among correlations of the PCL-SV with the PAI Antisocial Features scale were examined and discussed. A review of the costs and benefits of the PCL-SV in clinical decision making is presented and the clinical utility of the present findings is discussed.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Hill, Christie D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Violent and Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders : An Assessment of Differences in Object Relations Functioning Using the Thematic Apperception Test

Description: TAT stories and demographic information of 30 violent and 30 nonviolent juvenile delinquents were obtained. Institutional assessment records at Dallas County Juvenile Department (DCJD) served as the data base for this study. TAT stories and demographic information of 30 violent and 30 nonviolent juvenile delinquents were obtained. Institutional assessment records at Dallas County Juvenile Department (DCJD) served as the data base for this study. Differences with respect to object relations functioning between juveniles charged with two categories of index offenses: property offenses and aggravated assault were examined. Object relations were assessed utilizing a scoring system designed for use with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). The scoring system encompasses a psychoanalytic perspective and consists of four dimensions representing separate but interrelated aspects of object relations. It was hypothesized that juvenile delinquents who commit violent crimes would exhibit lower object relations functioning as compared to juvenile delinquents who commit nonviolent crimes.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Cox, Randall J. (Randall Judd)
Partner: UNT Libraries