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The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations for FY2011

Description: This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) budget and operations. This report chronicles congressional action on the FY2011 Commerce, Justice, Science (CJS), and Related Agencies Appropriations bills, as well as any FY2010 supplemental appropriations bills, that provide funding for ATF.
Date: August 11, 2010
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

Description: The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, ...
Date: March 2, 2004
Creator: Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations for FY2010

Description: This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) budget and operations. This report chronicles congressional action on the FY2011 Commerce, Justice, Science (CJS), and Related Agencies Appropriations bills, as well as any FY2010 supplemental appropriations bills, that provide funding for ATF.
Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations for FY2008, FY2009, and FY2010

Description: This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) budget and operations for FY2008, FY2009, and FY2010. It chronicles congressional action on the annual Commerce, Justice, Science (CJS), and Related Agencies Appropriations bills for those fiscal years, as well as action on supplemental and stimulus appropriations bills.
Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations

Description: This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) budget and operations. It will be updated as needed to reflect congressional action on the FY2010 Commerce, Justice, Science (CJS), and Related Agencies Appropriations bill, the appropriations bill that includes the ATF account.
Date: June 16, 2009
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calcium promotes cadmium elimination as vaterite grains by tobacco trichomes

Description: In tobacco plants, elimination of Zn and Cd via the production of Ca-containing grains at the top of leaf hairs, called trichomes, is a potent detoxification mechanism. This study examines how Cd is incorporated in these biominerals, and how calcium growth supplement modifies their nature. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX), microfocused X-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD), and microfocused X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) spectroscopy were used to image the morphology of the grains, identify the crystallized mineral phases, and speciate Cd, respectively. The mineralogy of the grains and chemical form of Cd varied with the amount of Ca. When tobacco plants were grown in a nutrient solution containing 25 {micro}M Cd and low Ca supplement (Ca/Cd = 11 mol ratio), most of the grains were oblong-shaped and low-Cd-substituted calcite. When exposed to the same amount of Cd and high Ca supplement (Ca/Cd = 131 mol ratio), grains were more abundant and diverse in compositions, and in total more Cd was eliminated. Most grains in the high Ca/Cd experiment were round-shaped and composed predominantly of Cd-substituted vaterite, a usually metastable calcium carbonate polymorph, and subordinate calcite. Calcium oxalate and a Ca amorphous phase were detected occasionally in the two treatments, but were devoid of Cd. The biomineralization of cadmium and implications of results for Cd exposure of smokers and phytoremediation are discussed.
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Sarret, Geraldine; Harada, Emiko; Choi, Yong-Eui; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Excise Taxes on Tobacco Products: Rates and Revenues

Description: This report examines increases in excise tax rates on tobacco products contained in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33). Under that act, the increased rates on tobacco products became effective in two stages. The first scheduled increase in rates occurred on January 1, 2000, while the second increase in rates occurred two years later on January 1, 2002
Date: April 28, 2005
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

Description: The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC from workers ...
Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: Steven A. Belinsky, PhD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms and Determinants of RNA Turnover: Plant IRESs and Polycistrons for Metabolic Engineering

Description: There is a strong need for tools that allow multiple transgenes to be expressed in genetically engineered plants. For the last 30 years it has been believed that nearly all eukaryotic mRNAs were monocistronic, with ribosomes entering at the 5' end and scanning through the 5'UTR to the first AUG codon. It is now clear that perhaps 3% of vertebrate and yeast mRNAs utilize IRESs (Internal Ribosome Entry Sites) within their 5'UTRs to promote the internal entry of ribosomes to mRNAs and subsequent translation of protein without scanning. The working hypothesis behind this proposal is that IRES sequences function in plants and can be used to engineer the efficient co-expression of multiple proteins from polycistronic transcripts. Our goal was to translate multiple proteins from single polycistroic mRNAs. We cloned four IRESs from the following sources: CrTMV (plant virus), EMCV (human encephalomyocarditis virus), eIF4G (human), and c-myc (human). All four IRES were cloned into a specially designed test vector with the strong constitutive ACT2 actin regulatory sequences and flanked by multicloning sites for two reporter genes. These four IRESs were tested in three different test systems with strong paired reporter activities: two fluorescent proteins, two mercury resistance enzymes, and two biosynthetic enzymes making thiolpeptides. All of the four IRES constructs with the fluorescent protein reporter genes were tested for transient expression after particle gun bombardment of tobacco BY2 cells. Three of the IRESs gave reasonable activity (10%-40%) for the second cistron fluorescent reporter (DsRFP) relative to the first cistron reporter (GFP). As a control, translational blocking sequence placed at the 5' end of duplicate constructs had little effect on activity from the second cistron, but blocked the first cistron. These initial positive data lead us to examine the four IRES constructs with three pairs of reporters in hundreds of transgenic Arabidopsis ...
Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: Meagher, Richard B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding and targeting a novel plant viral proteinase/substrate interaction. Final report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1995

Description: The past 3 years of funding have focused our efforts on trying to understand the molecular basis of a unique substrate interaction displayed by a viral proteinase. We have made good progress and during this funding period we have made four contributions to the scientific literature and have developed the application of the proteinase in the expression and purification of recombinant fusion proteins. A comprehensive review of virus-encoded proteinases, written during the funding period, emphazing the tremendous similarity of viral proteinases with their cellular counterparts and at the same time detail the unique characteristics which permit them to function in a cellular environment. The focus of the research effort was the tobacco etch virus (TEV) 27kDa NIa proteinase.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Dougherty, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Annual report, March 11, 1997--March 14, 1998

Description: The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu) is to be determined. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulose expression in plants, enzymes with high temperature optima were chosen; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source. During the past year (year 2 of the grant), efforts have been focused on testing expression of endoglucanase E{sub 1}, from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, in the apoplast of both tobacco suspension cells and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Using the plasmids constructed during the first year, transgenic cells and plants that contain the gene for the E{sub 1} catalytic domain fused to a signal peptide sequence were obtained. This gene was constructed so that the fusion protein will be secreted into the apoplast. The enzyme is made in large quantities and is secreted into the apoplast. More importantly, it is enzymatically active when placed under optimal reaction conditions (high temperature). Moreover, the plant cells and intact plants exhibit no obvious problems with growth and development under laboratory conditions. Work has also continued to improve binary vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, to determine activity of E{sub 1} at various temperatures, and to investigate the activity of the 35S Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter in E. coli. 9 figs.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Danna, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report - The Xanthophyll Cycle

Description: The xanthophyll cycle is a ubiquitous activity in higher plants. A major function of the cycle is to protect the photosynthetic system from the potentially damaging effects of high light by dissipating excess energy that might otherwise damage the photosynthetic apparatus harmlessly as heat by a process termed non-photochemical quenching (NFQ). This research focused on investigating the dynamics of the relationship between PsbS, subunit PSII protein required for NPQ, and zeaxanthin by perturbing the natural relationship of these components by overexpression of PsbS, violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), and PsbS-VDE in tobacco. The effects of these treatments showed that the relationship between NPQ and zeaxanthin formation is more complex than previously indicated from studies carried out under high light. It is postulated that the xanthophyll cycle functions as a type of signal-transduction system within the thylakoid membrane. Recent studies in model lipid systems demonstrated that zeaxanthin exerts feedback inhibition on violaxanthin de-epoxidase. This feedback inhibition is consistent with the lipid phase functioning as a modulating factor in the dynamics of the cycle's operation. While this research and those in other laboratories have defined both the biochemistry and molecular mechanism of the cycle's operation, especially for violaxanthin de-epoxidase, there is yet insufficient knowledge that explains the ubiquitous presence of the cycle in all higher plants and a related cycle in diatoms. Antisense VDE tobacco plants (work carried out under another grant) withstood the high-light environment in Hawaii over one generation. Thus, it is speculated that the protective system was essential for survival in earth's high-light earth environment over multiple generations. The proposed signal transduction protective system, however, may explain the ability of the protective system to modulate or adapt to a range of environments.
Date: April 21, 2005
Creator: Yamamato, Harry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

Description: This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Fisk, William & Seppanen, Olli
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social implications of the Human Genome Project: Policy roundtable series and journals. Final progress report, March 15, 2001 - March 15, 2002

Description: This report reflects the activities of the Harvard Health Caucus at Harvard Medical School that were supported, in part, by the Department of Energy. The following policy roundtables and panels were held: Spring 2001 Policy Roundtable Series: The social implications of the Human Genome Project; Spring 2002 Policy Roundtable Series: Managing globalization to improve health; 13 February 2002 Keynote Address: The globalization of health; 25 February 2002 Healthier or Wealthier: Which comes first in the new global era?; 28 February 2002 The crisis of neglected diseases: Creating R&D incentives for diseases of developing countries; 7 March 2002 Health care education in the developing world: Bridging global and local health care practices; 20 March 2002 Building a legal framework for global health: How can the US and UN work to reduce global disparities?; 25 April 2002 The role of mass media and tobacco control efforts. Caucus organizational information is also included.
Date: December 30, 2002
Creator: Seiguer, Erica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The molecular characterization of the lignin-forming peroxidase. Progress summary report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

Description: My research program focuses entirely on the study of the lignin-forming peroxidase of tobacco. Ever since our cloning and sequencing of the first plant peroxidase cDNA, we have pioneered in the introduction of the tools of molecular biology to the study of plant peroxidases. A significant part of our effort has been focused on the construction and analysis of transgenic plants which either over- or under-express the tobacco anionic peroxidase. This research has not only supported the role for this enzyme in lignification, but has opened the door to our understanding of additional metabolic functions including auxin metabolism and insect defense. As you will learn, this enzyme`s role in auxin catabolism has lead to numerous phenotypes in transgenic plants. More recently, our attention has been directed towards the analysis of peroxidase gene expression. From this work we have learned that the anionic peroxidase gene is expressed at high levels in the xylem-forming cells, epidermis, and trichomes. This expression pattern supports its role lignification and hose defenses. We have also learned that this gene is down-regulated by auxin which indicates a strong relationship between auxin and the anionic peroxidase. 12 figs.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Lagrimini, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of zein proteins in structure and assembly of protein bodies and endosperm texture. Progress report and appendix 1 - preliminary data

Description: Although funding for this project was initiated less than two years ago, we have made significant progress with our research objectives. We have cloned the gene responsible for the fl2 mutation. In fl2, the mutant phenotype appears to result from a defective signal peptide in an alpha-zein protein. As a consequence, the signal peptide remains attached when the protein accumulates in the protein body. A mutation like fl2 could explain other semidominant and dominant opaque mutants on the basis of abnormal zein polypeptides. A manuscript describing the research that led to the cloning of fl2 is in press, and a second manuscript on the characterization of this gene has been prepared for publication. We found that increased amounts of the 27-kD gamma-zein protein enlarge the proportion of vitreous endosperm and increases the hardness of o2 mutants. This protein also enhances these properties in wild type seeds. The mechanism by which the gamma-zein protein brings about these changes is unclear, and is under investigation. We have found and characterized several mutants that reduce gamma-zein synthesis. The mutations do not significantly affect synthesis of any other type of zein protein. They appear to create an opaque phenotype by reducing the number rather than the size of protein bodies. Interestingly, the mutant seeds fail to germinate. A manuscript describing one of these mutants, o15, has been prepared for publication. We have created a number of transgenic tobacco plants that can produce alpha-, beta-, gamma(27-kD)-, or delta-zeins, as well as combinations of these proteins. Analysis of seeds from these plants and crosses of these plants has shown that tobacco endosperm can serve as a heterologous system to study zein interactions. We have obtained evidence that interactions between alpha- and gamma-zein proteins are required for stable accumulation of alpha-zeins in the endosperm. These and other ...
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Larkins, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tobacco Price Support: An Overview of the Program

Description: About 94 percent of U.S. tobacco production is flue-cured and burley (cigarette tobacco types). These crops are particularly important to the agriculture of North Carolina and Kentucky. The federal tobacco price support program is designed to support and stabilize prices for farmers.
Date: June 25, 2004
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department