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Traffic characterization and modeling of wavelet-based VBR encoded video

Description: Wavelet-based video codecs provide a hierarchical structure for the encoded data, which can cater to a wide variety of applications such as multimedia systems. The characteristics of such an encoder and its output, however, have not been well examined. In this paper, the authors investigate the output characteristics of a wavelet-based video codec and develop a composite model to capture the traffic behavior of its output video data. Wavelet decomposition transforms the input video in a hierarchical structure with a number of subimages at different resolutions and scales. the top-level wavelet in this structure contains most of the signal energy. They first describe the characteristics of traffic generated by each subimage and the effect of dropping various subimages at the encoder on the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver. They then develop an N-state Markov model to describe the traffic behavior of the top wavelet. The behavior of the remaining wavelets are then obtained through estimation, based on the correlations between these subimages at the same level of resolution and those wavelets located at an immediate higher level. In this paper, a three-state Markov model is developed. The resulting traffic behavior described by various statistical properties, such as moments and correlations, etc., is then utilized to validate their model.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Kuo, Yu; Jabbari, B. & Zafar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A video distribution and analog monitoring system for the Jefferson Lab FEL

Description: The Jefferson Lab Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRFEL) has used the 200MHq 16 x 16 buffered crosspoint switch, AD81 16 to implement video and analog distribution. These switches are configured as 64 inputs x 16 outputs packaged into a rack mount chassis, which is used for both the video and analog systems. These systems are controlled through EPICS. This paper describes how the 256 point matrix is implemented to support the electron beam diagnostics for the FEL as well as support for the user lab video demands. A switcher chassis is also connected to three digital oscilloscopes to provide an Analog Monitoring System (AMS). The scopes are in turn connected to the video switcher using a VGA to video adapter. The analog signals can then be viewed on any color monitor connected to the video system. The video switcher feeds a 16 channel 1:4 video distribution amplifier and to a ''video-to-fiber'' transmitter. All of the 128 video and 128 analog channels are available locally in the FEL building and remotely at the CEBAF main control center.
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Jordan, Kevin; Evans, Richard; Grippo, Al & Hill, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An integrated circuit/packet switched videoconferencing system

Description: The HEP Network Resource Center (HEPNRC) at Fermilab and the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) collaboration have evolved a flexible, cost-effective, widely accessible videoconferencing system for use by high energy physics collaborations and others wishing to use videoconferencing. No current systems seemed to fully meet the needs of high energy physics collaborations. However, two classes of videoconferencing technology: circuit-switched and packet-switched, if integrated, might encompass most of HEP`s needs. It was also realized that, even with this integration, some additional functions were needed and some of the existing functions were not always wanted. HEPNRC with the help of members of the CDF collaboration set out to develop such an integrated system using as many existing subsystems and components as possible. This system is called VUPAC (Videoconferencing Using PAckets and Circuits). This paper begins with brief descriptions of the circuit-switched and packet-switched videoconferencing systems. Following this, issues and limitations of these systems are considered. Next the VUPAC system is described. Integration is accomplished primarily by a circuit/packet videoconferencing interface. Augmentation is centered in another subsystem called MSB (Multiport multisession Bridge). Finally, there is a discussion of the future work needed in the evolution of this system.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Kippenhan, H.A. Jr.; Lidinsky, W.P.; Roediger, G.A. & Watts, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Digital TV Transition: A Brief Overview

Description: This report briefly discusses key points about the digital TV transition process: background, the impact on broadcasting, spectrum policy, and recent legislative activity. The transition has two major policy components: (1) how best to move television broadcasters and their viewers to digital technology, and (2) radio frequency spectrum management and allocation. The public interest goals for these paths are not well aligned, presenting Congress with difficult choices for completing the transition.
Date: February 15, 2006
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G. & Moore, Linda K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National energy use of consumer electronics in 1999

Description: The major consumer electronics in U.S. homes accounted for nearly 7 percent of U.S. residential electricity consumption in 1999. We attribute more than half of this figure (3.6 percent) to televisions, videocassette recorders, and DVD players, and nearly one-third (1.8 percent) to audio products. Set-top boxes currently account for a relatively small fraction of residential electricity use (0.7 percent), but we expect this end-use to grow quickly with the proliferation of digital set-top boxes, which currently use 40 percent more energy per unit than the average TV set. In all, these consumer electronics plus telephone products consumed 75 TWh in the U.S. in 1999, half of which was consumed while the products were not in use. This energy use is expected to grow as products with new or advanced functionality hit the market.
Date: February 15, 2000
Creator: Rosen, Karen; Meier, Alan & Zandelin, Stefan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aereo and FilmOn X: Internet Television Streaming and Copyright Law

Description: This report begins with a discussion of the technology used by Aereo and FilmOn X that permit subscribers to watch live broadcast television as well as already-aired programming. It then examines the public performance right in the Copyright Act and discusses the interpretation of the transmit clause and public performance right by the courts in the Aereo and FilmOn cases. The report concludes with a brief overview of future litigation by these parties and related legislative proposals in the 113th Congress.
Date: January 22, 2015
Creator: Lanza, Emily M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

Description: The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.
Date: January 18, 2011
Creator: Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan & Brown, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Making Stuff Outreach at the Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University

Description: The U. S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory in Ames, Iowa was a coalition partner for outreach activities connected with NOVA's Making Stuff television series on PBS. Volunteers affiliated with the Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University, with backgrounds in materials science, took part in activities including a science-themed Family Night at a local mall, Science Cafes at the Science Center of Iowa, teacher workshops, demonstrations at science nights in elementary and middle schools, and various other events. We describe a selection of the activities and present a summary of their outcomes and extent of their impact on Ames, Des Moines and the surrounding communities in Iowa. In Part 2, results of a volunteer attitude survey are presented, which shed some light on the volunteer experience and show how the volunteers participation in outreach activities has affected their views of materials education.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Ament, Katherine; Karsjen, Steven; Leshem-Ackerman, Adah & King, Alexander
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

Description: A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Kulpin, J. G.; Kleman, K. J. & Legg, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charter-Time Warner Cable-Bright House Networks Mergers: Overview and Issues

Description: The combination of Charter, Time Warner Cable Inc. (TWC), and Bright House Networks (BHN) would create a single entity providing cable television and broadband access service to 23.9 million customers in 41 states, making it the nation’s second-largest cable television operator and broadband access provider. At the federal level, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) must approve the transactions before they can close.This report describes recent trends in the television industry, the events leading up to the proposed transactions, and the criteria and process of regulatory review.
Date: July 24, 2015
Creator: Scherer, Dana A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use of televisions and video cassette recorders in the U.S.

Description: In an effort to more accurately determine nationwide energy consumption, the U.S. Department of Energy has recently commissioned studies with the goal of improving its understanding of the energy use of appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category. This study presents an estimate of the residential energy consumption of two of the most common domestic appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category: color televisions (TVs) and video cassette recorders (VCRs). The authors used a bottom-up approach in estimating national TV and VCR energy consumption. First, they obtained estimates of stock and usage from national surveys, while TV and VCR power measurements and other data were recorded at repair and retail shops. Industry-supplied shipment and sales distributions were then used to minimize bias in the power measurement samples. To estimate national TV and VCR energy consumption values, ranges of power draw and mode usage were created to represent situations in homes with more than one unit. Average energy use values for homes with one unit, two units, etc. were calculated and summed to provide estimates of total national TV and VCR energy consumption.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Meier, Alan & Rosen, Karen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological Partnerships for the Savannah River Site/Central Savannah River Area

Description: In November 1996, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) Operations Office, established formal Mutual Aid Agreements (MAA) with five local counties to provide meteorological assistance for emergency preparedness and response. The agreements defined three areas of collaboration: (1) establish meteorological monitoring stations in industrial corridors, (2) providing dispersion modeling software for emergency response, and (3) meteorological consultations during severe weather. In a related collaboration, WSRC partnered with a local television station to purchase and install a Doppler weather radar. Two monitoring sites have been installed in Augusta/Richmond Co., Georgia; two additional sites are planned. Real-time meteorological data from the new installations and from the existing SRS sites are now available to the participating counties via the Internet. The successful implementation of these initiatives is attributed to structuring agreements such that all participants become stakeholders who mutually share in the costs and benefits. More importantly, the project demonstrated that coordinated leveraging of resources existing within a community can provide a cost-effective benefit to the public.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: Hunter, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering task plan for purged light system

Description: A purged, closed circuit television system is currently used to video inside of waste tanks. The video is used to support inspection and assessment of the tank interiors, waste residues, and deployed hardware. The system is also used to facilitate deployment of new equipment. A new light source has been requested by Characterization Project Operations (CPO) for the video system. The current light used is mounted on the camera and provides 75 watts of light, which is insufficient for clear video. Other light sources currently in use on the Hanford site either can not be deployed in a 4-inch riser or do not meet the ignition source controls. The scope of this Engineering Task Plan is to address all activities associated with the specification and procurement of a light source for use with the existing CPO video equipment. The installation design change to tank farm facilities is not within the scope of this ETP.
Date: May 11, 1999
Creator: Boger, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Long-Range Video Observation Post

Description: The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Arlowe, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surety of the nation`s critical infrastructures: The challenge restructuring poses to the telecommunications sector

Description: The telecommunications sector plays a pivotal role in the system of increasingly connected and interdependent networks that make up national infrastructure. An assessment of the probable structure and function of the bit-moving industry in the twenty-first century must include issues associated with the surety of telecommunications. The term surety, as used here, means confidence in the acceptable behavior of a system in both intended and unintended circumstances. This paper outlines various engineering approaches to surety in systems, generally, and in the telecommunications infrastructure, specifically. It uses the experience and expectations of the telecommunications system of the US as an example of the global challenges. The paper examines the principal factors underlying the change to more distributed systems in this sector, assesses surety issues associated with these changes, and suggests several possible strategies for mitigation. It also studies the ramifications of what could happen if this sector became a target for those seeking to compromise a nation`s security and economic well being. Experts in this area generally agree that the U. S. telecommunications sector will eventually respond in a way that meets market demands for surety. Questions remain open, however, about confidence in the telecommunications sector and the nation`s infrastructure during unintended circumstances--such as those posed by information warfare or by cascading software failures. Resolution of these questions is complicated by the lack of clear accountability of the private and the public sectors for the surety of telecommunications.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Cox, R.; Drennen, T.E.; Gilliom, L.; Harris, D.L.; Kunsman, D.M. & Skroch, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beyond telecommuting

Description: Although there has been considerable discussion about how telecommunications will affect the demand for transportation, most studies have focused on substituting telecommunications for transportation. For example, telephone and video conferencing can replace travel for meetings; electronic mail can replace postal service. More importantly, people can telecommute part-time or full- time using telecommunications instead of traveling to work. There are many other examples of reducing or eliminating travel by telecommunicating, but what may not be obvious is how telecommunications stimulates travel. As the volume of telecommunications traffic increases, travel has been stimulated in a number of important ways. Increased telecommunications has fostered economic growth that has, in turn, increased travel. With increased use of telecommunications, people move farther apart so economic and social trips become, on the average, longer. to ensure that society continues to benefit from this stimulation, the government will have to devote considerable attention to developing the telecommunications infrastructure and to supporting appropriate telecommunications policy. In particular, governments must learn to allocate resources and attention reasonably to ensure that systems support economic and social growth.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Loken, S. C. & Niles, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study of VBR video over various ATM switch architectures

Description: One of the most important components of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network is the switch. Switch design is not a part of the ATM standards so vendors use a wide variety of techniques to build their switches. In this paper, the authors present experimental results of switching and multiplexing real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video traffic (JPEG, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2) through two different ATM switch architectures. Real-time VBR traffic, such as digital video, is particularly interesting due to its high demands in terms of bandwidth, real-time delivery and processing requirements. The experiments show that the fastest switches, i.e., lowest latencies, do not necessarily perform better when transmitting VBR video. The impact of the high speed network components; characteristics, such as switch fabric architecture, buffering strategies, and higher layer transport protocols (i.e., UDP, TCP/IP), are illustrated through the experimental results.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Tsang, R.P.; Hsieh, J. & Du, D.H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Source Verification and Confirmation

Description: This report presents the verification procedure for neutron sources installed in U.S. Department of Energy equipment used to measure fissile material flow. The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment determines the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow of UF{sub 6} gas streams by using {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas and by measuring the fission products in the flow. The {sup 252}Cf sources in each FMFM are typically replaced every 2 to 3 years due to their relatively short half-life ({approx} 2.65 years). During installation of the new FMFM sources, the source identity and neutronic characteristics provided by the manufacturer are verified with the following equipment: (1) a remote-control video television (RCTV) camera monitoring system is used to confirm the source identity, and (2) a neutron detection system (NDS) is used for source-strength confirmation. Use of the RCTV and NDS permits remote monitoring of the source replacement process and eliminates unnecessary radiation exposure. The RCTV, NDS, and the confirmation process are described in detail in this report.
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: Uckan, Taner; March-Leuba, Jose A; Powell, Danny H; Nelson, Dennis & Radev, Radoslav
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FUTURES with Jaime Escalante

Description: The United States Department of Energy awarded the Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education (FASE) $826,000 as support to produce the second set of FUTURES segments consisting of 12, 15-minute programs. The programs provide motivation for students to study math by connecting math to the work place and real-life problem scenarios. The programs are broadcast in 50 states through PBS Elementary and Secondary Service (E/SS). The grant term ended on December 16, 1993 and this final report documents program and financial activity results. The 12 episodes are titled: Animal Care, Meteorology, Mass Communication, Advanced Energy, Oceanography, Graphic Design, Future Habitats, Environmental Science & Technology, Fitness & Physical Performance, Interpersonal Communications, Advanced Transportation and Product Design. Each program addresses as many as ten careers or job types within the broader field named. Minority and gender-balanced role models appear throughout the programs.
Date: August 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department