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The Obama Administration's Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation

Description: This report discusses the proposed creation of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), which would help accelerate innovation and support manufacturing technology commercialization. The report includes an overview of the topic as well as discussion on the Administration's proposal, preliminary activities, legislative status, and issues for consideration.
Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses whether to enact new legislation specifically addressing spyware, or to rely on industry self-regulation and enforcement actions by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Justice under existing law, as well as the opinions of both the opponents and the supporters of industry self-regulation.
Date: July 20, 2010
Creator: Figliola, Patricia M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology

Description: This report provides information regarding the role of U.S. and other foreign companies in facilitating Internet censorship by repressive regimes overseas. The report is divided into several sections: Examination of repressive policies in China and Iran, Relevant U.S. laws, U.S. policies to promote Internet freedom, Private sector initiatives, and Congressional action.
Date: September 8, 2010
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia; Nakamura, Kennon H.; Addis, Casey L. & Lum, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Amazon Laws" and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis

Description: As more purchases are made over the Internet, states are looking for new ways to collect taxes on online sales. There is a common misperception that the U.S. Constitution prohibits states from taxing Internet sales. This report discusses "Amazon laws", which try to capture uncollected taxes on Internet sales and yet still comply with the Constitution's requirements.
Date: November 28, 2014
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Pettit, Carol A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Description: This report discusses congressional interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. The proper role of the federal government in technology development and the competitiveness of U.S. industry continues to be a topic of congressional debate.
Date: December 8, 2010
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Technology Innovation Program

Description: This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that was established in 2007 to replace the Advanced Technology Program (ATP). This effort is designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations.
Date: December 3, 2010
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

Description: Nanoscale science, engineering and technology--commonly referred to collectively as nanotechnology--is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits. Congress has demonstrated continuing support for nanotechnology and has directed its attention primarily to three topics that may affect the realization of this hoped for potential: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns. This report provides an overview of these topics--which are discussed in more detail in other CRS reports--and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology.
Date: June 2, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Description: This report provides an analysis of how organized crime has capitalized on globalization by using borders as opportunities, relying on fast-paced technological change, and adapting its organizational structures. It illustrates how these transformations can impact U.S. persons, businesses, and interests. The report includes a discussion of how U.S. law enforcement conceptualizes organized crime in the 21st century and concludes by examining potential issues for Congress, including the extent to which organized crime is a national security threat (partly to be tackled by U.S. law enforcement agencies), congressional oversight regarding the federal coordination of organized crime investigations, and the utility of current resources appropriated to combat organized crime.
Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P. & Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cybersecurity: FISMA Reform

Description: This report briefly discusses current requirements under the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) and two bills currently being considered by Congress that would revise the conditions and authority granted by FISMA.
Date: November 24, 2014
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The attacks of September 11, 2001, prompted an increased federal focus on protecting the United States against terrorist nuclear or radiological attack. Since that time, the federal government has expanded existing programs, developed new programs, and deployed new equipment at U.S. borders and elsewhere. The global nuclear detection architecture has multiple facets, including source security to make acquiring threat material more difficult, intelligence activities, law enforcement activities, and deployment of radiation detection equipment. New technologies have been proposed to replace or augment existing radiation detection equipment and enhance its effectiveness. Primary among these new systems is an improved type of radiation detection device known as the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal (ASP). This report provides an overview of the ASP program's history and outlines issues for Congress as the program moves forward.
Date: May 21, 2010
Creator: Shea, Dana A.; Moteff, John D. & Morgan, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition

Description: This report analyzes the current crises that the U.S. newspaper industry is facing in light of the recent economic downturn and the increasing number of readers who turn to the Internet for their news instead of to traditional media. Congress has begun debating whether the financial problems in the newspaper industry pose a public policy issue that warrants federal action.
Date: September 9, 2010
Creator: Kirchoff, Suzanne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cybercrime: A Sketch of 18 U.S.C. 1030 and Related Federal Criminal Laws

Description: This report discusses the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), 18 U.S.C. 1030, which is a cyber security law that outlaws conduct that victimizes computer systems. It protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers connected to the Internet by shielding them from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud.
Date: October 15, 2014
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Obama Administration's Open Government Initiative: Issues for Congress

Description: This report reviews and discusses President Obama's Open Government Initiative and the Open Government Directive. The report then analyzes both agency response to the OGI and the OGD, and examines whether the OGD's requirements can meet the stated goals of the Administration. The report discusses the three central tenets of the Administration's OGD--transparency, public participation, and collaboration--and analyzes each one individually to determine whether agencies are meeting these requirements and whether the requirements may improve the effectiveness of the federal government.
Date: August 9, 2010
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes the evolving mission, organization, and assets of the S&T Directorate and the activities it conducts. It outlines key policy issues, including the balance of the directorate's programs, its priorities and how they are set, its relationships with other R&D organizations, its mission, its budgeting and financial management, and other concerns.
Date: June 9, 2008
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Description: This report discusses four major vehicle technologies — electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids, and fuel cell vehicles — as well as advanced component technologies. Each technology is discussed in terms of cost, fueling and maintenance infrastructure, and performance.
Date: December 6, 2007
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of STEM Education Funding at the NSF: Trends and Policy Discussion

Description: This report analyzes National Science Foundation funding trends and selected closely-related STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education policy issues to provide fiscal and policy context. It concludes with an analysis of potential policy options.
Date: December 12, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy: Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President and discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
Date: November 10, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws

Description: This report discusses The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), 18 U.S.C. 1030, which is a cyber security law that outlaws conduct that victimizes computer systems. It protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers connected to the Internet from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud.
Date: October 15, 2014
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

America COMPETES Act: Programs, Funding, and Selected Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the America COMPETES Act provisions, summarizes its legislative origin and the origins of some of the new programs it authorizes, analyzes selected America COMPETES Act programs that are the focus of appropriation discussions, and provides a comparison of the President's budget, congressional appropriations, and America COMPETES Act authorization levels for FY2008.
Date: October 17, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches

Description: This report discusses the core areas addressed in federal legislation, including the scope of coverage (who is covered and what information is covered); data privacy and security safeguards for sensitive personal information; requirements for security breach notification (when, how, triggers, frequency, and exceptions); restrictions on social security numbers (collection, use, and sale); credit freezes on consumer reports; identity theft penalties; causes of action; and preemption.
Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Amazon Laws" and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis

Description: This report focuses on the ways in which the states' efforts to impose requirements on out-of-state retailers are limited by the Constitution. The report discusses recent state legislation as well as legislation introduced in the two most recent Congresses.
Date: April 3, 2013
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Pettit, Carol A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department