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Tracing the Path of Sustainable Development through Major International Conferences: A Brief History and Overview of Sustainable Development 1964-2002

Description: Starting with the idea that unsustainable practices contribute to issues of social justice and poverty as much as to ecological issues. Chapter 1 traces the origins of the terms sustainable and development individually to see how it is that they came together. Chapter 2 traces the major international conferences and documents and their use of the terms sustainable development. Chapter 3 takes a phenomenology approach to get a bit deeper into sustainable development. I examine the most commonly cited definition of sustainable development as well as a broader definition of sustainable development as a process of change. Chapter 4 examines the field of environmental ethics and argues that constant debates over value distract policy makers from the central question of what morally motivates people to support environmental ethics views. Chapter 5 examines the institution and regime building process, and the conclusion offers three questions to measure our progress.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Dunn, Benjamin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

Description: This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.
Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E. & Spees, Kathleen L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Report

Description: The 2011 World Materials Summit, held on 10/9-12/2011 in Washington DC, provided a forum for top decision makers and energy experts from aropund the world to focus on the materials research needs for the growing energy economy. Organized jointly by the Materials Research Society (MRS), the European MRS (E-MRS), and the Chinese MRS (C-MRS), the goal of the Summit was to explore how the different regions of the world can work together on the critical issue of clean energy, including its relation to environmental sustainability and water. The participants considered the area of materials research as well as advocacy, economics, outreach, and education. Realizing that the concerns are long-term and that young players will ultimately be the ones who are going to need to solve the energy challenges, the chairs of the Summit inaugurated a Student Congress, a program for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in fields directly related to energy and environmental science, engineering, and/or policy. The top 45 candidates coming from 18 countries were selected on a competititve basis to participate in the Student Congress. The four-day effort culminated in a 2011 Worlds Materials Summit Declaration delineating materials directions related to global access to clean energy and water in a sustainable way.
Date: February 1, 2012
Creator: ,; , & ,
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

Description: This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.
Date: August 27, 2013
Creator: Jones, Susanne B. & Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utton Center Scientific and Technical Report

Description: Final Report of DOE grant to the Utton Transboundary Resources Center at University of New Mexico School of Law supporting prevention and management of transboundary water conflicts. Describes work of Utton Center and refers to three other documents reported separately. Includes brief description of multidisciplinary collaborative process, understanding cultural values of water and a model water compact.
Date: July 1, 2006
Creator: O’Leary, Marilyn C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precious Metal Recovery from Fuel Cell MEA's

Description: One of the next-generation power sources is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which runs on pure hydrogen or hydrogen-rich reformate. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is a membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA is a laminate composed of electrode layers sandwiched between outer layers, fabricated from either carbon fiber or fabric and which control the diffusion of reactant gases, and the inner polymer mebrane. Hydrogen is oxidized at the anode to form protons, which migrate through the membrane and react with oxygen at the cathode to form water. In this type of fuel cell, platinum catalyzes the reactions at both electrodes. Realization of a future that includes ubiquitous use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicles will be partially contingent on a process for recycling components of the fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. In aggregate, the platinum used for the fuel cell will represent a large pool of this precious metal, and the efficient recycling of Pt from MEA's will be a cost-enabling factor for success of this technology. Care must be taken in the reclamation process because of the presence of fluoropolymers in the MEA. While Pt is normally recovered with high yield, the combustion process commonly applied to remove an organic matrix will also liberate a large volume of HF, a gas which is both toxic and corrosive. Carbonyl fluoride, which has a recommended exposure limit of 2ppmv, is another undesirable product of fluoroploymer combustion. In 2003, the Department of Energy awarded Engelhard Corporation an 80% cost share grant for a five-year project budgeted at $5.9MM. The principal objective is reclaiming platinum from fuel cell MEA's without producing fluorine-containing emissions. Over the last three years, Engelhard has approached the problem from several directions in balancing the two goals: a commercially-viable recycling process and an environmentally ...
Date: November 16, 2006
Creator: Shore, Lawrence
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Re-Assessing Green Building Performance: A Post Occupancy Evaluation of 22 GSA Buildings

Description: 2nd report on the performance of GSA's sustainably designed buildings. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of measured whole building performance as it compares to GSA and industry baselines. The PNNL research team found the data analysis illuminated strengths and weaknesses of individual buildings as well as the portfolio of buildings. This section includes summary data, observations that cross multiple performance metrics, discussion of lessons learned from this research, and opportunities for future research. The summary of annual data for each of the performance metrics is provided in Table 25. The data represent 1 year of measurements and are not associated with any specific design features or strategies. Where available, multiple years of data were examined and there were minimal significant differences between the years. Individually focused post occupancy evaluation (POEs) would allow for more detailed analysis of the buildings. Examining building performance over multiple years could potentially offer a useful diagnostic tool for identifying building operations that are in need of operational changes. Investigating what the connection is between the building performance and the design intent would offer potential design guidance and possible insight into building operation strategies. The 'aggregate operating cost' metric used in this study represents the costs that were available for developing a comparative industry baseline for office buildings. The costs include water utilities, energy utilities, general maintenance, grounds maintenance, waste and recycling, and janitorial costs. Three of the buildings that cost more than the baseline in Figure 45 have higher maintenance costs than the baseline, and one has higher energy costs. Given the volume of data collected and analyzed for this study, the inevitable request is for a simple answer with respect to sustainably designed building performance. As previously stated, compiling the individual building values into single metrics is not statistically ...
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.; Henderson, Jordan W. & Kora, Angela R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

Description: This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L. & Brady-Sabeff, L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leadership in Green IT (Brochure)

Description: This document highlights the key accomplishments in Green IT of the 17 DOE labs.
Date: August 1, 2011
Creator: Powers, C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sustainable NREL, Biennial Report, FY 2010-2011

Description: This document reports on NREL's 'Campus of the Future,' which leverages partnerships and showcases sustainable energy on and near the NREL site. It is unique in that the report is based on GRI key performance indicators, that support NREL's sustainability goals.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Slovensky, M. & Daw, J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel

Description: The DOE Biomass Program recently implemented the Biofuels Initiative, or 30x30 program, with the dual goal of reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil by making cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with gasoline by 2012 and by replacing 30 percent of gasoline consumption with biofuels by 2030. Experience to date with increasing ethanol production suggests that it distorts agricultural markets and therefore raises concerns about the sustainability of the DOE 30 X 30 effort: Can the U.S. agricultural system produce sufficient feedstocks for biofuel production and meet the food price and availability expectations of American consumers without causing environmental degradation that would curtail the production of both food and fuel? Efforts are underway to develop computer-based modeling tools that address this concern and support the DOE 30 X 30 goals. Beyond technical agronomic and economic concerns, however, such models must account for the publics’ growing interest in sustainable agriculture and in the mitigation of predicted global climate change. This paper discusses ongoing work at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies that investigates the potential consequences and long-term sustainability of projected biomass harvests by identifying and incorporating “sustainable harvest indicators” in a computer modeling strategy.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Grosshans, Raymond R.; Kostelnik, Kevin, M. & Jacobson, Jacob J.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How "Sustainability" is Changing How We Make and Choose Products

Description: What does Sustainability mean, and why should people in the thermophysical properties business care? This paper will describe sustainability in the context of product development, which is where much of the buzz is currently being generated. Once described, it will discuss how expectations for Sustainability are changing product lines, and then discuss the controversial issues now emerging from trying to measure Sustainability. One of the most organized efforts in the U.S. is the U.S. Green Building Council revolutionizing how the built environment is conceptualized, designed, built, used, and disposed of - and born again. The appeal of the US Green Building Council is that it has managed to checklist how to "do" Sustainability. By following this checklist, better described as a rating system, a more Sustainable product should be achieved. That is, a product that uses less energy, less water, is less noxious to the user, and consumes fewer resources. We care because these Sustainable products are viewed as preferable by a growing number of consumers and, consequently, are more valuable. One of the most interesting aspects of the Sustainability movement is a quantitative assessment of how sustainable a product is. Life Cycle Assessment techniques (not to be confused with life cycle economic costs) developed since the early 1990s are gaining ground as a less biased method to measure the ultimate "bad" consequences of creating a product (depletion of natural resources, nutrification, acid rain, air borne particulates, solid waste, etc.). For example, one assertion is that these studies have shown that recycling can sometimes do more environmental harm than good.
Date: July 1, 2006
Creator: O'Brien, Cheryl
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing The Organized Village of Kasaan's Strategic Energy Plan

Description: The overall goal of this project is to create a Tribal Energy Action Plan that will serve as the Tribe’s blueprint for creating long term energy self‐sufficiency. The Plan will be developed with input from a committed group of key stakeholders and landowners in the area, will be based on sound data and research, and will address both “supply‐side” options of the development of sustainable energy sources, as well as “demand-side” options for reducing energy consumption. The resulting plan will include defined comprehensive energy strategies and built upon a baseline assessment of where the Tribe currently is in terms of alternative and renewable energy activities; a vision of where the Tribe wants to go; and an action plan of how the Tribe will reach its vision including the identification of viable energy options based on the long-term strategic plan of the Tribe.
Date: February 19, 2013
Creator: P, Hamar Glenn
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioenergy Watershed Restoration in Regions of the West: What are the Environmental/Community Issues?

Description: Throughout the western mountainous regions, wildfire risks are elevated due to both fire suppression activities which have changed the forest structure making it more susceptible to stand-killing fires and the expansion of human structures (houses, light commercial) into these same forests, By providing a market for currently noncommercial but flammable materials (small trees, tops, and branches), new and existing bioenergy industries could be a key factor in reducing the regional forest fuel loads. Although bioenergy would appear to be an ideal answer to the problem in many ways, the situation is complicated and numerous issues need resolution. A public fearful of logging in these regions needs assurance that harvesting for bioenergy is an environmentally and socially responsible solution to the current fuel build up in these forests. This is especially important given that biomass harvesting cannot pay its own way under current energy market conditions and would have to be supported in some fashion.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Graham, R.L.; Huff, D.D.; Kaufmann, M.R.; Shepperd, W.D. & Sheehan, J.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons learned -- NREL Village Power Program

Description: In 1993, a workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to discuss the issues of applying renewable energy in a sustainable manner to international rural development. One of the summary recommendations was that NREL could assist in the renewable energy for rural electrification effort by developing and supplying six related activities: resource assessment, comparative analysis and modeling, performance monitoring and analysis, pilot project development, internet-based project data, communications, and training. In response to this recommendation, NREL launched its Village Power Program consisting of these activities that cut across NREL technologies and disciplines. Currently NREL is active in 20 countries, with pilot projects in 12 of those countries. At this time the technologies include photovoltaics, wind, biomass, and hybrids. The rural applications include home lighting and communications, water pumping, schools and health posts, battery charging stations, ecotourism, and village systems. These pilot projects are central to the renewable energy village power development through the demonstration of three aspects critical to replication and implementation of the projects on a significant scale. The three aspects are technical functionality, economic competitiveness, and institutional sustainability. It is important to note that the pilot projects from which NREL's experience has been gained were funded and, in many cases, developed by other organizations and agencies. NREL's role has been one of technical assistance or project management or both. The purpose of this paper is to describe the lessons NREL staff has gleaned from their participation in the various pilot projects. The author hopes that these lessons will help the Renewable Energy-Based Rural Electrification (RERE) community in implementing sustainable projects that lead to replication.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Flowers, L.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designing for sustainability: Preprint

Description: In addition to impacting non-renewable energy supplies, buildings world wide contribute to climate change by being responsible for the release of carbon dioxide, either directly through combustion of carbon-based fuels or indirectly through electricity consumption from carbon fuels. Engineers and architects have an obligation to design for sustainability. This paper addresses each step in the building design process from inception to occupancy. Recommendations and examples of how sustainability can be achieved are given using two examples of actual buildings that have low energy use and minimal impact on the environment. In addition, these buildings have life cycle costs comparable to conventional buildings and provide comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environments.
Date: June 21, 2000
Creator: Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P. & Judkoff, R.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Tech Garage to Showcase Strategies for Reducing Energy (Fact Sheet)

Description: NREL's new parking garage structure is proving that large garages can be designed and built sustainably at no extra cost. This fact sheet describes the garage's energy and water-saving measures, renewable energy technologies, sustainable and durable building materials, another campus improvements.
Date: August 1, 2011
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis and Development of Post Secondary Curriculum on Sustainability

Description: This thesis examines existing curricula at colleges and universities about sustainability and uses results to develop an introductory post secondary course curriculum. The proposed course is organized around three major elements - - science, philosophy, and economics - - all integral to understanding sustainability. Materials needed to teach the proposed 3-semester hour course including syllabus, teaching modules, transparencies, handouts, and exams were developed. Suggestions on how to teach a one-semester hour course on sustainability and a workshop on sustainability are also presented. The following research and curriculum development was a project established and funded by the Texas Energy Office, Renewable Resources and Sustainability Program.
Date: May 2000
Creator: White, Miki Machell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Verification and Validation Strategy for LWRS Tools

Description: One intension of the Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to create advanced computational tools for safety assessment that enable more accurate representation of a nuclear power plant safety margin. These tools are to be used to study the unique issues posed by lifetime extension and relicensing of the existing operating fleet of nuclear power plants well beyond their first license extension period. The extent to which new computational models / codes such as RELAP-7 can be used for reactor licensing / relicensing activities depends mainly upon the thoroughness with which they have been verified and validated (V&V). This document outlines the LWRS program strategy by which RELAP-7 code V&V planning is to be accomplished. From the perspective of developing and applying thermal-hydraulic and reactivity-specific models to reactor systems, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.203 gives key guidance to numeric model developers and those tasked with the validation of numeric models. By creating Regulatory Guide 1.203 the NRC defined a framework for development, assessment, and approval of transient and accident analysis methods. As a result, this methodology is very relevant and is recommended as the path forward for RELAP-7 V&V. However, the unique issues posed by lifetime extension will require considerations in addition to those addressed in Regulatory Guide 1.203. Some of these include prioritization of which plants / designs should be studied first, coupling modern supporting experiments to the stringent needs of new high fidelity models / codes, and scaling of aging effects.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Stoots, Carl M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Gougar, Hans D.; Larson, Thomas K; Corradini, Michael; Swiler, Laura et al.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INL FY 2011 SITE SUSTAINABILITY PLAN WITH THE FY 2010 ANNUAL REPORT

Description: It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that sustainable energy and transportation fuels management will be integrated into DOE operations to meet obligations under Executive Order (EO) 13423 'Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management,' the Instructions for Implementation of EO 13423, as well as Guidance Documents issued in accordance thereto and any modifcations or amendments that may be issued from time to time. In furtherance of this obligation, DOE established strategic performance-based energy and transportation fuels goals and strategies through the Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Initiative, which were incorporated into DOE Order 430.2B 'Departmental Energy, Renewable energy, and Transportation Management' and were also identified in DOE Order 450.1A, 'Environmental Protection Program.' These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of energy and transportation fuels management into site Environmental Management Systems (EMS).
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Fossum, Ernest L. & Birrer, Steve A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department