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Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training

Description: This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast.
Date: November 14, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Active Military Sonar and Marine Mammals: Events and References

Description: This report summarizes legal and political events related to active sonar and marine mammals since 1994. The report discusses the deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern.
Date: February 11, 2008
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Calvert, Kori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department